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Bio-Bibliographical Guide to Medieval and Early Modern Jurists

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Report No. c001

Bulgarus

c.1100–c.1166

 

Alternative Names

Bulgarus (LC); Bulgarus de Bulgarinis; Os aureum; Bulgaro

 

Biography/Description

One of the ‘four doctors’. Likely a student of Irnerius. Perhaps native to Bologna but certainly active as a teacher of Roman law there, possbily as early as 1115. Married twice. According to Odofredus, Bulgarus (along with Martinus) was often consulted by Frederick Barbarossa, not just at Roncaglia in 1158. Also famous for his treatise on procedure written at the request of Cardinal Haimeric, his carissimus amicus, papal chancellor. Perhaps the first Bolognese jurist to serve as a papal judge delegate, which he did in July 1151 for Eugenius III.

Important for establishing certain genres in the study of the Roman law, including procedural tracts, soon to be called ordines iudiciorum. Focused his study and teaching on the libri legales with close attention to details of the text. He wrote glosses on every part of the Corpus iuris ciuilis and composed the first free-standing work of the medieval jurists, an apparatus or commentary on Dig. 50.17 (De regulis iuris). Known for exercising strict interpretation of the law. His glosses carry the siglum ‘B’ or ‘b’.

 

Text(s)

 
No. 01

Glossae ad Corpus iuris ciuilis.

 
No. 02

Apparatus ad Dig. 50.17 (De regulis iuris).

 
No. 03

Tractatus de iudiciis. In 2 parts; written at the request of Cardinal Haimeric.

 
No. 04

Quaestiones disputatae. 67 questions and answers; sometimes called the Stemma Bulgaricum.

 
No. 05

Summula ‘De regula Catoniana’. on Dig. 34.7.

 
No. 06

Summula ‘De stipulationibus’. also referred to as the Summula ‘De uerborum obligationibus’.

 
No. 07

Summula ‘De dolo’.

 
No. 08

Summula ‘De iuris et facti ignorantia.

 
No. 09

Materia Codicis. influenced the materia of the Summa Trecensis.

 
No. 10

Materia Institutionum. served as the materia for the Summa Vindobonensis, which was probably composed by one of B.’s students.

 
No. 11

Distinctiones.

 
No. 12

Casus Codicis Guillelmi de Cabriano. A potential reportatio by one of B.’s students; the scholarship at the moment is undecided.

 

Text(s) – Early Printed Editions

No. 05

Summula ‘De regula Catoniana’.

 
Early Printed Editions

Azonis Summa Codicis: Summa ad Pandectas. Pavia, 1506, 401. An appendix to the Summa codicis reprinted in Corpus glossatorum iuris civilis Torino 1966.

 

Text(s) – Modern Editions

No. 01

Glossae ad Corpus iuris ciuilis.

 
Modern Editions

Ed. F. von Savigny in ‘Glossae Bulgari’, Geschichte des römischen Rechts im Mittelalter (Heidelberg 1851; repr. Darmstadt 1956) 4.471–80.

 
 

Ed. P. Torelli in ‘Glosse preaccursiane alle Istituzioni. Note seconda: glosse di Bulgaro’’, RSDI, 15 (1942) 3–71. Reprinted in: Scritti di storia 95–166.

 
 

Ed. L. Chiappelli in ‘Glosse d’Irnerio e della sua scuola tratte dal manoscritto capitolare pistoiese dell’Authenticum’, Atti dell’Academica Nazionale dei Lincei, 4.2 (1886) 202.

 
No. 02

Apparatus ad Dig. 50.17 (De regulis iuris).

 
Modern Editions

Bulgari ad Digestorum titulum de diversis regulis iuris antiqui commentarius et Placentini ad eum additiones sive exceptiones, ed. F. Beckhaus (Bonn 1856; repr. Frankfurt 1967).

 
No. 03

Tractatus de iudiciis.

 
Modern Editions

Anecdota quae processum civilem spectant . . . Bulgarus, Damasus, Bonaguida, ed. A. Wunderlich (Göttingen 1841; repr. Nabu Press 2011) (part 1 of the work only).

 
 

Quellen zur Geschichte des römisch–kanonischen Prozesses im Mittelalter, ed. L. Wahrmund, 4.1 (Innsbruck 1925; repr. Aalen 1962) (both parts, but edition is of lesser quality than Wunderlich’s).

 
No. 04

Quaestiones disputatae.

 
Modern Editions

Ed. F. Patetta in ‘Quaestiones in schola Bulgari disputatae’’, Bibliotheca iuridica medii aevi (Bologna 1892) 2.195–209 (37 questions, but edited from faulty manuscripts).

