Untitled Document
Bio-Bibliographical Guide to Medieval and Early Modern Jurists

Ames Projects

Click on image for more information

 

 

Report No. c002

Martinus

c.1100–c.1160

 

Alternative Names

Martinus Gosia; Martinus Gosinus; Martino

 

Biography/Description

The second of the ‘Four Doctors’. Traditionally thought to have been born to a Ghibelline noble family, the family Gosi, in Bologna, but Gaudenzi suggested that ‘gosio’ or ‘gosia’ could have been a nickname that then came to be used as a last name. Studied in Bologna under Irnerius. First appears in Bolognese legal documents in 1154 but, based on his work De computatione graduum, he was most likely active and teaching in the 1130s (prior to the completion of Gratian’s Decretum). Possibly spent some time teaching or practicing elsewhere. Most likely died before Bulgarus, although M. was younger, and was buried in Bologna. Survived by a son Guilelmus, who also studied and taught law.

Known for his many disagreements with Bulgarus but also for his breadth of legal knowledge. He argued that court processes should be free for the litigants and often brought the concept of aequitas into his arguments. Appealed to canon law and divine law more than many civilians, and many of his opinions were confirmed in papal decretals. Although M. seems not to have been the direct or main master of any of the major glossators of the late twelfth century, some of his views were influential, including among Rogerius, Placentinus, Vacarius, and Pillius. He is cited 590 times (even more than Bulgarus) in the Glossa ordinaria. His glosses bear the siglum ‘M’ or ‘Ma’. His school influenced writings and legal practice in southern France.

 

Text(s)

 
No. 01

Glossae. On all parts of the Corpus iuris ciuilis; some sections are detailed enough to be in essence an apparatus..

 
No. 02

Materia Institutionum. Also called Exordium Institutionum.

 
No. 03

Quaestiones.

 
No. 04

Distinctio ‘Interesse quandoque’, ante 1140. Treats Cod. 7.47; attributed previously to various glossators; now firmly attributed to Martinus; inserted into the Summa Trecensis.

 
No. 05

De computatione graduum, ante 1140. The first work to compare and contrast Roman and canon law on a subject, namely on degrees of consanguinity for the determination of succession and licit marriages; probably derived from a gloss on Inst. 3.6.2 or Dig. 38.10.1.

 
No. 06

De iure dotium. Lengthy work notable for being systematically organized and not according to the order of Roman law texts.

 
No. 07

De adquirenda et retinenda possessione. A title within the anonymous Summa Trecensis; based on similarities with M.’s De iure dotium, Kantorowicz believed M. authored this title.

 

Text(s) – Modern Editions

No. 01

Glossae.

 
Modern Editions

Ed. F. von Savigny in Geschichte 4.481–93 (various selected glosses).

 
 

Ed. G. Palmieri in ‘Scripta anecdota glossatorum’, Bibliotheca iuridica medii aevi, I (Bologna 1914; repr. Torino 1962) ‘Additiones’ 1–208; (glosses printed in notes; Summa printed is incorrectly attributed to Irnerius).

 
 

Ed. G. Dolezalek in ‘Der Glossenapparat des Martinus Gosia zum Digestum Novuum’, ZRG Rom. Abt., 84 (1967) 245–349.

 
No. 02

Materia Institutionum.

 
Modern Editions

Ed. G. Palmieri in ‘Scripta anecdota glossatorum’, Bibliotheca iuridica medii aevi, I (Bologna 1914; repr. Torino 1962) ‘Additiones’ 4–5.

 
No. 03

Quaestiones.

 
Modern Editions

Ed. G. Palmieri in ‘Quaestiones dominorum bononiensium, Collectio Parisiensis’, Bibliotheca iuridica medii aevi, I (Bologna 1914; repr. Torino 1962) ‘Additiones’ 235–66; (15 questions).

 
 

Ed. G. Palmieri in ‘Quaestiones dominorum bononiensium, Collectio Grationopolitana’, Bibliotheca iuridica medii aevi, I (Bologna 1914; repr. Torino 1962) ‘Additiones’ 209–42 (3 questions).

 
No. 04

Distinctio ‘Interesse quandoque’.

 
Modern Editions

Ed. G. Palmieri in ‘Antiquissimorum Glossatorum Distinctiones, Collectio Senensis’, Bibliotheca iuridica medii aevi, II (Bologna 1892; repr. Torino 1962) 169–70.

 
 

Ed. G. Palmieri in ‘Rogerii Summa Codicis’, Bibliotheca iuridica medii aevi, I (Bologna 1914; repr. Torino 1962) 1.47–48, 187–89.

 
No. 05

De computatione graduum.

 
Modern Editions

Studies in the Glossators of the Roman Law: Newly Discovered Writings of the Twelfth CenturyB, ed. H. Kantorowicz (Cambridge 1938; repr. Aalen 1969) 253–54.

 
No. 06

De iure dotium.

