The Harvard Law School’s Collection
of Medieval English Statute Books and
Registers of Writs

Ames Projects

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HLS MS No. 24

Registrum brevium with tracts

after 1294

http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HLS.Libr:12209684

 

 

The HOLLIS cataloguing may be found here. The following items are worth repeating:

“Description: 91 leaves : vellum ; 28 cm.

“Summary: Includes Brevia plactitata (in Law-French); Hengham Magna and Parva; Judicium essoniorum; Cadit assisa; Cum sit necessarium (i.e. Modus componendi brevia); Exceptiones ad cassandum brevia (in law-French); De bastardia; Tractatus corone; Placita corone (in law-French); Articuli in narrando; Exceptiones contra brevia.

“Notes: Written in a neat legal hand, long lines, 40 to a full page.

“Rubricated in blue and red with several large and finely decorated initial pen-letters with marginal elongations.

“Laid in is ‘MS 24b’ a single leaf (28 x 18.5 cm) written in 24 lines in Anglicana script with alternating red and blue paragraph marks, laid in; it contains the Tractatus de bastardia (end) and Excepiones ad cassandum brevia (beginning).

“Publications: Jerome S. Arkenberg, ‘The story behind a stray medieval manuscript leaf’ in the Harvard Library Bulletin, New Series, v.8, n. 4 (Winter 1997), pp. 46–54.”

The cataloguing in Baker’s English Legal Manuscripts, 1, no. 49 reads as follows:

“REGISTRUM BREVIUM; TRACTS

“MS. 24.

“Early C.xiv, 91 ff. Includes Brevia placitata; Hengham Magna and Parva; Judicium essoniorum; Cadit assisa; Cum sit necessarium (i.e. Modus componendi brevia); Exceptiones ad cassandum brevia; De bastardia; Tractatus corone; Placita corone; Articuli in narrando; Exceptiones contra brevia.

“‘Edwardus Wallwyn’ (c. 1500); ‘Franciscus Palgrave Int. Templi Soc. MDCCCXXIII’: i.e. Sir Francis Palgrave (d. 1861); ‘Alfred J. Horwood, Temple’ (d. 1881); his sale, S. 8 June 1883, no. 1334, to Ridler; acquired by George Dunn in March 1898; his sale, S. 11 Feb. 1913, no. 12; bought privately by HLS.

Census, I, 1026-1027, no. 24; Hengham, lxxvi, no. 39; Brevia Placitata, 66 SS xiv; J.M. Kaye ed., Placita Corone (1966), sigla O; Early Registers, xxvi, li n. 6.”

The HOLLIS description of HLS MS 24b is mistaken, out-of-date, and incomplete. MS 24b is a single leaf that was originally tipped in between fol. 79 and 80 (it is numbered in pencil 79b and 79a). It was removed from the manuscript and given a separate shelfmark, HLS MS 24b, but is still stored loose at the end of HLS MS 24. It was photographed in reverse order. Seq. 192 is the end of Excepciones ad cassandum brevia, and seq. 191 contains the explicit of Excepciones and the beginning of the Tractatus de bastardia. A learned introduction to this leaf may be found in J. S. Arkenburg, ‘The Story Behind a Stray Manuscript Leaf’, Harvard Library Bulletin, n.s. 8.4 (1997) 46–54 (online). He dates it to the 13th century. We agree, and would be inclined to date it a bit earlier than the main manuscript. We have not pursued how closely the texts given in the leaf match those the same texts in the main manuscript.

The HOLLIS date for the main manuscript (ca. 1275) is too early. The initial writ of right in the register is tested on 2 January 1294, giving us a pretty solid teminus a quo. We have yet to find anything in the manuscript that would require a date later than that and hence would tentatively date it the last dozen years of the reign of Edward I.

The binding is undistinguished.

The decoration is as described in HOLLIS. The script is a legal English semi-cursive hand of the late 13th or early 14th century. The script is similar throughout the manuscript. We have not checked to see if more than one scribe was at work. The overall impression is of a quite high-quality production.

The manuscript meaures approximately 280 X 200 mm.

The manuscript has a modern foliation in pencil in the upper right-hand corner beginning with the first folio that has medieval writing on it and not including the endpapers. The digital foliation corresponds to this foliation. As noted above, the pencilled foliation numbers HLS MS 24b fol. 79a and 79b. We have retained that foliation but have placed the image in seq. 191 and 192 where the item is currently found. The original folation did not foliate the 19th-century note that was tipped in following fol. 90. We have listed it as unfoliated in its proper place.

There are medieval signature marks running from a to n and missing i/j. The quire breaks correspond to these marks, giving us quires that originally consisted of eleven quaternions and two ternions. The original signature i/j is entirely missing; it would have been the ninth quire. What is now the twelfth and last quire lacks one, probably at the end. Collation of the medieval parts of the manuscript as they are now follows:

18 (f. 1–8), 26 (f. 9–14), 3–78 (f. 15–60), 86 (f. 61–68), 9–118 (f. 69–84), 128 (f. 85–91, lacks one, probably at the end).

Both the HOLLIS and Baker descriptions of the contents of the manuscrript are accurate. They do not, however, give the order of the contents nor do they mention the inclusion of the short tract called De divisione brevium which is incorporated in Articuli in narrando. The complete contents, in order, follows:

Brevia placitata, Register of Writs, Hengham magna, Judicium essoniorum; Cadit assisa, Hengham parva, Cum sit necessarium, Exceptiones ad cassandum brevia, De bastardia, Tractatus corone, Placita corone, Articuli in narrando, De divisione brevium, Exceptiones contra brevia

Most of Hengham magna is lacking. All that is there is a relatively short excerpt from the very end of the work. The rest of it was probably contained in the now-missing signature i/j. That signature probably also contained the end of the register, which as we now have it ends in mid-sentence.

Although the register of writs occupies the largest proportion of pages in the manuscript, that proportion is still less than half of the pages (48% vs. 52%). That means that more than half of the manuscript is devoted to instructional treatises, of which by far the largest proportion is devoted to Brevia placitata (26% of the total pages in the manuscript). The substantial presence of these instructional treatises, coupled with the fact that Brevia placitata comes first suggests that the manuscript was compiled for instructional purposes. This suggestion is reinforced by the fact, as suggested below in the discussion of the writs, that the register of writs is just a bit old-fashioned for its date. We tentatively conclude, then, that this manuscript represents a collection of material for a teacher of aspiring lawyers and clerks, or even for one of his students. There would, of course, be a substantial overlap between what a teacher would need and what a practicing lawyer or chancery clerk would need, but the contents of the manuscript points more in the direction of the former.

