The Ames Foundation




An ‘Ocean of Law’. The Harvard Law School’s copy of TUI1584 is bound in 29 physical volumes, 17 inches high, 18 ‘tomes’ in 25 physical volumes and 4 physical volumes of indices.


The following table lists all of the principal authors named in the first eighteen tomes of TUI 1584. (The remaining tomes are index volumes.). Some, but not all of the co-authors, authors of additiones, etc., are listed. The list will be expanded to include all of these as well. The names are asigned a unique number that will eventually proceed alphabetically according to the lemma, but it should not be used until the list is complete. Most of the authors are given a brief biography, but in some cases in tomes 5 through 18, we simply gave a reference to where a biography can be found. We spent more time on those authors who are not well known or who have been misidentified in the past.

TUI 1584 gives the authors’ names in Latin. Starting at some uncertain date around 1200 or a bit later, library catalogues tend to give them in the vernacular; modern biographical dictionaries do so too, particularly when they are national biographies. We rather suspect that some of our authors’ mothers would be quite surprised at the vernacular names that have been assigned to their sons, particularly when there is no contemporary evidence to support the assignment. The damage is, however, done. Normally, if one wants to find a TUI 1584 author in modern scholarship, one needs the vernacular name. With this in mind, we have listed our authors from 1200 on under their vernacular names, unless the author is normally listed under his Latin name or unless we could not find him. Similarly, library cataloguers tend to list our authors alphabetically under the second element of the name, imagining it to be a surname, even though it frequently is not. Since it takes some doing to get from the Latin name in TUI to the vernacular surname, we have given cross-references from all the Latin names in TUI 1584 to the name where the main entry is found. These cross-references begin with the author’s Christian name, e.g., Achilles Personalis Mirandulanus, not Personalis, Achilles, Mirandulus. In a few cases we have also given the inverted version of the name as well, e.g., Aegidius, Jacobus, where we are aware that library catalogues list him that way. Christian names of authors given in TUI 1584 are somewhat normalized; for example, all authors with the Christian name ‘John’ are listed under ‘Joannes’, ignoring the spelling variations that are found in TUI 1584 and elsewhere.

Most library catalogues make an exception for authors who are known only by their Christian name and what is obviously a toponym. DGI and DBI follow this practice as well, and so have we. Hence, Antonius de Butrio will be found under Antonio da Budrio, and not Budrio, Antonio da.

There is considerable variation in library catalogues in the listing of surnames that have a prefix (de, le, von, etc.). Our listings invert these prefixes. Hence, Nicolaus de Lescut will be found under Escut, Nicolas de l’, not l’Escut (or Lescut), Nicolas de.

The dating of the authors is complicated. Ideally, each author should be accompanied by the place and date of his birth and the place and date of his death, e.g., b. Milano 1492, d. Pavia 1550. We do not have, and probably never will have, solid information on all four items for all of the authors. Varying degrees and types of uncertainty are indicated by: a ‘?’ before the item; ‘ca.’ for circa, ‘a.’ for ante and ‘p.’ for post before a date; ‘X’ for bracketing dates, or the word ‘or’. A forward slash in a date, e.g., 1313/14 (used where the source does not indicate what convention it is using), means either 1313 or 1314 or that the event happened betwen 1 January and 25 March in 1314, using the modern beginning of the year of grace. Where one or more of the four items is known but not all of them, what is missing is indicated by an ellipsis. If known and if one or both of the dates are lacking, one or more floruit dates are also given. Hence, ‘b. ?Bologna . . . , fl. 1398 X 1412, d. Bologna . . . ’ means that the author was probably born in Bologna, that he is known to have died in Bologna, that neither his date of birth or death is known, but that he is found in documents dating between 1398 and 1412.

Where none of the four items is known, we have used floruit dates. Where not even those are known, we attempted to place our authors in a century, e.g. ‘sec. 16’, where ‘sec.’ stands for ‘century’. Where some, but not much, precision is possible, ‘sec. 16/1’, ‘sec. 16/m’, and ‘sec. 16/2’, stand for the first half, middle, and second half of the century respectively, and ‘sec. 16/ineunte’ stands for the beginning of the named century, ‘sec. 16/exeunte’ the ending.