 
 

Studies in the Glossators of the Roman Law: Newly Discovered Writings of the Twelfth Century, ed. H. Kantorowicz (Cambridge 1938; repr. Aalen 1969) 246–63 (5 additional questions from a good manuscript).

 
 

Le questioni civilistiche del secolo XII: Da Bulgaro a Pillio da Medicina e Azzone, ed. A. Belloni (Ius commune Sonderheft 43; Frankfurt 1989) 72–77 (31 short pieces).

 
No. 06

Summula ‘De stipulationibus’.

 
Modern Editions

Studies in the Glossators of the Roman Law: Newly Discovered Writings of the Twelfth Century, ed. H. Kantorowicz (Cambridge 1938; repr. Aalen 1969) 241–46.

 
No. 07

Summula ‘De dolo’.

 
Modern Editions

Studies in the Glossators of the Roman Law: Newly Discovered Writings of the Twelfth Century, ed. H. Kantorowicz (Cambridge 1938; repr. Aalen 1969) 241–46.

 
No. 08

Summula ‘De iuris et facti ignorantia.

 
Modern Editions

Studies in the Glossators of the Roman Law: Newly Discovered Writings of the Twelfth Century, ed. H. Kantorowicz (Cambridge 1938; repr. Aalen 1969) 241–46.

 
No. 11

Distinctiones.

 
Modern Editions

Ed. E. Seckel in ‘Distinctiones glossatorum: Studien zur Distinktionen–Literatur der romanistischen Glossatorenschule, verbunden mit Mitteilungen unedierter Texte’, Fs. Ferdinand von Martitz (Berlin 1911; repr. as Distinctiones glossatorum, Graz 1956) 306, 308.

 
 

Ed. G. Pescatore in ‘Verzeichnis legistischer Distinktionen mit Angabe des Verfassers’, ZRG Rom. Abt., 33 (1912) 497–99.

 

Literature

P. Landau, ‘Bulgarus in Pisa: Die Anfänge des Pisaner Rechtsstudiums und die Nachkorrektur der Digestenvulgata’, in Honos alit artes: studi per il settantesimo compleanno di Mario Ascheri, P. Maffei and G. M. Varanini, ed. (Firenze 2015) 1.211–217.

J. de los Mozos, ‘Búlgaro’, in Juristas universales 1.323–25.

L. Loschiavo, ‘Bulgaro’, in DGI (2013) 1.357–59.

M. Bellomo, ‘Consuetudo Bononie in curia Bulgari scripta’, RIDC, 24 (2013) 11–18.

K. Pennington, ‘The “Big Bang”: Roman Law in the Early Twelfth Century’, RIDC, 18 (2007) 43–70.

L. Loschiavo, ‘Recensione a Tammo Wallinga, The ‘Casus Codicis’ of Wilhelmus de Cabriano (Frankfurt a.M. 2005)’, SDHI, 72 (2006) 581nn.5–6.

T. Wallinga, ‘Bulgarus: un des quattuor doctores’, in Les grand juristes: Actes des journées internationales d’histoire du droit (Aix-en-Provence 2006) 19–29.

M. Fögen, ‘Learned Law and the Desire of Politics: Barbarossa Meets Bulgarus and Martinus’, in Law and Learning in the Middle Ages: Proceedings of the Second Carlsberg Academy Conference on Medieval Legal History 2005, H. Vogt, ed. (Copenhagen 2006) 29–39.

T. Wallinga, The Casus Codicis of Wilhelmus de Cabriano (Studien zur Europäischen Rechtsgeschichte 182; Frankfurt a.M. 2005) xxi–xxxii.

F. Roumy, ‘Les distinctions et les sommes des glossateurs relatives à l’ignorance du droit’, RIDC, 14 (1993) 130–31, 139–40.

G. Dilcher, ‘La “renovatio” degli Hohenstaufen fra innovazione e tradizione: Concetti giuridici come orizzonte d’azione della politica italiana di Federico Barbarossa’, in Il secolo XII: la ‘Renovatio’ dell’Europa cristiana, G. Constable, ed. (Annali dell’Istituto storico italo-germanico in Trento, Quaderno 62; Bologna 2003) 253–88. Reprinted in: HZ 276 (2003) 613–46 in German with the title: ‘Die staufische Renovation im Spannungsfeld von traditionalem und neuem Denken: Rechtskonzeptionen als Handlungshorizont der Italienpolitik Friedrich Barbarossas’.