 

Summary Contents

Clicking on the item in question will open the first sequence for the item in the PDS in a new tab or window.

 

  Seq. Fol. No. Item  
9–34f. 2r–14v1Brevia placitata 
35–126f. 15r–60v2Register of Writs 
35–43f. 15r–19r2aWrits of right 
44–53f. 19r–24r2bEcclesiastical writs 
53–55f. 24r–25r2cWaste 
57–62f. 25v–28v2dReplevin 
62–63f. 28r–29r2eDe nativo habendo, including de auxilio habendo, and de tallagio levando 
63–69f. 29r–32r2fTrespass, including de minis and de rescussu 
69–86f. 32r–40v2gCriminal, including de odio et atia, de appello removendo, and de gaola deliberanda 
88–89f. 41r–42r2hAccount 
90–104f. 42r–49v2iMiscellaneous, many concerning rights in land and/or lordship, but also debt and covenant 
105–114f. 49v–54v2jNovel disseisin, including attaint 
115–118f. 54v–56v2kMort d’ancestor, including de avo et avia, nuper obiit, de ventre inspiciendo, quare eiecit, and de eschaetis 
119–122f. 56v–58v2lEntry, including formedon 
122–126f. 58v–59r2mDe ponendo in assisis 
123–126f. 59r–60v2nMiscellaneous 
127–129f. 61r–62r3Hengham magna (end only) 
129–135f. 62r–65r4Judicium essoniorum 
135–143f. 65r–69r5Cadit assisa 
143–152f. 69r–73v6Hengham parva 
152–157f. 73v–76r7Cum sit necessarium (Modus componendi brevia) 
157–163f. 76r–79r8Exceptiones ad cassandum brevia 
164–169f. 79v–82r9De bastardia 
169–171f. 82r–83r10Tractatus corone 
171–175f. 83r–85r11Placita corone 
175–180f. 85r–87v12Articuli in narrando 
178–180f. 86v–87v13De divisione brevium 
180–189f. 87v–91r14Exceptiones contra brevia 
187–188no fol.r–no fol.v15Modern note 
191–191f. 79b–79b16HLS MS 24b. Tractatus de bastardia (start) 
192–191f. 79a–79b17HLS MS 24b. Excepciones ad cassandum brevia (end) 

 

Detailed Contents

Clicking on the sequence number will open that sequence in the PDS in a new tab or window.

 