Futher information about our assignment of dates and places may be found here.

The search for the authors was not particularly systematic. We pursued them pretty much in this order, in DGI, DBI, Lange and Lange/Kriechbaum (only where the dates were early enough to make the pursuit worthwhile), DHJF, MEMJ, NDB, and ADB. (For DBE, see below). As a general matter, if we found them there, we did pursue them any further. Failing these, we went to the CERL Thesaurus. The Thesaurus is a work in progress. Since it is derived from library catalogues, it is no better than is the information in those catalogues, and some of it is quite obviously wrong. The entries, however, almost always provide useful clues. From the Thesaurus, we pursued sources online, including digital copies of the author’s works, until we reached an identification that we thought was reliable or, in a couple of cases, until we reached the point where it seemed clear that the author was obscure indeed.

The following bibliographical abbreviations are used: ADB = Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 56 vols. (1875–1912; reprint Berlin 1967–1971) (we used the online edition, accessed through the Biographie-Portal, and hence do not include the page numbers unless we found the reference elswhere); DBE = Diccionario Biográfico Español, 50 vols. (Madrid 2009–2013) (we came to the DBE late; we used the online edition, which contains the full lemmata, but does not include the biographies themselves, which remain to be checked in the paper edition); DBI = Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, 79 vols. to date (1960- ) (we used the online edition and hence do not include the page numbers unless we found the reference elswhere); DHJF = Dictionnaire historique des juristes français: XIIe-XXe siècle, Patrick Arabeyre, Jean-Louis Halpérin, and Jacques Krynen, 2d ed. (Paris 2015); DGI = Dizionario Biografico dei Giuristi Italiani (XII – XX Secolo), Italo Birocchi et al., ed., 2 vols. (Bologna 2013); Jöcher = Christian Gottlieb Jöcher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 4 vols. (Leipzig, 1750–1751); Lange, Glossatoren = Hermann Lange, Römisches Recht im Mittelalter: 1 Die Glossatoren (München 1997); Lange/Kriechbaum, Kommentatoren = Hermann Lange and Maximiliane Kriechbaum, Römisches Recht im Mittelalter: 2 Die Kommentatoren (München 2007); MEMJ = Medieval and Early Modern Jurists online (this is Kenneth Pennington’s online BioBibiliographical Guide to Medieval Canonists with some additions of civilians and sixteenth-century jurists and considerable updating); NDB = Neue Deutsche Biographie, 25 vols. to date (Berlin 1953– ) (we used the online edition, accessed through the Biographie-Portal, and hence do not include the page numbers unless we found the reference elswhere); Schulte = Johann Friedrich von Schulte, Die Geschichte der Quellen und Literatur des canonischen Rechts von Gratian bis auf die Gegenwart, 3 vols. (Stuttgart 1875–80); s.n. = sub nomine (used when the cited source does not list the author in the way that we have).

Errors, which certainly exist, are my responsibility; they can be called to our attention by sending us an email.

Charles Donahue, Jr.
February, 2018



The following table lists all of the principal authors and some of the co-authors in tomes 1–18 in alphabetical order. Where the main entry for the author is given in a different form the entry the entry provides a cross-reference to the main enty. The main entries are accompanied by notes about the author and a list of items in TUI attributed to him. These items are linked to our summary of the contents of each tome. To proceed directly to the PDS of the tome, use Tractatus Universi Iuris (Venice 1584–86), Manifest of Digitized Volumes.


No. Author X-ref  
1Aa, Pieter van der, b. Leuven 1530, d. . . . 1594 

de Wal, in ADB. A. received his doctorate in utroque at Leuven in 1559. He taught Roman law at Douai. He was made a member of the Sovereign Council of Brabant. In 1574 he was made the president of the court of Luxemburg and Chiny, a position that he seems to have held until the end of his life. In 1558, he published a Prochiron sive Enchiridion Judiciarum with a preface De ordine judiciario apud veteres usitato. The De privilegiis creditorum commentarius, ad Joachimum Hopperum (t. 18, with a somewhat different title) was first printed in 1560.

