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Bio-Bibliographical Guide to Medieval and Early Modern Jurists

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Report No. t098

Johannes Raynaudus

? c. 1357 – ? p. 1456

 

Alternative Names

Johannes Raygnaudi (Regnaudus, Regnaudi); Jean Raynaud; Jean ?Regnaud

 

Biography/Description

Born in Avignon, the son of a jurist named Pons, perhaps around 1357. He became a bachelor of law at the university of Avignon in 1385. It probably was there that he began the first version of his Viridarium, a kind of encyclopedia of the natural world. See M. Schmitz, ‘Le Viridarium de Jean Raynaud’. Around 1400, J. moved to Marseille, of which he became a citizen. He represented Marseille in embassies to Avignon in 1401 and again in 1403. He was one of the six presidents of Louis the Twelfth’s short-lived parlement at Aix in 1415. He did not obtain his doctorate in civil law at Avignon until 1418. He also obtained a doctorate in canon law there at an unknown date. He taught at Avignon, Aix, and, perhaps, Marseille. The recent estimate of his birth date casts doubt on the supposition that he was still alive in 1456. The document of that date that Giodanengo mentions may be referring to a bastide that formerly belonged him. In any event, J. would seem to have reversed the normal progression of a career in this period. He was engaged in affairs early on and became an academic later in life.

J’s Comprehensorium feudale, a commentary on the LF, is in print (ed. Lyon 1516 or 1517), as are two treatises that appear in the TUI 1584 (Tractatus suitatis [t. 8.2] and De mensuris [t. 12]). He is not, however, the author of De moneta, ascribed to him in TUI 1584 and which has recently attracted some scholarly attention (H. Dondorp, ‘The Effect of Debasement’ 251 and n. 37). That is the work of a jurist named ‘Jordanus Buc(s)i’ (?Bucci), whom Giordanengo identifies as Jourdain Brès (G. Giordanengo, in DHJF 173), a contemporary of J’s in the parlement of Aix. Some of J’s work remains in manuscript, which Giordanengo and Schmitz reference. The Comprehensorium feudale is not simply a rehash of Italian commentaries; it contains references to the consilia of Pons, J’s father. It is also of some interest that J. writes in his De origine iuris (ed. Lyon 1516 or 1517) about Dig. 2.1.2 (Pomponius’ well-known history of Roman law), considerably, it would seem, before that text attracted the attention of the legal humanists.

(In addition to the usual biography and references, the TUI 1584 database also contains a separate analysis of the works, not all of which are by J., in the ed. Lyon of 1516 or 1517.)

Source: G. Giodanengo, in DHJF 856–857.

TUI database

 

Text(s)

 
No. 01

Liber solacii et amenitatis intitulatus viridarium de naturis et proprietatibus rerum et de mirabilibus mundi. Recently brought to light and ascribed to J. by M. Schmitz. J. tells us in the colophon to the autograph codex unicus that he wrote the work when he was still a bachelor (hence, after 1385) and that he is now a doctor (hence, probably after 1418). The base text is probably fairly early in the date range; it contains many marginal additions in the same hand, which are almost certainly later. According to Schmitz, the work owes much to the Liber de natura rerum of Thomas de Cantimpré (1201–1272).

 
No. 02

Comprehensorium feudale, p. 1415. A commentary on the LF.

 
No. 03

De nobilitate. The ed. Lyon 1516 or 1517 suggests that this is a kind of appendix to the Comprehensorium feudale, but prints it as a separate treatise.

 
No. 04

De suitate et extraneitate. The ed. Lyon 1516 or 1517 suggests that this is a kind of appendix to the Comprehensorium feudale, but prints it as a separate treatise. It was later printed without the Comprehensorium feudale.

 
No. 05

De mensuris et cuius auctoritate possint. Ascribed to J. in ed. Lyon 1516 or 1517 and accepted by Giordanengo as J’s.

 
No. 06

De moneta. Not ascribed to J. in ed. Lyon 1516 or 1517, but later ascribed to him (e.g., TUI 1584). It would appear to be the work of Jordanus Buc(s)i (?Bucci), whom Giordanengo identifies as Jourdain Brès (DHJF 173), a contemporary of J’s in the short-lived parlement of Aix.

 
No. 07

De testamentis. A Quaestio (‘Testator quidam suum condidit testamentum et iuravit illud non revocare demum non obstante primo testamento iurato de ipso non revocando aliud fecit testamentum. Queritur nunc quid istororum duorum testamentorum valeat an primum iuratum an secundum.’) attributed to J. in ed. Lyon 1516 or 1517 and accepted by Giordanengo as J’s.

 
No. 08

De origine iuris, 1421. According to Gioganengo, of the numerous consilia of J’s that are mentioned by his contemporaries, only two have been found..

 
No. 09

Consilia. Two have been found in manuscript but there is evidence of the existence of many more.

