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Report No. a483

Ricardus Anglicus



Alternative Names

Richard de Mores; Richardus Anglikus; Richard de Morins; Richardus Anglicus de Lacy



Probably studied (and perhaps taught) law at Lincoln and/or Paris during the 1180s. He taught at Bologna from c.1191 to c.1202 when he was listed as a canon in the Priory of Merton. From 1202 Ricardus was in the service of Archbishop Hubert Walter of Canterbury along with two other noted canonists, John of Tynemouth and Master Honorius. From 1202 until his death in 1242, Ricardus was prior of Dunstable. Ricardus seems to have been very active in legal matters; Sayers has found forty-eight documents listing him as an officer of the court, and Innocent III appointed him judge-delegate in a number of important cases.

Although Ricardus’ stay at Bologna was not particularly long, it was very productive. In the years from 1191–1202 Ricardus wrote or revised seven of his eight known works. Johannes Bassianus, a civilian of the 1180s, seems to have had an important influence on Ricardus’ work. In his ordo iudiciarius, Ricardus used the ‘ordo of titles’ structure pioneered by Johannes. Also, Ricardus used both Roman and canon law in this work and was later acknowledged by Tancred as having been the first to do so. Ricardus’ work seems to have influenced Tancred through the Ordo iudiciarius, and also Tancred’s teacher Laurentius Hispanus, so that he may well have been one of Laurentius’ teachers. In fact, Laurentius’ first work seems to have been a Distinctiones Decretorum modeled on Ricardus’ work.



No. 1

Apparatus ad compilationem primam. See S. Kuttner, ‘An Interim Checklist of Manuscripts’.

No. 2

Ordo iudiciarius. According to Fowler-Magerl, Ricardus composed this work in England or in Paris prior to 1190, and then revised it later in Bologna. The two manuscripts which contain this early version have no rubrics and cite decretals from an unknown canonical collection which was organized in titles, but not in books. This is most likely related to the Anglo-Norman ‘Bamberg Group’ of decretal collections. In the later manuscripts, which show different stages of development, the work is revised by the addition of rubrics and by changing the citation of decretals in conformity with Compilatio prima. See Linda Fowler-Magerl, Ordo iudiciorum vel ordo iudiciarius (Ius Commune Sonderheft 19; Frankfurt am Main 1984) 114–119.

No. 3

Summa quaestionum. See Traditio 11 (1955), 448. Ricardus likely composed this work in Paris between 1186 and 1187. It bears resemblance to the Anglo-Norman Summa ‘Omni qui iuste iudicat’ and the Summa quaestionum of Master Honorius.

No. 4

Summa breuis super decreta, 1196–. Written most likely at Bologna between 1196 and ?. See Traditio 11 (1955) 445; 13 (1957) 470.

No. 5

Distinctiones decretorum. See Traditio 11 (1955) 444; 12 (1956) 564; 13 (1957) 469; 15 (1959) 499 no.4; 21 (1965) 512–13; BMCL 4 (1974) 14. At least the version with the Prologue was produced at Bologna between 1196–1198. The version without the prologue may be a first recension which could date back to Ricardus’s pre-Bolognese career.

No. 6

Argumenta or Notabilia decretorum. See DDC 7 (1965) 679. This work has not been found in a complete form and has not been studied. Stephan Kuttner found what may be a fragment of the work in the Zwettl manuscript, but there is some reason to doubt the ascription. See S. Kuttner, Gratian and the Schools of law 1140–1234 (London 1983) ‘Retractiones’.

No. 7

Casus decretalium.

No. 8

Generalia (Brocarda).


Text(s) – Manuscripts

No. 1

Apparatus ad compilationem primam.


Admont, Stiftsbibl. 55, fol. 1–85


Avranches, BM 149, fol. 7–77v


Bamberg, Staatsbibl. Can. 20, fol. 1–54v


Berlin, Staatsbibl. lat. fol. 1–60


Città del Vaticano, BAV Pal. lat. 652, fol. 1–60


Città del Vaticano, BAV Pal. lat. 696


Erlangen, Universitätsbibl. 349 (Some, but not all, of Ricardus’s glosses on Compilatio prima can also be found in this manuscript.)


Halle, Universitäts- u. Landesbibl. Ye 52, V, fol. 1–5v


Halle, Universitäts- u. Landesbibl. Ye 80, fol. 1–78v


Klosterneuberg, Stiftsbibl. 90 (fragmentary)


Laon, BM 385


Lisboa, BN Alcobaça 173 (304), fol. 10v–115ra


London, Lambeth Palace Libr. 105, fol. 137–213v


Modena, Bibl. Estense α.R.4.16 (lat. 968; XII.L.8), fol. 1–76v


München, BSB Clm 3879, fol. 1–97v


München, BSB Clm 6352, fol. 1–77


München, BSB Clm 8302, fol. 4r–93v


Reims, BM 692, fol. 36–111


Salzburg, Bibl. Erzabtei St. Peter a.IX.18, fol. 2–117


Valenciennes, BM 274


Worcester, Cath. Libr. F.122


Zwettl, Stiftsbibl. 34, fol. 2–81v

No. 2

Ordo iudiciarius.