itemt. 18, fol. 110va
 Acceptantibus, Franciscus deFranciscus de Acceptantibus 
 Achilles Personalis MirandulanusPersonali, Achille 
 Adrianus Pulvaeus (Pulva)Poulvé, Adrien 
 Aegidius Magistrus EquitisMaistre, Gilles Le 
 Aegidius Thomatus CuniensisTomati, Egidio 
 Aegidius, JacobusJacobus Aegidii 
 Aemilius FerretusFerretti, Domenico 
 Aeneas de FalconibusFalconi, Enea de’ 
2Afflitto, Matteo D’, b. Napoli 1447 X 1450, d. . . . a. iv.1529 

G. Vallone, in DGI; G. Vallone, in DBI (vol. 31 [1985]); C. Donahue, in MEMJ. A. was the son of Marino of a well-known family originally from Scala (prov. Salerno) on the Amalfi coast. The branch to which A. belonged had been in Napoli since the early 15th century and produced a series of high magistrates and officers of the crown, including Leonardo who was the grand chancellor of King Ladislao. A. studied law under Antonio d’Alessandro. In 1468, he received his doctorate in civil law and, somewhat after, that in canon law. A. attracted the attention of the Aragonese monarchy early in his career. Although he never held a professorship, he lectured in civil, royal, and feudal law, for over twenty years, for which he received a royal stipend. In 1488, while A. was simply a practicing lawyer, the future King Alfonso [II] invited him to offer his opinion on a case before the Regio Consiglio. In 1489 he was appointed judge of the Gran Corte della Vicaria, and in 1491 he became president of the Gran Camera della Sommaria. During the French occupation in 1495, A. remained in the Sommaria, faithful to the house of Aragon. He was named to the Regio Consiglio, when Ferdinando II was restored to power in that year. During the reign of Louis XII of France, A. was removed from the Consiglio and the Sommaria in 1501. In this year or the next, he managed to obtain the noble Seggio di Nido (Sedile di Nilo).

When the Spanish displaced the French in the Regno in 1504, A. was restored to his positions on the Consiglio and the Sommaria. But in 1506, Ferdinand the Catholic dismissed him from his judicial offices and also expelled him from the Seggio di Nido, for reasons that remain obscure. He was appointed to a magistracy in Vicaria in 1512. He probably served on the Sommaria during at least some of the last years of life, but he was never restored to the Consiglio, and he seems to have devoted most of his time to giving consilia and to writing.

In 1468, A. married Orsina Carafa, the daughter of the canonist Giovanni Antonio, by whom he had at least one son, who became a priest. Widowed, he married, around 1501, Diana Carmignano, who was considerably younger than he, and by whom he had at least three sons who survived him. His death date is unclear; he was certainly dead by April of 1529.

A’s scholarly production was large, and not all of his known works, notably his consilia, have yet been found, and some survive only in manuscript. Between 1475 and 1480, he wrote a commentary on the feudal law while he was lecturing on that topic. His work addressed the Aragonese monarchy's need to distinguish between feudal and royal jurisdiction, between fiefdom and office, because the monarchy was focused on the latter. The commentary reflects the monarchy's anti-feudal ideology. A. is known to have revised the work around 1505. The first known printing, though not necessarily the first printing, is that of Venezia, 1543–1547.

A’s Tractatus de jure prothomiseos (t. 17) probably dates from the same period. The term, derived from Greek ‘protimesis’ describes an institution similar to the French retrait lignagier or the German Einstandrecht. The work is an extended commentary on a constitution of Frederick II on the topic. It was published in Venezia in 1499 along with the treatise on the same topic by Baldus, which follows it in TUI 1584. The work was reprinted a number of times in the 16th century.

While A. was on the Consiglio, he compiled a well-known collection of its Decisiones (1st ed. 1509), which was published with the help of his cousin Michele, another high magistrate, and many times reprinted, frequently with decisions of the same court by other reporters.

A. began a commentary to the Liber Augustalis of Frederick II in 1510 and completed it in 1514. The first-known edition was printed in Trino (prov. Vercelli) in 1517. This writing linked A. inextricably to Frederick II and was intended to supplant previous commentaries on the Liber augustalis. Vallone quotes a description of it as ‘the last great voice of the Guelph regalism of the Angevin tradition and the Aragonese connection’. A. embedded his commentary in the editio princeps of the Liber augustalis of 1475, or, perhaps, the second edition of 1506, collating it with manuscripts. Almost all the printed editions of the Liber augustalis after his time use A.’s summaries of the titles of the work.