 
Modern Editions

Studies in the Glossators of the Roman Law: Newly Discovered Writings of the Twelfth Century, ed. H. Kantorowicz (Cambridge 1938; repr. Aalen 1969) 255–66.

 

Literature

F. Andrés, ‘Martín Gosia’, in Juristas universales 1.325–7.

L. Loschiavo, ‘Martino Gosia’, in DGI (2013) 1.1294–96.

M. Fögen, ‘Learned Law and the Desire of Politics: Barbarossa Meets Bulgarus and Martinus’, in Law and Learning in the Middle Ages: Proceedings of the Second Carlsberg Academy Conference on Medieval Legal History 2005, H. Vogt, ed. (Copenhagen 2006) 29–39.

G. Tamba, ‘Martino Gosia’, in DBI (2002) 58.114–19.

H. Lange, Glossatoren 170–78, 189–91.

L. Loschiavo, Summa codicis Berolinensis: Studio ed edizione di una compositione ‘a mosaico’ (Ius commune, Sonderhefte 89; Frankfurt a.M. 1996).

E. Cortese, Il diritto nella storia medievale (Roma 1995) 2.passim.

A. Errera, ‘Arbor actionum’: Genere letterario e forma di classificazione delle azioni nella dottrina dei glossatori (Archivio per la Storia del Diritto Medioevale e Moderno 1; Bologna 1995) 150–62.

U. Gualazzini, ‘Martino, Giovanni Bassiano, Azzone nella cronica di Giovanni prete da Cremona (XII)’, RSDI, 66 (1993) 5–50.

P. Weimar, ‘Martinus Gosia, Bologneser Rechtslehrer († 1158/66)’, in LMA (1993) 6.351.

E. Conte, Tres Libri Codicis: la ricomparsa del testo e l’esegesi scolastica prima di Accursio (Studien zur Europäischen Rechtsgeschichte 46; Frankfurt a.M. 1990).

E. Cortese, ‘Lex, aequitas, utrumque ius nella prima civilistica’, in ‘Lex et iustitia’ nell’utrumque ius: radici antiche e prospettive attuali, A. Ciani, ed. (Utrumque ius 20; Città del Vaticano 1989) 95–119. Reprinted in: idem, Scritti, I. Birocchi and U. Petronio, ed. (Spoleto 1999) 1019–43.

A. Belloni, Le questioni civilistiche del secolo XII: da Bulgaro a Pillio da Medicina e Azzone (Studien zur Europäischen Rechtsgeschichte 43; Frankfurt a.M. 1989) passim.

G. Dolezalek, Repertorium manuscriptorum veterum Codicis Iustiniani (Ius Commune, Sonderhefte 23; Frankfurt a.M. 1985) 889, 892–93, 933–34.

A. Gouron, ‘L’influence martinienne en France: Sur quelques témoignages précoces de la pratique méridionale’, in Europäisches Rechtsdenken in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Festschrift für Helmut Coing zum 70. Geburtstag, N. Horn, ed. (München 1982) 93–112. Reprinted in: idem, La science du droit dans le midi de la France au Moyen Arge (London, 1984) no. 17.

J. Fried, Die Entstehung des Juristenstandes im 12. Jahrhundert (Köln 1974) 90–93.

P. Weimar, ‘Die legistische Literatur der Glossatorenzeit’, in Handbuch der Quellen und Literatur der neueren europäischen Privatrechtsgeschichte, H. Coing, ed. (München 1973) passim.

G. Dolezalek, ‘Der Glossenapparat des Martinus Gosia zum Digestum Novum’, ZRG Rom. Abt., 84 (1967) 245–349.

A. Converso, ‘Sul manoscritto torinese F.II 15’, RSDI, 37/38 (1964/65) 23–66.

B. Paradisi, ‘Diritto canonico e tendenze di scuola nei glossatori da Irnerio ad Accursio’, SM, 6:02 (1965) 155–287. Reprinted in: idem, Studi sul medioevo giuridico (Studi storici 173; Roma 1987) 2.525–656.

E. Cortese, La norma giuridica: Spunti teorici nel Diritto comune classico (Milano 1962/64).

M. Bellomo, ‘A proposito della rappresentanza: due inedite distinctiones di Jacopo e di Martino’, ASD, 7 (1963) 115–24.

H. Kantorowicz, Studies in the Glossators of the Roman Law: Newly Discovered Writings of the Twelfth Century (Cambridge 1938; repr. Aalen 1969) 86–102.

E. Meijers, ‘Sommes, lectures et commentaires (1100 à 1250)’, in Atti del Congresso internazionale di diritto romano (Pavia 1934) 1.431–90. Reprinted in: idem, Études d’histoire du droit, R. Feenstra and H.F.W.D. Fischer, ed. (Leiden 1956–73) 3.211–60.

A. Gaudenzi, Storia del cognome a Bologna nel XIII secolo (Bullettino dell’Istituto Storico Italliano 19; Roma 1898) 69.

F. von Savigny, Geschichte 4.124–40.