 
No. 10

Repetitiones. Two have been found in manuscript in addition to De origine iuris.

 
No. 11

Lectura Codicis. Survives in at least one manuscript.

 

Text(s) – Manuscripts

No. 01

Liber solacii et amenitatis intitulatus viridarium de naturis et proprietatibus rerum et de mirabilibus mundi.

 
Manuscript

Dublin, Chester Beatty Libr. WMs 80, fol. 1r–106r (See M. Schmitz, ‘Le Viridarium de Jean Raynaud’.)

 
No. 02

Comprehensorium feudale, p. 1415.

 
Manuscript

Lisboa, BN H.9.8 (?Before 1418; see Dolezalek, Maunscripta juridica. The title ‘Comprehensorium feudale super constitutione imperiali’ and the attribution to a Johannes Raynardus makes the identification virtually certain. Without knowing the basis for the dating of the manuscript but on the basis of what we know of J., we would be inclined to date the work, and hence the manuscript, after 1418, when J. became a doctor of civil law. It is possible, however, that he wrote an earlier version before he received the degree, and we do not know whether the manuscript contains J’s dedication, found in the editio princeps, in which he firmly identifies himself as a doctor.)

 
 

Wien, ÖNB Cvpl. 5063, fol. 17–130 (15th c.; see Dolezalek, Maunscripta juridica. The item is described as ‘Repetitio const. “Imperialem decet sollertiam” Friderici I imperatoris’, and it is attributed to one Johannes Rainaldus sive Raimundus. It has, however, the same incipit as the Comprehensorium feudale in the editio princeps.)

 
No. 03

De nobilitate.

 
Manuscript

Paris, BN lat. 4592, fol. 66–76

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 6170, fol. 1–28

 
No. 04

De suitate et extraneitate.

 
Manuscript

Grenoble, BM 117, fol. 5–9

 
No. 09

Consilia.

 
Manuscript

Marseille, Arch. mun. Marseille FF15 (This one of two that Giodanengo mentions: ‘une consulation à la ville de Marseille dans un procès interminable contre Jean le Meingre (Boucicault) à propos de la seigneurie de Pennes (1414–1417)’. [One of the reasons why the process was ‘interminable’ may be that Jean was taken prisoner at the battle of Agincourt in 1415 and died in England in 1422.] See Giordanengo, ‘La ville et le bon messire’. The reference is from Schmitz, ‘Le Viridarium de Jean Raynaud’ n. 21. It does not correspond to the catalogue under FF15, but is probably a piece of the article described as ‘1470. Protestations contre des violations de privilèges en matière d’appel. 1350-1470’.)

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 4590 (This is the other of the two that Giodanengo mentions; see Dolezalek, Maunscripta juridica.)

 
No. 10

Repetitiones.

 
Manuscript

Paris, BN lat. 4590 (Repetitiones on Cod. 4.63.3 and Cod. 3.44.15; see Dolezalek, Maunscripta juridica.)

 
No. 11

Lectura Codicis.

 
Manuscript

Torino, BN Universitaria H.I.10, fol. 1–61

 

Text(s) – Early Printed Editions

No. 02

Comprehensorium feudale, p. 1415.

 
Early Printed Editions

Comprehensorium feudale. Lyon: Antoine Du Ry, 1516 or 1517, fol. 1r–88v (online). Perhaps derived from a manuscript of the c. 15/m, this would seem to be the editio princeps of all of J’s known printed works, except for the De nobilitate, which had previously appeared in two Paris incunabula. An analysis of its contents, not all of which are by J., is found in the TUI 1584 database.

 
No. 03

De nobilitate.

 
Early Printed Editions

De nobilitate. Paris: [Pasquier Bonhomme], 1475. (GW M38778) The handwritten notes in GW confirm that this is an item in a work that is described as ‘Baldus de Ubaldis, De quaestionibus iuris’.

 
 

De nobilitate. Paris: [Pasquier Bonhomme], 1477. (GW M48687) This would seem to be reprint of the previous item.

 
 

Tractatus aureus de nobilitate. Lyon: Antoine Du Ry, 1516 or 1517, fol. 89r–102vb (online).

 
No. 04

De suitate et extraneitate.

 
Early Printed Editions

Tractatus suitatis et extraneitatis. Lyon: Antoine Du Ry, 1516 or 1517, fol. 102vb–106vb (online). The running heads to this point are almost all ‘Comprehensorium feudale’ and ‘Do. Jo. Raynaudi’ or some variation thereof.

 
 

Tractatus universi iuris: Tractatus de suitate et extraneitate. Venezia: F. Ziletti, 1584, 8.2.153ra.

 
No. 05

De mensuris et cuius auctoritate possint.