  Seq. Fol. Label Header Sig.  
  1Front cover 
  2Inside front cover 
Note: Bookplate with library markings.
  3Blank 
  4Notes of ownership 
  5Modern pencilled list of contents and library markings 
Note: The list of contents of this manuscript is in the hand of George Dunn. At the top, another hand lists the contents of a similar manuscript at Merton College, Oxford. The note appears to have a date ‘2.2.16’ (not a Merton shelfmark). The note may have been added after HLS acquired the manuscript in 1913.
  6Blank 
  71rBrevia placitata 
Marginalia: v’ idem ius et eadem racio’; ius de com’ antec’; Attch’ per corpus; per plegg’; Q’ ?nens pleg’ appendet’ a la grant Court le Roy.
Note: Elaborately decorated initial ‘P’.
  81v 
Marginalia: Quand an comitez; Les nat’e des h’rep; Cas sur bref de Dreit; Bref de Dreit; Regula.
  92rBrevia placitata 
Marginalia: Les delayes sur bref de dreit; Bref de Pone; Aprise dur le pone; Distinccion de assoigne; del assoign de ?maldelit.
  102v 
Marginalia: Bref de garaunt’ assoigne; Regula; Distinccion de assoyne; Nota de assoygne de ?pone du service le Roy.
  113r 
Marginalia: Bref de attorne; Regula; Le graunt Cape; Bref pur terre replevin; Regula; Encoupement.
  123v 
Marginalia: Defens; Autr’ defens; Aprise in at’le sur les excepcions; ?Tiorz defens; Bref de vewe.
  134r 
Marginalia: Bref de fere le garaunt venir’; Questio; manueiste de viscomit’; Encoupement.
  144v 
Marginalia: Defens; Joynte de bataille; Regula; Nota.
  155r 
Marginalia: Servient du feriant le defendant; Servient del seriant del demandaunt; Bref pur ?scafine aver’; Defens de graunt assise; Bref de pees aver; Bref de pees aver de custumes et de services.
  165v 
Marginalia: Aprise sur posicioun de graunt assise; Ou bataille se ?novit et en ment; Aprise sur le intrusion; Cas de Intrusion.
  176r 
Marginalia: Aprise sur bref de repnable partie; Bref de repnable partie; Encoupement.
  186v 
Marginalia: Defens; Aprise sur le nuper obiit; Nuper obiit; Aprise soz le mort dauncestre; Cas; Cas de Comberland.
  197r 
Marginalia: Bref de mort dauncestre; Regula; Aprise nat’e ?les nove le diss’; Bref de novele disseisine.
  207v 
Marginalia: Regula; Aprise sur le entree.
  218r 
Marginalia: Cas; Bref de entre del primer degre; Cas sur le secunde degre; Bref de entree del secunde degre; Encoup’; Defens.
  228v 
Marginalia: Bref de entree del secunde degree; De tierce degree; Aprise bone de ?anoeyson de eglise; Cas; Bref de dreit de anpeyso de eglise; Encoup’.
Note: Carryover indicating quire break.
  239rb 
Marginalia: Defends; Cas sur bref de precipe; Bref de precipe; Bref de quare impedit; Bref de ?dreim present’; Cas; Bref de utrum.
  249v 
Marginalia: Districcion de Cosinage; Bref de cosinage; Encoupement; Defens; Aprise sur de ?del.
Note: Includes branching chart.
  2510r 
Marginalia: Bref del ?Ael; Encoupement; Defens; Bref de chartres detenuz Encoupement; Defens; Distinccion en le cas de dette; Bref de dette.
  2610v 
Marginalia: Encoupement; Defens; Bref de molin; Encoup’; Defens; Aprise sur le bref de Eschete; Bref de Eschete; Encoupement.
  2711r 
Marginalia: Defens; Aprise sur garde aver’; Bref de garde aver’; Encoupement; Defens; Aprise sur covenaunt; Bref de covenaunt; Encoupement.
  2811v 
Marginalia: Defens; Aprise de bref de dower’; Distincion; Bref de dreit de dower; encoup’ Defens; Bref ?un ?nlht’.
  2912r 
Marginalia: Bref de dreit de pasture; Encoupement; Defens; Aprise sur bref de wast et de exil’; Bref de prohibicion de wast; Bref de attachement; Encoupement; Defens.
  3012v 
Marginalia: Aprise sur custumes et services et distincion; Encoupement; Defens; Cas ?mervellous sur vee de naam.
  3113r 
Marginalia: Bref de vee de naam; Encoupement; Defens; Cas; Bref de trespas; Encoup’.
  3213v 
Marginalia: Defens; Bref de meen; Encoup’.
  3314r 
Marginalia: Defens; Aprise sur le bref de ?’laynete; Cas; Bref de ?’laynete; Bref de monstravit.
Note: Grotesque.
  3414v 
Heading: Expliciunt brevia placitata.
Marginalia: En compeniet’; Defens.
Note: Includes branching chart.
  3515rWrits of rightc 
Note: Elaborately decorated initial ‘E’.
  3615v 
  3716r 
  3816v 
  3917r 
Note: Correction to next-to-last item inserted in a more informal script below the main text.
  4017v 
  4118r 
  4318v 
  4419rEcclesiastical writs 
  4519v 
  4620r 
  4720v 
  4821r 
  4921v 
  4922r 
  5022v 
Note: Carryover indicating quire break.
  5123rd 
  5223v 
  5324rWaste 
  5424vDe vasto in dote custodia et al’ 
  5525r 
  5725vReplevinDe averiis replegiandis cum suis etc 
  5826r 
  5926v 
  6027r 
  6127v 
  6228rDe nativo habendo, including de auxilio habendo, and de tallagio levando 
  6328vDe nativo habendo cum suis etc 
Note: Grotesque.
  6329rTrespass, including de minis and de rescussuDe minis; [word rubbed out] De inquisicione transgressionis vj cum suis etc 
  6429v 
  6530r 
  6630v 
Note: Carryover indicating quire break.
  6731re 
  6831v 
  6932rCriminal, including de odio et atia, de appello removendo, and de gaola deliberanda 
  7132v 
  7233r 
  7333v 
  7434r 
  7534v 
Note: Grotesque.
  7635r 
  7735v 
Note: Grotesque.
  7736r 
  7836v 
  7937r 
  8037v 
  8138r 
  8238v 
Note: Carryover indicating quire break.
  8339rf 
  8539v 
  8640r 
  8740v 
  8841rAccountDe compoto 
  8941v 
  9042rMiscellaneous, many concerning rights in land and/or lordship, but also debt and covenant 
  9142v 
  9143r 
  9243v 
  9344r 
  9444v 
  9545r 
  9645v 
Note: Tear in middle of page, text unaffected.
  9746r 
  9946v 
Note: Carryover indicating quire break.
  10047rg 
  10147v 
  10248r 
  10348v 
  10449r 
  10549vNovel disseisin, including attaintDe nova disseisina cum suis etc ?iiij; [cut off] existunt preterquam in comitatu midd’ 