H. Lange, Glossatoren 162–70, 189–91.

G. Chiodi, L’interpretazione del testamento nel pensiero dei glossatori (Università degli Studi di Milano, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza: Pubblicazioni dell’Istituto di Storia del Diritto Italiano 21; Milano 1997) 657–60.

L. Loschiavo, Summa codicis Berolinensis: Studio ed edizione di una compositione ‘a mosaico’ (Ius commune, Sonderheft 89; Frankfurt a.M. 1996).

E. Cortese, Il diritto nella storia medievale (Roma 1995) 2.

E. Cortese, Il Rinascimento giuridico medievale (Roma 1992).

G. Teske, ‘Ein neuer Text des Bulgarus an den römischen Kanzler Haimerich: Zugleich ein Beitrag zum Verhältnis von Saint-Victor in Paris zur Kurie’, in Vinculum Societatis: Joachim Wollasch zum 60. Geburtstag, F. Neiske, D. Poeck, and M. Sandmann, ed. (Sigmaringendorf 1991) 302–313.

E. Conte, ‘Federico I Barbarossa e il diritto pubblico giustinianeo’, BISM, 96 (1990) 1–23.

E. Conte, Tres Libri Codicis: la ricomparsa del testo e l’esegesi scolastica prima di Accursio (Studien zur Europäischen Rechtsgeschichte 46; Frankfurt a.M. 1990) 12.

A. Belloni, Le questioni civilistiche del secolo XII: da Bulgaro a Pillio da Medicina e Azzone (Studien zur Europäischen Rechtsgeschichte 43; Frankfurt a.M. 1989).

G. Dolezalek, Repertorium manuscriptorum veterum Codicis Iustiniani (Ius Commune, Sonderheft 23; Frankfurt a.M. 1985) 889, 914–15. (Provides manuscripts where Bulgarus glosses to the Cod. are found along with their incipit.)

W. Stelzer, ‘Zum Scholarenprivileg Friedrich Barbarossas (Authentica “Habita”)’, DA, 34 (1978) 123–65.

J. Fried, Die Entstehung des Juristenstandes im 12. Jahrhundert (Köln 1974).

P. Weimar, ‘Die legistische Literatur der Glossatorenzeit’, in Handbuch der Quellen und Literatur der neueren europäischen Privatrechtsgeschichte, H. Coing, ed. (München 1973) 1.129–260.

B. Paradisi, ‘Bulgaro’, in DBI (1972) 47–53.

G. Dolezalek, ‘Die Casus Codicis des Wilhelmus de Cabriano’, in Studien zur europäischen Rechtsgeschichte: Helmut Coing zum 28. Februar 1972, W. Wilhelm, ed. (Frankfurt a.M. 1972) 25–52.

P. Stein, ‘The Formation of the Gloss “De regulis iuris” and the Glossators’ Concept of “regula”’, in Atti del convegno internazionale di studi Accursiani: Bologna, 21–26 ottobre 1963, G. Rossi, ed. (Milano 1968) 700–710.

V. Colorni, ‘Le tre leggi perdute di Roncaglia (1158) ritrovate in un ms. parigino (Bibl. nat. Cod. lat. 4677)’, in Scritti in memoria di Antonino Giuffrè (Milano 1967) 1.111–70.

K. Nörr, Zur Stellung des Richters im gelehrten Prozeß der Frühzeit: Iudex secundum allegata non secundum conscientiam iudicat (Münchener Universitätsschriften: Reihe der Juristischen Fakultät 2; München 1967).

G. Cencetti, ‘Studium fuit Bononiae: Note sulla storia dell’Università di Bologna nel primo mezzo secolo della sua esistenza’, Studi medievali, 7.2 (1966) 781–833. Reprinted in: idem, Lo studio di Bologna: Aspetti, momenti, problemi (Bologna 1989) 59–73.

E. Cortese, La norma giuridica: Spunti teorici nel diritto comune classico (Milano 1962–64).

H. Kantorowicz, Studies in the Glossators of the Roman Law: Newly Discovered Writings of the Twelfth Century (Cambridge 1938; repr. Aalen 1969) 68–85.

E. Meijers, ‘Les glossateurs et le droit féodal’, TRG, 13 (1934) 129–49. Reprinted in: idem, Études d’histoire du droit, R. Feenstra and H.F.W. Fischer, ed. (Leiden 1956–73) 3.261–77.

E. Seckel, ‘Distinctiones glossatorum: Studien zur Distinktionen–Literatur der romanistischen Glossatorenschule, verbunden mit Mitteilungen unedierter Texte’, in Fs. Ferdinand von Martitz (Berlin 1911; repr. as Distinctiones glossatorum, Graz 1956) 293–411.

F. von Savigny, Geschichte 4.75–123.