 
Early Printed Editions

De mensuris et cuius auctoritate possint fieri. Lyon: Antoine Du Ry, 1516 or 1517, fol. 107ra–109va (online). The running heads reflect the change of title to ‘De mensuris’.

 
 

Tractatus universi iuris: De mensuris et cuius auctoritate fiant. Venezia: F. Ziletti, 1584, 12.223rb.

 
No. 06

De moneta.

 
Early Printed Editions

Materia seu tractus monete seu pecuniarum an debeat inspici valor tempore contractus vel loci. Lyon: Antoine Du Ry, 1516 or 1517, fol. 109va–111va (online). The name of the author ‘Do. Jordanus busi.’ is given in one of the running heads and in the explicit: ‘Tractatus seu questionis determintio do. Jor. Buci. utriusque iuris eximii doctoris ac armate militie strenuus miles ortus super solutione cuiusdam dotis Feliciter finit’.

 
 

Tractatus universi iuris: De monetis. Venezia: F. Ziletti, 1584, 12.206rb. The attribution to J. is almost certainly an error.

 
No. 07

De testamentis.

 
Early Printed Editions

De testamentis. Lyon: Antoine Du Ry, 1516 or 1517, fol. 111vb–114rb (online). The incipit is quoted above in Texts; the running heads are ‘De testamentis’; the explicit calls it ‘Opus super validitate testamentorum’. Fol. 114 seems to be misnumbered but it follows fol. 113 and precedes fol. 115, and nothing seems to be missing from the text.

 
No. 08

De origine iuris, 1421.

 
Early Printed Editions

De origine iuris. Lyon: Antoine Du Ry, 1516 or 1517, fol. 147ra–160rb (online). Just before the explicit we find: ‘Omnia tamen predicta submitto emendationi melius speculantis et verius intelligentis Joannes raynaudi legum doctor inter ceteros minimus que compilavi paulative et per inervalla scribendo. Anno domini millesimo ccccxxj’.

 

Literature

H. Dondorp, ‘The Effect of Debasement on Pre-existing Debts in Early Modern Jurisprudence’, in Western Legal Tradition: Middle Ages to Bretton Wood, D. Fox and W. Ernst, ed. (Oxford 2016) 251 and n. 37 (online). (Concerns the De moneta of Jourdain Brès, mistakenly attributed to J.)

M. Schmitz, ‘Le Viridarium de Jean Raynaud. Une encyclopédie inédite de la fin du 14e – début du 15e s.’, in Medieval Autograph Manuscripts. Proceedings of the XVIIth Colloquium of the Comité International de Paléographie Latine, G. Nataša, ed. (Bibliologia 36; Turnhout 2013) 481-502 (online by subscription).

G. Giordanengo, ‘Raynaud, Jean’, in DHJF, 2nd ed. (Paris 2013) 856-857.

M. Schmitz, ‘Le Viridarium du juriste Jean Raynaud. Une encyclopédie latine du Moyen Age tardif’, (unpubl. diss.; Université catholique de Louvain 2011). (Not seen.)

G. Giordanengo, ‘La ville et le bon messire: Une consultation juridique pour Marseille (1414–1418)’, in Panta rei: Studi dedicati a Manlio Bellomo, O. Condorelli, ed., 5 vols. (Roma 2004) 3.445–471.

M.-R. Reynaud, Le temps des princes. Louis II et Louis III d’Anjou-Provence (Collection d’histoire et d’archéologie médiévales 7; Lyon 2000) 136, 171.

N. Coulet, ‘Bibliothèques aixoises du XVe siècle (1433–1448)’, in Livres et bibliothèques (XIIIe – XVe siècle) (Cahiers de Fanjeaux 31; Toulouse 1996) 226, 228.

G. Giordanengo, ‘Les feudistes (XIIe – XVIe siècles)’, in El dret comú i Catalunya, II: Actes del 2n Simposi Internacional de 1991 (Fundació Noguera – Estudis No 3; Barcelona 1992) 131–132.

N. Coulet, Aix-en-Provence. Espace et relations d’une capitale, milieu du XIVe – milieu du XVe siècle, 2 vols. (Aix-en-Provence 1988) 552–553, 563, 787.

D. Maffei, Giuristi medievali e falsificazioni editoriali del primo Cinquecento (Ius Commune, Sonderheft 10; Frankfurt am Main 1979) 66, 67, 69–70.

M. Fournier, La faculté de Décret de l’université de Paris au XV siècle, 4 vols. (Histoire générale de Paris; Paris 1895–1942) 2.1.692. (First part of vol. 2 published 1902. Second part, which contains this page, not online at Gallica, though most of the 1st 3 vols. are.)

M. Fournier, ‘Les bibliothèques de l’université et les collèges d’Avignon pour les étudiants en droit’, RHD, 15 (1891) 97 no. 63–66, 103 no. 13. (Four peciae of J’s consilia legated and sold [1454].)