  10550r 
  10650v[cut off] De parvis brevibus dissesine placitatis in comitatu sive ass[isis] 
  10751r 
  10851v 
  10952r 
  11052vDe reddisseisina cum suis etc iiij 
  11153rAttincta nove disseisine 
  11353v 
  11454r 
  11554vMort d’ancestor, including de avo et avia, nuper obiit, de ventre inspiciendo, quare eiecit, and de eschaetisDe morte antecessoris cum suis etc v 
Note: Carryover indicating quire break.
  11655rh 
  11755vDe avo et avia, consang’ et suis etc 
  11856rNuper obiit; De ventre inspiciendo; quare eiecit infra terminum 
  11956vEntry, including formedonDe eschaetis; De ingressu in multis casibus 
  11957r 
  12057v 
  12158r 
  12258vDe ponendo in assisisDe ponendo in assisis et ?inquestis 
  12359rMiscellaneous 
  12459v 
  12560r 
  12660v 
  12761rHengham magna (end only)Henghamk 
Note: Lacks the beginning and most of text. Incipit: ‘gratiam si voluerint. Quum autem supradictum est quod essionium de malo lecti’ (i.e., Selden ed. p. 83 ). Explicit: ‘H. patris regis Edwardi nunc perhemtorie dedicitur accio actoris’ (i.e., in substance, explicit of Selden ed. p. 86 ).
  12861vMagna Hengham 
  12962rJudicium essoniorumIudicium Essoniorum 
Heading: Explicit summa magna Hengham Incipit summa Iudicium Essoniorum.
Note: Elaborately decorated initial ‘P’.
  13062vIudicium Essoniorum 
  13163rIudicium Essoniorum 
  13263vIudicium Essoniorum 
  13364rIudicium Essoniorum 
  13464vIudicium Essoniorum 
  13565rCadit assisaCadit Assisa 
Heading: Explicit summa Iudicium Essoniorum Incipit summa cadit.
Note: Elaborately decorated initial ‘R’.
  13665vCadit Assisa 
  13766rCadit Assisa 
  13866vCadit Assisa 
  13967rCadit Assisa 
  14067vCadit Assisa 
  14168rCadit Assisa 
  14268vCadit Assisa 
Note: Carryover indicating quire break.
  14369rHengham parvaParva Henghaml 
Heading: Explicit summa cadit assisa Incipit parva Hengham.
Note: Elaborately decorated initial ‘N’.
  14469vParva Hengham 
  14570rParva Hengham 
  14670vParva Hengham 
  14771rParva Hengham 
  14871vParva Hengham 
  14972rParva Hengham 
  15072vParva Hengham 
  15173rParva Hengham 
  15273vCum sit necessarium (Modus componendi brevia)Parva Hengham 
Heading: Explicit summa Parva Hengham Incipit cum sit necessarium.
Note: Elaborately decorated initial ‘C’.
  15374rCum sit necessarium 
  15474vCum sit necessarium 
  15575rCum sit necessarium 
  15675vCum sit necessarium 
  15776rExceptiones ad cassandum breviaCum sit necessarium 
Heading: Explicit cum sit necessarium Incipiunt excepciones ad cassandum brevia.
Note: Elaborately decorated initial ‘C’.
  15876vExcepciones 
Note: Carryover indicating quire break.
  15977rExcepcionesm 
  16077vExcepciones 
  16178rExcepciones 
  16278vExcepciones 
  16379rExcepciones 
Heading: Explicit excepciones ad cassand’ brevia Incipit tractatus de bastardia.
  16479vDe bastardiaDe Bastardia 
Note: Elaborately decorated initial ‘N’.
  16580rDe Bastardia 
  16680vDe Bastardia 
  16781rDe Bastardia 
  16881vDe Bastardia 
Note: Grotesque.
  16982rTractatus coroneTractatus Corone 
Heading: Explicit tractatus de bastardia Incipit tractatus Corone.
Note: Elaborately decorated initial ‘E’.
  17082vTractatus Corone 
  17183rPlacita coronePlacita Corona 
Heading: Explicit tractatus corone Incipiunt placita Corone.
Note: Elaborately decorated initial ‘C’.
  17283vPlacita Corona 
  17384rPlacita Corona 
  17484v 
Note: Carryover indicating quire break.
  17585rArticuli in narrandon 
Heading: Expliciunt placita Corone Incipiunt articuli in narrando ¶ Incipiunt articuli qui narrando indigent observari ¶ Et primo de brevi de recto.
  17685v 
  17786r 
  17886vDe divisione brevium 
Heading: De divisione brevium.
Note: De divisione brevium is included within the explicit of Articuli in narrando as if it were thought of as being a section of it.
  17987r 
  18087vExceptiones contra brevia 
Heading: Expliciunt articuli in narrando Incipiunt excepciones contra brevia.
Note: Excepciones contra brevia is included within the second explicit of Articuli in narrando (seq. 189) as if it were thought of as being a section of it.
  18188r 
Note: Decorated initial ‘E’.
  18288v 
  18389r 
  18489v 
  18590r 
  18690v 
  187no fol.rModern noteat fol. 91 
Heading: Dd.7.14.(146) - following Summa Exceptionum contra brevia.
Note: Written in a 19th-century hand, perhaps Horwood’s, on a gray leaf slightly smaller than the manuscript page and tipped in, it would seem to transcribe the note in CUL Dd.7.14, fol. 14v, noted in Baker, Cambridge Legal Manuscripts, p. 71.
  188no fol.vBlank 
  18991r 
Heading: Expliciunt articuli in narrando cum excepcionibus generalibus ad brevia.
Note: At bottom in 19th-century hand: Franciscus Palgrave - the Temple soc’ - MDCCCXXIII.
  19091vBlank 
  19179bHLS MS 24b. Tractatus de bastardia (start)Tractatus 
Heading: Expliciunt Excepciones ad cassandum brevia; Incipuit [sic] Tractatus de Bastardia.
Note: See the Introduction. This leaf was originally tipped in between fol. 79 and 80 (it is numbered in pencil 79b and 79a). It was removed from the manuscript and given a separate shelfmark, HLS MS 24b, but is still stored loose at the end of HLS MS 24. It was photographed in reverse order. Seq. 192 is the end of Excepciones ad cassandum brevia, and seq. 191 contains the explicit of Excepciones and the beginning of this version of the Tractatus de bastardia.
  19279aHLS MS 24b. Tractatus de bastardia 
  193no fol.rBlank freestanding endpaper 
  194no fol.vBlank freestanding endpaper 
  195no fol.rBlank freestanding endpaper 
  196no fol.vBlank freestanding gray endpaper 
  197no fol.rBack gray pastedown 
Note: Signed: Alfred J. Horwood Temple.
  198no fol.vBack cover 