Original Version


Sankt Gallen, Stiftsbibl. 683, fol. 186–271


Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat lat. 2691, fol. 49r–58vb


Revised Version


Bruxelles/Brussel, Bibl. Royale 131–134, fol. 104–110va


Douai, BM 644, fol. 1r–16v


Fulda, Landesbibl. D.7, fol. 1r–24v


Vercelli, Bibl. Agnes. 176, fol. 1r–13ra


Wien, ÖNB 2163, fol. 25r–42rb


Zwettl, Stiftsbibl. 162, fol. 83r–93vb

No. 3

Summa quaestionum.


Monte Cassino, Bibl. Abbazia 396 pp. 191–247a


Zwettl, Stiftsbibl. 162, fol. 179–213r

No. 4

Summa breuis super decreta, 1196–.


Dublin, Trinity Coll. 275, pp. 169–83


London, BL Royal 11.A.II, fol. 195–203v


Olomouc, Státni Archiv C.O. 209, fol. 267r–268v, 270r–271v


Rein, Stiftsbibl. 86, fol. 1–5v

No. 5

Distinctiones decretorum.


Without Prologue


Douai, BM 649 (582), fol. 7–25vb


London, BL Royal 10.C.iii.


Oxford, Bodleian Libr. Selden supr. 97 (Sum. catal. 3475), fol. 159–181v


Trier, Stadtbibl. 922, fol. 91r–115v


With Prologue


Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 2691, fol. 1–20r


Douai, BM 644 (580), fol. 17ff


London, BL 10.C.iii, fol. 4–48v


Lucca, Bibl. Statale 2698, fol. 165v–199v (formerly 163v–191v)


Opava, Univ. knihovna, Slezská univerzita R.C.30, fol. 134r–178v


Paris, BN lat. 3922B


Paris, BN lat. 4276, fol. 1r–52v


Paris, BN 342


Praha, Národní Muz. XVII.A.XV (I.B.4 Catal. 3789), fol. 176–189v


Praha, Metropolitní Kapitula I.X.IX (on Causa I)


Toledo, Arch. Cap. 24–9, fol. 255ra–275r


Trier, Stadtbibl. 978, fol. 167–193r (incomplete: ends at C.27 q.2)


Warszawa, BN BOZ 63, fol. 240r–308v


Wien, ÖNB 2194, fol. 96–137v


Wrocław, Bibl. Univ. II.F.44, fol. 135–81r


Zwettl, Stiftsbibl. 162, fol. 105–122v

No. 6

Argumenta or Notabilia decretorum.


Zwettl, Stiftsbibl. 162, fol. 70r–72v

No. 7

Casus decretalium.


München, BSB Clm 16083, fol. 36–52v


Venezia, BN VIII 22, fol. 90–105


Würzburg, Universitätsbibl. Mp. th. 122, fol. 1–16v (lacks prologue; See S. Kuttner, Repertorium 398)

No. 8

Generalia (Brocarda).


Standard Form


Avranches, BM 149, 139–147v


Bamberg, Staatsbibl. Can. 45, fol. 40r–v, 1–7r (incomplete)


Brugge, Stedelijke Bibl. 366, fol. 27va–50va (different recension?; cf. BMCL 4 [1974] 11, 14)


Cambridge, Pembroke Coll. 72, fol. 178v–179v (incomplete)


Città del Vaticano, BAV Chig. E.VII.218, fol. 74–80r


Zwettl, Stiftsbibl. 162, fol. 73r–82r


Short Form (lemmata and one reference each)


München, BSB Clm 8302, fol. 1r–2v, Or–v, 3r


Nürnberg, Stadtbibl. V.95, fol. 1–6v (See Traditio 11 (1955) 444; 13 (1957) 470; 16 (1960) 562–63; BMCL 4 (1974) 11)


Text(s) – Modern Editions

No. 2

Ordo iudiciarius.

Modern Editions

Quellen zur Geschichte des römisch-kanonischen Prozesses im Mittelalter, ed. L. Wahrmund, II.3 (Innsbruck 1915) (used manuscripts: Douai, Fulda, Vat. lat., and Vienna).

No. 3

Summa quaestionum.

Modern Editions

None. Excerpts printed (1) by S. Kuttner and E. Rathbone in ‘Anglo-Norman canonists of the twelfth century’ 355–58. (Appendix E).


(2) by F. Liotta in La continenza dei chierici (1971) 226 n.366.

No. 4

Summa breuis super decreta.

Modern Editions

None. Excerpts printed by S. Kuttner and E. Rathbone in ‘Anglo-Norman canonists of the twelfth century’ 353–55. (Appendix E).

No. 5

Distinctiones decretorum.

Modern Editions

The “Distinctiones Decretorum” of Ricardus Anglicus, ed. G. Silano (Ph.D. diss. University of Toronto; Toronto 1982).



K. Pennington, ‘The Decretists: The Italian School’, in The History of Medieval Canon Law in the Classical Period, 1140–1234: From Gratian to the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX, W. Hartmann and K. Pennington, ed. (History of Medieval Canon Law 6; Washington DC 2008) 162, 166, 172–73.