A’s most important work that remains in manuscript is the repetitio, Super c. unico de natura successionis feudi (L.F. 2.50), dated 1520, which is preserved in Palermo, BM 2 Qq.A.10.

itemt. 17, fol. 2ra
3Ajello, Giacomo de, b. Trani ca. 1435, d. . . . 1517 or 1519 

CERL Thesaurus. Mentioned by E. Cortese, DGI s.n. Donnorso, Sergio. He is said to have taught at Napoli and later at Pisa, or Padova, or Pavia.

itemt. 12, fol. 169va
4Albani (Albano), Giovan Gerolamo, b. Bergamo 1509, d. Roma 1591 

G. Cremaschi, in DBI (1 [1960]). Born to a noble family in Bergamo, A. was trained in humanistic studies, but pursued and obtained a doctorate in law at Padova, when he was only 20. He returned to Bergamo, married, and had children, but did not remarry when his wife died in 1539. Rather, he devoted himself to his writings, including De donatione Constantini Magni (first ed. 1535) (t. 15.2) (an attempt to defend the authenticity of the Donation), De cardinalatu (first ed. 1541) (t. 13.1), and De postestate papae et concilii (first ed. 1544) (t. 13.2). 1553 saw the publication of two more works: De immunitate ecclesiarum (t. 13.2) and Disputationes ac consilia. In 1563, two of his sons commanded a group that assassinated the count Achille Brembati in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Venezia, an event in a long enmity between the Albani and the Brembati. A. was suspected of having been involved in the conspiracy that led to the assassination, and he was condemned to five years confinement on the island of Lesina. He wrote Latin poems reflecting on these events. In 1566, however, when his old friend and mentee, Michele Ghislieri, was elected Pope Pius V, the pope brought him to Roma and made him a cardinal in 1570. He remained an important member of the college of cardinals to end of his life and was even considered as a candidate in the papal elections of 1585 and 1590, but failed to be elected probably both because of his advanced age and the violence that was continued by his grandsons. In addition to the works mentioned above, A. published two volumes of Lucubrationes in Bartoli lecturas sive Commentana (Venezia in 1559 [vol. 1] and 1561 [vol. 2], and again in 1571 [both]).

itemt. 13.1, fol. 66rb; t. 13.2, fol. 18vb; t. 13.2, fol. 105rb; t. 15.2, fol. 666va
 Albericius de Maletis PapiniensisMaletta, Alberico 
5Alberico da Rosciate (Albericus de Rosciate), b. Rosciate ca. 1290, d. Bergamo 1360 

C. Storti, in DGI 1.20–3. A practicing lawyer, and not a university teacher, A. retired from practice and spent the last ten years of life writing about law.

itemt. 2, fol. 2ra
6Albertini, Arnaldo, b. Muro 1480, d. Patti 1544 

R. Zapperi, in DBI v.1 (1960). A. obtained his doctorate in canon law at Pavia in 1509. He was named bishop of Patti (Sicily) in 1534 and served as inquisitor general of the kingdom until 1543. He wrote a number of works that attempt to define heresy as a matter of law.

itemt. 11.2, fol. 52ra
 Albertus Bolognetus Bolognetti, Alberto 
 Albertus Brunus AstensisBruni (Bruno), Alberto 
7Albertus de Ferrariis, fl. 1428 X 1453 

CERL Thesaurus. The floruit dates are taken from the LC authority file. We have not confirmed them, but they are plausible. A. operated in Piacenza; he may have been born there. His surname suggests possible origins in Ferrara. An Alberto Trotti of Ferrara wrote a treatise called De vero et perfecto clerico, which, like A's De horis canonicis (t. 15.2), appears in incunabula of the 1470s. Hain thought that they were the same person. They almost certainly are not. A. calls himself a doctor in utroque. Italian edit16 says that he was ‘cerimoniere’, i.e., precentor, and archpriest of the cathedral of Piacenza, and that he served as vicar general for a number of bishops. Once more we have not confirmed this information, but it is plausible.

itemt. 15.2, fol. 559vb
 Albertus de PergamoPergamo, Albertus de 
8Albignani (Albignani Trezzio, Albinianus Tretius), Pietro, b. Treccio . . . , fl. 1479 X 1526, d. . . . 