 

Preliminary Analysis of the Register of Writs

 

 

No heading found

As noted in the Introduction, the initial writ of right in the register is tested on 2 January 1294. It is addressed to the bailiffs of Nottingham on behalf of one Henry Tuke, with default to the sheriff of Nottingham. We have yet to find anything in the manuscript that would require a date later than 1294 and hence would tentatively date it to the last dozen years of the reign of Edward I.

The headers of the register were written in a small hand, roughly contemporary with the manuscript and more informal than the main hand of the manuscript. They were also written very close to the top of the page. Some of them were clearly cut off in binding; others that are no longer visible at all may have been. Four of them contain Roman numerals, suggesting that they might have been connected with an index of writs. If they were, it was not in the order of the manuscript because the numbers are not sequential. Since there are only fourteen headers now visible, we did not base our divisions of the manuscript into sections on them, though they did provide some guidance.

The following table gives a rough transcription the marginalia in the register in the order in which they appear on the page. Two counts of the writs are given in the right-hand columns of the table. The first counts all the writs for which there are marginal notes, excluding, however, the notes that labelled ‘Regula’ or ‘Nota’. The second excludes from the total all the writs where the marginal note includes the words ‘eodem’ or ‘aliter’.

 

 

Seq.Fol.HeaderWrit(s)CountUniq
3515rBreve de recto in burgo; aliter de eodem; de recto si ?multiformiter deforciatur; regula; aliter de recto; regula; aliter; regula; regula.98
Note: The initial writ of right patent is addressed to the bailiffs of Nottingham and is tested 2 January, year 22 of a King Edward, which granted the context has to be Edward I, hence 1294.
3615vAliter; De Recto de racionabili parte; De eodem; De eodem si partem habeant et partem non; De recto custodi honoris; De recto custodi terre et honoris; Regula; Breve de Recto de Dote; Regula; De recto Episcopo; De recto in liberam elemosinam; Aliter custodi; De recto de eodem; De recto in quinque portubus.127
3716rDe recto quando dominus feodi remittit Curiam suam domino Rege; De recto de servicio unius militis; Regula; Precipe in capite; De recto secundum consuetudinem manerii; De eodem quando alienatur a Rege; De recto de consuetudinibus et serviciis; Regula.65
3816vQuando quis posuerit se in magnam assisam in Comitatu; De eodem in Curia alicuius; De eodem; De eligendo magnam assisam; Regula; De pace in Gavelkende; De iurata in Gavelkende; De pace de consuetudinibus et serviciis; De eligendo magnam assisam de consuetudinibus et serviciis.86
3917rDe mittendo quatuor milites ad videndum quod plena iusticia exhibeatur; De eodem vicecomiti assumptis secum quatuor; De eodem sicut alias; De recordo et racionabili inde habendo; Aliter ad Curiam; Aliter; De procedendo in loquela que est de gracia; De Essonio de malo lecti; Regula; de attornato faciendo pro languido.95
4017vRegula; Regula; de attornato faciendo coram cancellaria; Regula; De uno attornato amovendo et alium substituendo; De eodem; Regula.32
4118rde attornato in brevi de falso iudicio; Regula; De servicio domini Regis Esson’ in pluribus loquelis; De communi summonicione; De falso iudicio in comitatu; De eodem in Curia; Aliter; De eodem in dominicis domini Regis; Regula; Pone super breve de Recto.85
4218vpone pro defendente; Regula; Monstravit de dominicis domini Regis; de eodem vicecomiti; Regula; Attachiamentum inde; De Recto de advocacione ecclesie; Regula.54
4319rDe eodem ad bancum; De terra replegianda; de eodem De advocacione ecclesie; De ultima presentacione; De eodem coram iusticiariis assignatis; Paces inde; De ultima presentacione racione Custodie; De ultima presentacione tempore vacacionis ad Bancum.85
4419vNota; Quare impedit; Regula; utrum; De eodem coram; Iusticiariis assignatis; Patens inde; Regula; Prohibicio de advocacione ecclesie; Parti ne sequatur; Regula.76
4520rindicavit; De eodem; De eodem ne sequatur; De catallis et debitis; Parti ne sequantur; De layco feodo; De eodem parti; Attachiamentum inde.85
4620vProhibicio de layco feode pro clericis; Pro clerici de advocacione Ecclesie; Attachiamentum de advocacione ecclesie inter de layco feodo pro clericis; Prohibicio de transgr’; Attachiamentum inde; de attachiamento parte; Prohibicio formata in prosecucionem cap’lli.77
4721rprohibicio formata; Alia prohibicio formata; De separatis decimis; Prohibicio formata; De eodem; Prohibicio pro muliere appellante aliquis de raptu.65
4821vRegula; Prohibicio ad Episcopum ne admittat; Aliter de eodem; De eodem monstravit; De presentacione pro Rege; Quare non amisit; De eodem.62
4922rRegula; Littera porrecta domini Regis per ?Diocesam ad vim laycam removendam; De vi layca removenda; regula; Quare incumbravit; De prebenda data per Regem; De procuratore facto in presentacione Ecclesie.66
5022vDe sequestro relaxando pro clericis Regis; De pensione concessa per aliquis abbatem et cuius convencium; Littera deprecatoria Offic’ porrecta per Regem; Prohibicio ne quis trahatur in causam extra Regnum.44
5123rProhibicio ne aliquis prelatus subire presumat ecclesiasticum examine ad comparandum extra regnum ad ?alicus citacionem; Prohibicio ne Ballivi retrahantur in placitum quia pec’ consultacio debit’ R’; De eodem; Regula; De excommunicato capiendo; Regula.43
5223vDe excommunicato deliberando ad denunciacionem Episcopi; Regula; De caucione admittenda ab excommunicato Episcopo; De eodem vicecomiti si Episcopo caucionem admittere recusaverit; De excommunicato recapiendo deliberato a prisona nulla satisfaccione facta sancte Ecclesie.43
5324rQuando iudex maliciose capi procurat aliquis post attachiamentum; Quod excommunicatus pendente appellacione non capiatur; Quando iudex aliquis maliciose capi procurat post attachiamentum; Prohibicio pro conservacione pacis.44
5424vDe vasto in dote custodia et al’Regula; De vasto in dotem; De vasto facto in custodia; De vasto de ten’ ad terminum annorum; Ne fiat vastum pro indiviso; De vasto racione Estoverium; De vasto quo minus as’ possit habere racionabile estoverium suum.66
5525rDe eodem; de eodem quando boscus vel turbaria tenetur pro indiviso; De vasto ad terminum vite; de eodem per assignacionem; de eodem ad terminum annorum; de eodem dum aliquis infra etatem fuerit; De eodem racione custodie.71
5625vDe averiis replegiandis cum suis etcDe averiis replegiandis; Regula; de eodem non obstante liberate; De averiis cum pluries; De averiis captis.43
5726rPone de averiis; Regula; Pone de averiis pro defendente; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa.1313
5826vCausa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; quando vicecomes non returnat quia loquel’ Angl’ personam suam; Replegio quando aliquis advocat averia ?? sua vel cat’.1313
5927rDe libertate ingredienda; Recordari in Comitatu; de eodem in Curia; De recapcione averiorum.43
6027vDe recapcione averiorum post le pone; De averiis fugatis de uno comitatu in alium; de eodem; de eodem; de eodem; de eodem; de eodem.72
6128rDe averiis sive catallis captis extra feodum; Aliter sive in communi aut in regia strata; Quod nullus distringatur pro debito aliquo de quo primar’ debicioni ?n’t pl’es non exciterit; De averiis captis extra feodum aliquo modo; Quod non liceat aliquis attach’ ad respondendum de convencione aut trans’ ?nisi R’ aut ?? eius; de homine replegiando; Attachiementum cum pluries; De moderata misericordia.87
6228vDe nativo habendo cum suis etcAttachiamentum inde; Regula; De nativis habendis; Quando per minus temporis manserit iudicio Regis quis per unum annum; Regula; Pone de nativis; De libertate probanda; Regula; de eodem pro muliere; Regula.65
6329rDe minis; [word rubbed out] De inquisicione transgressionis vj cum suis etcDe auxilio habendo ad distringendum villanos; De tallagio habendo; De minis; De eodem; De eodem; De inquisicione transgressionis; de eodem.74
