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Bio-Bibliographical Guide to Medieval and Early Modern Jurists

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Report No. t222

Petrus Antibolus

fl. 1303 X 1340, d. a. vi.1357


Alternative Names

Petrus Antibolus Allobrogis; Pierre Antiboul



Born in Le Cannet-des-Maures (dép. Var) near Draguignan, of which he considered himself a citizen, P. studied civil law at Montpellier around 1300, where one of his masters was Brémond de Montferrier. He became a famous lawyer, appearing in Provençal documents from 1303, was several times appointed investigator of local officers by the seneschal of Provence, and seems eventually to have become juge du palais at Marseilles from 1336 to 1340. He died shortly before June 1357.

P’s works include two lost treatises, De moneta and De consuetudine, and an undated De muneribus that Gouron dates between 1328 and 1343 and calls, somewhat unusually, a diversorium. This work survives in manuscript and two incunabula, and was included in TUI 1584 t.12. Although it is filled with citations to civilians and canonists both French and Italian, the work deals mainly with practical tax problems illustrated by examples from P’s native Provence. P. opposed the fiscal privileges of knights and married clergy, and his work is filled with fervent denunciations of the acts of local nobility and fiscal officers and of taxation by towns undertaken without the authority of the king. P. declared himself ‘pro pauperibus’, viewing the feudal system as a burdensome relic that had come to serve the interests of the few. As Gouron notes, this concern with social justice, as well as his vigorous, if somewhat crude, writing style, sets P. apart from other jurists of his day.

Source: A. Gouron, in DHJF.

TUI database



No. 01

De moneta. This work seems to be lost.

No. 02

De consuetudine. This work seems to be lost.

No. 03

De muneribus, 1328 X 1343.


Text(s) – Early Printed Editions

No. 03

De muneribus, 1328 X 1343.

Early Printed Editions

Tractatus munerum. Lyon: Jacques Maillet, 1493 (GW 2049).


De muneribus. Lyon, 1498.


Tractatus universi iuris: De muneribus. Venezia: F. Ziletti, 1584, 12.19rb.



A. Gouron, ‘Antiboul, Pierre’, in DHJF, 2nd ed. (2015) 19.

A. Gouron, ‘Doctrine médiévale et justice fiscale: Pierre Antiboul et son Tractatus de muneribus’, Analecta Carcoviensia, 7 (1975) 309–321. Reprinted in: idem, La science du droit dans le Midi de la France au Moyen Age (London 1984) X.

A. Brun, La littérature en langue latine en Provence au moyen âgeLes Bouches-du-Rhône, encyclopédie départementale, 17 vols. (Marseille 1913–1937) 2.796 s. (Gouron cites the ed. 1924, but then offers 1931. Perhaps this vol. was revised in that year.)

Dictionnaire de biographie française (1936) col. 1501–1502.

F. Mireur, Les rues de Draguignan et leurs maisons historiques, 8 vols. (Draguignan 1921–1931; repr. Paris, 2005) 6.11–15. (Gouron cites this vol. as having been published in 1924.)