M. Rosa, in DBI (2 [1960])

itemt. 13.1, fol. 130va
9Alciato (Alciati), Andrea, b. Milano 1492, d. Pavia 1550 

A. Belloni and E. Cortese, in DGI, 1.29–32. C. Donahue, in MEMJ. A.’s family originated in Alzate (prov. Novara), whence his surname. He was the son of Ambrogio, a wealthy merchant who held public offices, and of the noble Margherita Landriani. A. had a humanistic formation under Aulo Giano Parrasio and Demetrio Calcondila, and perhaps, occasionally, under Giano Lascaris. From them he acquired knowledge of the Greek and Latin culture and philological training. In 1508 he began legal studies in Pavia with such first-rank masters as Giasone del Maino (Jason de Mayno) and Filippo Decio (Philippus Decius), and with such lesser-known ones as Pico da Montepico. From about 1511 until 1514, A. was in Bologna where he likely studied with Carlo Ruini. Since the university of Pavia was in a crisis due to the war, the expulsion of the French, and the first Sforza restoration (1512–15), A. obtained his doctorate in civil and canon law at Ferrara in 1516.

A. became a well-known humanist jurist who has considerable claim to having brought the teaching of law in the humanist fashion to France. Beginning in 1518, he taught at the university of Avignon with another Italian, Gianfrancesco Sannazzari della Ripa. Both instructors used the method of teaching then current in Italy, the dialectical-rational or Bartolist method. Neither A. nor his contemporary humanist jurist in Germany, Ulricus Zasius, criticized Accursius and the commentators in the manner of Guillaume Budé, although they both corresponded with Budé and with Erasmus. A. did, however, begin to lecture at Avignon in the humanist style, but outside of the regular course of instruction.

During the Lutheran Reformation, A., who cultivated a critical Erasmean form of Catholicism, publicly maintained loyalty to the Holy See. In 1521, Leo X granted A. the title of Count Palatine, which carried the power to create doctors. Due to an economic crisis in Avignon, A. returned to Italy to Milano and spent the years 1522 to 1527 there writing, while the law faculty at Pavia remained closed. Following the French capitulation and the dismissal of Francesco II Sforza and with Milano in the hands of Charles V, A. returned to teaching in Avignon in the autumn of 1527 at lower pay. Understandably, he was happy to accept the favorable conditions offered him by the university of Bourges in the spring of 1529. According to custom, he gave his first lectures in the Bartolist style, but the visible disappointment of the listeners led him immediately to show off his humanist skills. His listeners were many, and included future jurists like François Connan, and even Francis I, from whom he obtained aid and protection. It was at Bourges that legal humanism was developed and perfected. Ancient extrajudicial sources, works of Latin poets, rhetoricians, historians, and theorists, and readings from the ancient manuscript of the Digest (Codex pisanus or florentinus), were used better to understand and interpret the Justinianic corpus and to improve technical discourse. A. used the Latin of the Roman jurists not that of the medieval writers.

In 1533, A. left Bourges when the Sforza duke Francesco II made him a senator of Milano. He taught at Pavia until 1537 when problems with student discipline and the insecurity of his position and salary caused him to take a teaching post in Bologna. A. remained there for four years, teaching an historical-philological survey of the legal texts and their restoration. While A. was teaching at Bologna, he collaborated with Antonio Augustín and his young secretary Jean Matal in the restoration of ancient texts of Roman law. (The latter were working with others on an edition of the Codex florentinus that ultimately led to the publication of a transcript of the manuscript by Lelio and Francesco Torelli in 1553.) In 1541, A. returned to Pavia. In 1542, due to the wars, the suspension of legal teaching, and the late payment of his salary, A. accepted a position offered to him by the duke Ercole II of Ferrara. In 1546, Pope Paul III nominated him to be an apostolic prothonotary, giving him clerical status and asking him to come to Rome to advise him about the council of Trent. Interestingly, A. does not seem to have advised Pope Paul III, but in 1548 he advised Charles V on the transfer of the council from Trent to Bologna. Also in 1546, A. returned to teach at Pavia again, but the last years of his life were tormented by gout and difficulties with student discipline. He reportedly died as a result of excessive drinking and was rumored to have departed from the Christian faith.