6429vCausa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Ad audiendo et terminando trans’; Breve clausum.1313
6530rde audiendo et terminando de rescussu averiorum; de audiendo et terminando de receptamento; de eodem de bonis asportatis; de eodem de verberata et aliis transgressionibus.42
6630vde eodem contra proteccionem; de eodem vicecomiti; de eodem Iusticiariis; De transgr’ de ?la terra et de bonis asportatis; de eodem.51
6731rCausa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Causa; Audita querela de Roberia; De trans’ de carbonibus maritimis asportatis; De trans’ pro executoribus; de audiendo et terminando de transgressione facta contra proteccionem Regis.1515
6831vDe trans’ de averiis carucarum sive de ovibus captis contra statutum; De trans’ imprison’ et de vi facta quod aliquis quietum clamat ius suum; De trans’ de portis celule fractis; de trans’ de tauro capto et abducto; De trans’ quando aliquis non potest pasture averia sua imparcata; Attincta de inquisicione super trans’ vic’; Breve Iusticiariis de eodem.76
6932rAssociacio de trans’; De carta fracta et dilacerata; de eodem; de eodem; De ?la terra et bonis si vi ablat’; Regula; De odio et atia; Regula; De ponendo aliquis per Ballivi.75
7032vDe appello removendo coram Rege vel coram Iusticiariis de Banco; De appello de morte hominis; Regula; De appello raptus vel roberie; De gaola deliberanda breve clausum; de eodem Iusticiariis; De bono et malo.65
7133rSi ?omnes interesse non possunt; De gaola deliberanda pro certo tempore; De bono et malo pro tonsura monete; de eodem de porcio in exigend’ deliberando; de eodem Aliter; De uno solo homine deliberando; ad inquirendum de malefactoribus.74
7233vut aliquis dedicatur de una prisona in aliam; ut recipiatur conducentibus; ut transgressor ducatur coram Iusticiariis; De ponendo per Ballivum cum aliquis alium interfecerit se defendenum.44
7334rde eodem; de pardonacione de morte hominis; de eodem ad certum tempus; De pace proclamanda et carta probanda; De eodem; Quod civitas aliqua possit eandem libert’ coram iusticiariis assignatis ad gaolam deliberandam.63
7434vde eodem; de eodem; de eodem; De capto pro combustione domus deliberando; ad inquirendum qui interfecerunt; Ad inquirendum de utlagaria.63
7535rAd inquirendum de malefactoribus; Ad audiendo et terminando qui suspenderunt hominem in ecclesia; de utlagaria removanda.33
7635vDe furcis reparandis; De purgacione facta de trans’ venacionis; De ponendo per Ballivum aliquis ad ?removendum Regi; De bonis et catallis reddendis per manucapcionem; De eodem.54
7736rDe iudicato de morte alicuius in exigendo; ut aliquis reducatur ad prisonam infra liberacionem; Quando aliquis habeat de bonis suis vice ?? in prisona; ut capiatur qui discurrit infra liberacionem; De terris et tenementis alicuius se suspend’ passione ?frenecia donat’ redd’ suo heredi.55
7836vAd plenius examinandum Iur’ super articulis mortem alicuius contingent’; Ad inquirendum de malefactoribus et eos arestandis; Ad inquirendum utrum tal’ interfec’ se furor’ ductu sunt Aliter; De Recordo et processu utlagarie habendo; Ad inquirendum utrum aliquis submergetur per fortunum vel furore ductus; Ne fiat vastum vel ?bend’ bonorum alicuius imprisonati.65
7937rDe deliberando gaolam de trans’ post pacem proclamandam et appell’ et terminand’; De fugitivis arestandis; De alia cum bonis suis arestando et t’ co’i suis; ut aliquis exigatur de Com’ in comitatu; ut duo vel tres aud’ et termin’ si os’ incendere non ?possuu’.55
8037vut repleg’ qui appell’ de recept’ precept’ vel aux’; De allocacione de inquisicionis facienda; Ad appellum aud’ et terminand’ de morte hominis; Patens inde; De bonis et catallis clerico restituendis post purgacionem suam.55
8138rNe occasionetur qui interfec’ fug’; De gaola de B intelligatur de utraque gaola; Ad plenius inquirendum de morte alicus; Ad plenius inquirendum de morte alicus.44
8238vad inquirendum utrum quis sine ?inhabil’ de trans’ pro qua utlag’; De malefactoribus arestandis; ad inquirendum si ille su culpabit qui ?inducatur de trans; De ?Relig; interfecto in ?omittat’ ?Burg’.55
8339rut deliberacio gaol’ intelligatur ca’ de vill’ quas de castris; De aliquo removendo a prisona Episcopi ?usus ad prisona R’; Ad inquir’ de malefactoribus ?leg’ infra libertate et extra; de eodem.43
8439vde eodem militibus et liberis et hominibus; De nauta arestanda qui fugit cum bonis domini sui; Ad arestandum indiciatos de morte alicuius; Ad inquirendum de ?stracione Ecclesie et de bonis asportatis; De terris tenementis et catallis alicuius clerico ei restituendis post purgacionem.54
8540rDe liberacione aliquorum ?positorum in exigend’ usque ad certum diem per manucapcionem; quod vicecomiti et Coronator cessant de appello in comitatu; De ponende per ballivum quando aliquis interfecit alium se defendendum; [b] De catallis felonis aliter reddendis per manucapcionem; [a] De catallis rehabendis per latronem asportatis post feloniam convictam; de catallis dampnatorum ?? in custodia villanarum usque adventum Iustic’.66
8640vQuod coronator facit officium suum debito modo; De gaola deliberanda de uno solo homine; Patens inde; De corodio subtracto; de eodem; De seneschaloa ?hud’ in aliqua Abbat’ h’ia; Quod nullus implacitur ?sine precepto R’; Quod villan’ fac’ sectam ad molendinum.87
8741rDe compotoDe molendino sine multura; de eodem in Comitatu; de eodem in Comitatu; de compoto reddendo in Comitatu; de eodem ad bancum; Regula; De porcione facta quando molendinum tenetur pro indiviso; monstravit de compoto reddendo; de compoto reddendo in denaris; de eodem; monstravit in Londonia de compoto reddendo.106
8841vde compoto reddendo in Socagio; De ballivo capt per falsam suggestionem; De ballivo arestando pro arriragiis compoti; De arestato deliberando.44
8942rde compoto reddendo in socagio; De auxilio habendo ad premogenitum filium militem faciendum; de reparacione pontium vel stagorum; De ponte reparando; de eodem; de eodem quando pons est in confinio duorum comitatuum; de Curia claudenda.75
9042vDe aqua haurenda; De libero tauro vel apro habendo; De grege adaquando; De racionabili estoverio; De maeremio et racionabili estoverio habendo; De chimino habendo; De piscaria habendo; De homagio et relevio capiendo; Regula; De communa pasture habenda; Regula; De pasture ad certum numerum averiorum; De recto de pastura; De superoneracione pasture.1212
9143rDe superoneracione pasture; Quo Iure; Regula; De racionabilibus divisis; Regula; De perambulacione facienda; Regula; De medio in Comitatu; de eodem ad bancum; Nota.65
9243vDe annuo redditu; de eodem ad bancum; de debito in comitatu; de eodem ad bancum; Attachiamentum inde; de debito super recognicionem mercatorum; de execucione Iudicii; Regula.75
9344rSi recognoscat; Attachiamentum de execucione Iudicii; De debito ponendo in respectu; de eodem; de eodem; De debito quando bona devenere ad manus Episcopi; de eodem pro ?executoribus; de eodem; de eodem; de plegio acquietando; de eodem ad bancum; de catallis reddendis.126
9444vde eodem ad bancum; De cartis reddendis; de eodem ad bancum; de eodem ad pixidem reddendum; Regula; De warancia Carte; De consuetudinibus et serviciis; Regula; de eodem; de eodem infra burgum; de eodem in comitatu; de libero passagio; De visu franciplegii; De convencione in comitatu; de eodem; de eodem; de eodem ad bancum; de eodem de custodia.166
9545rde eodem deliberacione habenda in Attachiamento; de eodem de pastura; Regula [de cursu ad B’]; De fine facto; de eodem; de eodem; De transcripto finis habendo; de eodem; de custodia heredis; de custodia racione Custodie.94
9645vDe corpore heredis racione socagii; De eodem; de eodem; Regula; De eieccione custodie; de eodem racione dimissionis; De herde rapto et abductis sine licencia custodie; de eodem racione custodie.73
9746rde eodem racione vendicionis; De eieccione custodie prioratus; De eieccione custodie dimisse per executores; Quando heres aliquis se maritaverit sine licensia Custodis; De herede rapto et abducto habendo secundum statutum; de eodem quando heres divorceat de uno Comitatu in alium; De herede abductis et detento; de custode admovendo ad prosequendum et defendendum in assisam mortis antecessoris.86