R. Weigand, ‘The Transmontane Decretists’, in The History of Medieval Canon Law in the Classical Period, 1140–1234: From Gratian to the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX, W. Hartmann and K. Pennington, ed. (History of Medieval Canon Law 6; Washington DC 2008) 199–200, 202.

K. Pennington, ‘The Decretalists 1190–1234’, in The History of Medieval Canon Law in the Classical Period, 1140–1234: From Gratian to the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX, W. Hartmann and K. Pennington, ed. (History of Medieval Canon Law 6; Washington DC 2008) 215–20, 239, 241.

J. Goering, ‘The Internal Forum and the Literature of Penance and Confession’, in The History of Medieval Canon Law in the Classical Period, 1140–1234: From Gratian to the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX, W. Hartmann and K. Pennington, ed. (History of Medieval Canon Law 6; Washington DC 2008) 414–15.

D. Schwenzer, ‘Ricardus Anglicus (de Mores, de Morins) (1161–1242)’, in Biographisch–bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (2001) 18.1192–95.

R. Figueira, ‘Auctoritates in the Casus decretalium of Ricardus de Mores’, in Proceedings Munich, P. Landau, ed. (MIC C–10; Città del Vaticano 1997) 105–16.

K. Borchardt, ‘Ricardus Anglicus (Richard de Mores, de Morins), bedeutender Kanonist (um 1162–1242)’, in LMA (1995) 7.806–807.

R. Figueira, ‘Ricardus de Mores and his Casus decretalium: The Birth of a Canonistic Genre’, in Proceedings San Diego, S. Chodorow, ed. (MIC C–9; Città del Vaticano 1992) 169–87.

J. Telle, ‘Ricardus Anglicus’, in Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon (1992) 8.38–41.

S. Kuttner, ‘Retractationes VIII’, in Gratian and the Schools of Law 1140–1234 (London 1983) 36.

S. Kuttner, ‘Retractationes VII’, in Gratian and the Schools of Law 1140–1234 (London 1983) 17.

H. Müller, Der Anteil der Laien an der Bischofswahl: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Kanonistik von Gratian bis Gregor IX. (Kanonistische Studien und Texte 29; Amsterdam 1977) 133–35.

F. Liotta, La continenza dei chierici (Milano 1971) 220–30.

J. Sayers, Papal Judges-Delegate in the Province of Canterbury 1198–1254: A Study in Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction and Administration (Oxford Historical Monographs; Oxford 1971).

J. Brundage, Medieval Canon Law and the Crusader (Madison WI 1969) 58–59, 172–73.

R. Benson, The Bishop–Elect: A Study in Medieval Ecclesiastical Office (Princeton 1968) 135–37.

J. Brundage, ‘The Votive Obligations of Crusaders: The Development of a Canonistic Doctrine’, Traditio, 24 (1968) 87–88. Reprinted in: idem, The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law (Collected Studies CS 338; Aldershot 1991) no. VI.

R. Weigand, Die Naturrechtslehre der Legisten und Dekretisten von Irnerius bis Accursius und von Gratian bis Johannes Teutonicus (Münchener Theologische Studien 3, Kan. Abt. 26; München 1967) 212–14, 403–407, and passim.

C. Lewis, ‘Ricardus Anglicus: A “familiaris” of Archbishop Hubert Walter’, Traditio, 22 (1966) 469–70.

S. Kuttner, ‘Ricardus Anglicus (Richard de Mores ou de Morins)’, in DDC (1965) 7.676–81.

C. Lefebvre, ‘Les gloses à la “Compilatio prima” et les problèmes qu’elles soulèvent’, in Proceedings Boston (MIC C–1; Città del Vaticano 1965) 63–70.

R. Weigand, Die bedingte Eheschliessung im kanonischen Recht (Münchener Theologische Studien 3, Kan. Abt. 16; München 1963) 1.268–80.

J. Gründel, Die Lehre von den Umständen der menschlichen Handlung im Mittelalter (Beiträge zur Geschichte der Philosophie und Theologie des Mittelalters 39.5; Münster 1963) 252–53.

G. Couvreur, Les pauvres ont-ils des droits? Recherches sur le vol en cas d’extrême nécessité depuis la Concordia de Gratien (1140) jusqu’à Guillaume d’Auxerre († 1321) (Analecta Gregoriana 111; Roma 1961) 60, 92, 100, 104, 135, 139–41, 148, 260, 269.

C. Lefebvre, Recherches sur les manuscrits des glossateurs de la Compilatio I: l’oeuvre de Richardus Anglicus (Bibliothèque de la RHE 33; Louvain 1959) 137–48.

E. Meijers, ‘Ricardus Anglicus et R. de Lacy’, TRG, 20 (1952) 89–90.

S. Kuttner, ‘Anglo-Norman Canonists of the Twelfth Century: An Introductory Study’, Traditio, 7 (1949/51) 279–358.

S. Kuttner, ‘Bernardus Compostellanus Antiquus’, Traditio, 1 (1943) 277–340.

F. Gillmann, ‘Ricardus Anglikus als Glossator der Compilatio I.’, AKKR, 107 (1927) 575–655.