A. wrote a great deal, not all of it about law. His first writings reflect his growing knowledge of law, and the historical-philological and linguistic formation that he had acquired previously. His Annotationes in tres posteriores libros codicis (1514, but begun as early as 1511), is filled with accounts of magistrates and obsolete procedures and shows his historical curiosity in the very choice of the subject. The Opusculum quo graecae dictiones fere ubique in digestis restituuntur, dedicated to Jacopo Visconti in the same year, testifies to his legal interests as well as his interest in Greek. Around the same time, he began his well-known collection of Milanese epigraphs, an effort stimulated by the humanists’ interest in epigraphy, but original in its focus on public law. It became a great book-album accompanied by the drawings of the epigraphs with commentary and ultimately the source of A’s pioneering history of Milano in Roman times, published long after his death as Rerum patriae libri quatuor (Milano 1625).

In 1518, A. published a collection of his works that assured him of fame, especially because his friend, the bookseller Francesco Calvo, distributed it beyond the Alps. It includes the famous six books of Paradoxa, a series of legal problems acutely and elegantly resolved; the four books of the Dispunctiones which, like the Opusculum restores Greek texts missing from the vulgate Corpus iuris civilis; two books of Praetermissa, the second of which consists of the already-published Opusculum; the Annotationes to the Tres libri; a new work, the treatise De eo quod interest (TUI 1584, t.5), and, finally, a short Declamatio, a model of legal dispute derived from Seneca.

At Avignon, A. wrote a commentary on De verborum obligationibus (Dig. 45.1), which was published in Lyon in 1519. He reworked this commentary throughout his life. It was published again, also in Lyon, in 1538, and in what is probably his final recension posthumously in his Opera omnia. In the autumn of 1520, at the beginning of his third academic year at Avignon, he pronounced the oration In laudem iuris civilis, which was published in 1530.

Between 1522 and 1527, A. wrote a Libellus de ponderibus et mensuris in Milano. It was printed in Haguenau in 1530 against his wishes. He did not want it published, because in it he had criticized Budé.

A. was very productive at Bourges. His De quinque pedum praescriptione was published in Lyon in 1529, together with De magistratibus. (The latter was later published as a preface to the edition of the classical Notitia dignitatum [Basel 1552].) Attacks by those opposed to his method, prompted a reply written under the pseudonym Aurelio Albuzio: In Stellam [Pierre de l’Estoile] et Longovallio [Jean Longueval] . . . defensio (Basel 1529). Dedicated to the archbishop of Bourges François de Tourmon, the De verborum significatione libri quatuor (Lyon 1530), was A’s masterpiece on a fundamental title of the Digest (Dig. 50.16). The work on it seems to have been done largely at Avignon. The Commentaria ad rescripta principum on the Code, seems to have been largely based on his lectures at Bourges (Lyon 1530). Probably also at Bourges, he wrote the De singulari certamine vel duello tractatus (TUI 1584, t.12), which was dedicated to Francis I and published in Paris in 1541.

Three books of A’s Parergon iuris, a large number of brief notes on a miscellany of legal topics were published in Lyon in 1539. To these were added seven more books in 1543.

While dedicating himself principally to law, A. also produced writings on non-legal matters. In 1517 his re-evaluation of Tacitus as compared to Livy appears in a letter added to the pirated edition of Tacitus’ Annales by Alessandro Minuziano. A’s Emblemata dedicated to Konrad Peutinger, first appeared in 1531. It contains a collection of allegories and symbols reproduced with engravings often by known artists – 140 in the main edition, 211 in the Padova edition of 1621 – accompanied by A’s moral commentaries in Latin verses. The collection was in the medieval Christian tradition of taking mythological, fabulous, historical, and literary subjects from the classical world. The work enjoyed 170 editions and translations into German, French, Italian, Castilian, and English. A.’s versatility is also shown in a number of occasional epigrams as well as unpublished Latin compositions, such as a translation of Aristophanes’ The Clouds (1518) and a comedy, Philagyrus, that imitates the Greek playwrights.