9846vDedimus potestatem dandi et assign’ ydon’ custod’ in hibernia in pluribus loquelis aliter infra etatem existentem; Iustic’ de etate probanda breve clausum; Patens inde; de custodia data per Regem breve patens.44
9947rDe etate probanda; De eodem Eschatori; De dote de tenementis que tenentur de domino Rege in capite; De dote unde nichil habet; Regula; de eodem Aliter; De dote assignata ad hostium Ecclesie; De assensu patris; De dote in Londonia; De admensuracione dotis.96
10047vde eodem; Attincta de Dote; de eodem; Dedimus potestatem in brevi de Recto ?in vocatis ad warrantum; de attornato de communi secta; de eodem; de eodem.73
10148rde eodem per litteras suas patentes; Regula; de eodem ad loquelas suas prosequendas et defendendas; Regula; Ad libertates exigendas et defendendas; Durantibus personis quod attornatus admittatur; Attachiamentum inde; De Turnis vicecomitis; Attachiamentum inde.75
10248vDe visu franciplegii; Attachiamentum inde; de eodem de viris Religiosis et mulieribus; Attachiamentum inde; De visu franciplegii pro mulieribus; De honore de Walingford’; Attachiamentum inde; Prosequi occasione tenementorum suorum distring’ ad faciendum ?sectam ad Curiam alicuius.87
10349rAttachiamentum inde; de attornato in brevi de attachiamento predicto; De pillore placitando; Attachiamentum inde; Quod plures secte non fiant de unica hereditate; de eodem; de eodem Aliter; Attachiamentum inde; De contribuciones faciendo ad sectam Curie.96
10449vDe nova disseisina cum suis etc ?iiij; [cut off] existunt preterquam in comitatu midd’Attachiamentum inde; Quod non fiat nisi unica secta quando plures heredes descend’ ?vel de diversa adquisicione; Attachiamentum inde; De nova disseisina ad primam assisam; de eodem de communa pasture.54
10550rde eodem quando vir et mulier sunt coniunctim feoffati; de eodem coram Rege; De disseisina de communa pasture coram Rege; De disseisina in Com’ midd’; De nova disseisina coram Iusticiariis assignat’; Patens; Regula; Regula; De fossato levato; De ?nativo; De sepe; De via.108
10650v[cut off] De parvis brevibus dissesine placitatis in comitatu sive ass[isis]Patens inde; Regula; De domo levata; Regula; Quod permittat de domo et huiusmodi; De eodem Aliter; de eodem; De via artata; De cursu aque; Certificacio de nova disseisina; Patens.96
10751rAssociacio de nova disseisina; Patens inde; Quando unus iusticiarius vacare non potest capcioni assise; Aliter Iusticiario cui sit associacio; de eodem associacio; de eodem pro morte Iusticiarii patens.63
10851vde eodem illi cui sit associacio; de eodem vicecomiti; de eodem alicuius; Regulus; De recordo et processu assise nove disseisine habend’; De Recordo habendo ad certum diem; De recordo assise habendo post certificacionem arram’; de attachiamento in certificacione.85
10952rDe Recordo post attinctam arram’ coram al’ Iustic’; de eodem alio modo; Quando unus Iusticiarius non potest vacare capcioni asslse de via artata; Quando ?Iusticiarii differunt in ass’; Quod Iusticiarii procedant ad capionem assisam; De eodem alio modo.64
11052vDe reddisseisina cum suis etc iiijQuod Iusticiarii procedant in attincta; Quod Iusticiarii itinerantes procedant in assisam att’ ?munata de uno comitatu in alium coram eis; De execucione facta post iudicium redditum in assisa nove disseisine; De redditu ass’; de eodem de communa pasture.54
11153rAttincta nove disseisinede eodem; de eodem de cursu aque diverso; de eodem de via artata; De disseisina in brevi de recto; Attincta nove disseisine etc’.52
11253vPatens inde; de attornato in attincta; De recordo assise post attinctam arr’ Thes’; Quod neutri parti suspecti ponantur in assisa; de eodem; De eodem in plur’ assis’ nove disseisine; Quod propinquiores p’m ass’ de stagno levato.75
11354rQuod assise Iurate et Certificate capiantur non obstante statuto; Iusticiariis ad omnes assisas; Breve clausum; Quando tenementum est in confinio duorum comitatuum; de eodem quando attincta arranatur; de eodem vicecomiti; De fine pro reddisseisina.75
11454vDe morte antecessoris cum suis etc vde eodem; de eodem; De omnibus attinctis in assisa deliberandis; Regula; De morte antecessoris; Patens inde.53
11555rRegula; Regula; De morte antecessoris in com’ midd’; Regula; Quando aliquis peregre profectus est; De recordo assise mortis antecessoris eiusdem assise habendo coram Rege ad certum diem cap’ coram Iusticiariis itinerantibus; De recordo assise mortis antecessoris cap’ coram Iusticiariis itinerantibus habendo coram Rege; Ad dubitaciones audiendas in assisa mortis antecessoris.55
11655vDe avo et avia, consang’ et suis etcDe recordo loquele qui fuit in Curia cestr’ H’ coram rege de vasto facto in Custodie; De recordo post inquisicionem habendo coram Iusticiariis de banco quando arr’ attincta; De attornato in brevi de attachiamento predicto; De attincta mortis antecessoris; Patens inde; De avo vel avia; De consanguinitate.77
11756rNuper obiit; De ventre inspiciendo; quare eiecit infra terminumNuper obiit; Regula; de eodem; Regula; De ventre inspiciendo; Regula; Quare eiecit infra terminum; De eodem; De eodem.63
11856vDe eschaetis; De ingressu in multis casibusDe eschaeta per Bastardiam; de eodem pro de factum heredis; De eschaeta per feloniam commissam; de eodem; De inquisicio de anno et vasto de terris felon’; De seysina habenda post annum et diem; De ingressu ad terminum qui preteriit; de eodem in secundo gradu; de eodem inter secundo gradu.95
11957rde eodem post dimissionem; Quando non fuit compos mentis; de eodem; de eodem; de eodem post dimissionem; De ingressu dum infra etatem; de eodem; de eodem post dimissionem; De ingressu per custodem; de eodem post dimissionem; Regula; De ingressu per disseisinam; de eodem; de eodem post.134
12057vDe ingressu sine assensu Prioris et Capituli; Regula; De ingressu post disseisinam factam Rege; De ingressu de tenemento alienato per secundum virum alicuius mulieris; de eodem; de eodem post; De ingressu per illam que tenuit in dotem; de eodem post; De ingressu per instrusione; de eodem post; de eodem per intrusionem; De ingressu post mulierem que habet dotem per consideracionem Curie.116
12158rQuando mulier clamat tenementum ad vitam suam; De ingressu per mulierem quam foronam statuti Glouc’; De ingressu causa matrimonii prelocuti; De ingressu per mulierem ten’ in dotem qui ?dis assign’ alic’ post mortem ipsius mulieris; Quando tenens cessavit per biennium; de eodem in primo gradu; Post dimissionem; De ten’ per Relig’ alien’ petend’; De forma donacionis per descensum; de eodem pro reversionem.108
12258vDe ponendo in assisis et ?inquestisDe remansione; Aliter de eodem; De eodem; De ingressu per villanum; de eodem post; Quod homines etatem lxx annorum excedentes non ponantur in assisis; Regula; Attachiamentum inde; Quod homines xl solidatas terre vel redd’ non habentes non ponantur in assisis; de eodem Aliter.93
12359rQuod homines tempore sum’ vic’ non ponantur in assisis; de eodem pro perpetuo languido; Regula; Quod aliquis non vaxatur in sum’ et ass’ quia impotens ?sui etc’; Patens ne quis ponatur in ass’; Quod homines de antiquo dominico corone Anglie non pon’ in ass’ extra tenur’ eiusdem dm’o; Quod cap’ dn’s possit ?? Curiam suam de ten’ suo ?pl’ per brvi de recto; Quod precip’ in capit’ non fiat aliter de libero ten’ unde lib’ ho’ perdat Curiam suam; .87
12459vQuando quis impetraverit breve de pace in brevi de recto; Pro ill’ de wall’; De respectu muliere habendo; De distr’ relaxanda facta pro militia; De respectu milit’ ca’ pl’ia.55
12560rQuod nullus ?supr vel imprisonet’ pp’ appell’ foie de morte alterius ius quam e morte ?virrigni; De consuetudinibus et serviciis; fac’ de residuo terre aliter cond’; De banco removendo; De in trans’ h’nd in Attach’ per Regem.55
12660vde eodem; De inquisicione facta per eschaetorum quando aliquis diem clausit extremum; De seisina habenda post inquisicionem; De exaccioniubus et districcionibus in iustis relaxandis pro sokemanria.43
Total:647469

 

 

 

This register is transitional between Hall’s Register ‘CC’ and his Register ‘R’ both in terms of its probable date and in terms of its contents. It contains substantially more writs (469, the second of the two totals, which is closer to the way in which Hall counted his writs) than does ‘CC’ (237) and substantially fewer than ‘R’ (880). The major categories of writs are pretty much what we have come to expect as is the order. There are some oddities. After the expected writs of right, ecclesiastical writs, waste, and replevin, the headers call our attention to a page-worth of writs concerning villeins: de nativo habendo, de tallagio levando. These writs are found in other registers grouped with replevin, but they are normally not given much prominence. Trespass follows, and it is substantial (8% of the pages of writs). Criminal writs follow trespass, and it is very substantial (20% of the pages, the largest proportion in the whole collection). A small collection of account writs follows. The miscellaneous category that intervenes between account and novel disseisin is miscellaneous indeed, mostly rights in land and/or lordship but also what little is devoted to debt and covenant, and very large (16%, the second largest proportion of writs). Novel disseisin, mort d’ancestor and related writs follow (together 15% of the writs). Entry follows, confined, it would seem to entry in the first degree, with no per, cui, or post. Tucked into this section are two formedon writs, neither of which needs to have been based on the statute. The register closes with a fairly substantial section de ponendo in assisis (5%) and a very miscellaneous section (4%) that has all the hallmarks of being a collection of afterthoughts.

The overall impression is one of a register that is not quite up to its date, ‘after 1294’. The development of the degrees of entry is not reflected in it, and what little there is of formedon is not elaborated. Trespass and account are there as categories, but debt/detinue and covenant are buried and not elaborated. Writs about rights in land and rights of lordship, including dower and wardship, are substantially present, but jumbled. Overall, this is a register that certainly could be used for instructional purposes in its time, but does not reflect the most recent developments of its time.