While none of A’s works enjoyed the huge printing success of the Emblemata, all of his important works were many times reprinted. Collections of Opera omnia appeared during his lifetime and were updated as he continued to write. Other works were added after his death. His Responsa, some 800 consilia, one of which is included in TUI 1584 (t.12), were first published in Lyon in 1561.

The importance of A. for the legal humanist movement is undeniable. The success of that movement and its profound influence on legal thought, particularly, but not only, in France, is also undeniable. There is also a long tradition, which continues to this day (e.g., D. Osler), of questioning the scholarly methods of the early legal humanists, including those of A. If we are asking the question whether A’s emendations to the vulgate text of the Corpus iuris meet modern scholarly standards, the answer has to be that in many cases they do not. He made too many guesses without firm, and in some cases any, manuscript support. If we ask the question, however, whether his quite profound knowledge of Roman (and Byzantine) history led him to reconstruct the historical meaning of many of those texts, a meaning that had been lost over the centuries, the answer should probably be more positive. His work is hard to evaluate because so much of it is scattered in short pieces. To the extent, however, that we are right in saying that the main thrust of his work was to show how the Roman texts were very much a product of their own time, one has to raise the question, even if it cannot be answered, why his work, and that of those who followed him, attracted so much attention among those who wanted to be, or, in fact, were, practical lawyers or politicians in the first half of the 16th century.

itemt. 4, fol. 304vb; t. 5, fol. 7va; t. 12, fol. 293ra; t. 12, fol. 301vb
 Alexander CareriusCarriero, Alessandro 
10Alfani, Giovanni Battista, b. ?Perugia . . . , d. Perugia 1483 

M. A. Panzanelli Fratoni, in DGI 1:37. A. was the son of Francesco, and, hence, the great-grandson of Bartolo da Sassoferrato, and the brother of the better-known Tindaro. In 1445, A. joined the college of merchants of Perugia. In 1446, he began to write the treatise De arbitris et compromissis (t. 3.1) in which he offers, in thirteen books, a complete account of that institution. In the prologue of the work, A. says that he started to compose it in conjunction with his reading in the universitas scholarium, an indication, particularly when coupled with the work itself, that he had some legal training. He was not one of the teachers salaried by the city, nor was he a member of the college of jurists, but the 15th-century humanist bishop Giovanni Antonio Campano counts him as a close friend of those who were. A. joined a prominent Perugian family by marrying Francesca Baglioni, but died without leaving any surviving children.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 224vb
11Alfani, Tindaro, b. ?Perugia . . . , d. Perugia 1449 

A. Bassani, in DGI, 1.37. A. was the son of Francesco, and hence the great-grandson of Bartolo da Sassoferrato, and the brother of Giovanni Battista. He was a judge in Perugia, and the preface of his Tractatus de testibus (t. 4) suggests that he taught in the university. The De testibus was composed around 1445. It is in the form of a dialogue among Bartolus, Baldus, and Ludovicus Romanus, in which the last-named seems to get the best of the argument. It survives in manuscript in London, BL Arundel 463, and was printed numerous times in the 15th and 16th centuries. A. also wrote a Tractatus in compensationum materia (t. 6.2). The work is divided into ten articles and seems designed for educational purposes; the clarity of its style is notable. It, too, was printed numerous times in the 15th and 16th centuries. Whether A. also composed a Tractatus de decimis (t. 15.2) is less sure. It does not seem to have been printed until its appearance in TUI 1584 where it precedes the Tractatus de decimis, tam feudalibus, quam aliis of Pierre Rebuffi. It was later reprinted with Rebuffi’s work (Köln 1590). A. died, seemingly quite young, of the plague in 1449.

itemt. 4, fol. 147ra; t. 6.2, fol. 250va; t. 15.2, fol. 123ra
 Alfonsus Hoieda de MendocaHojeda de Mendoza, Alfonso 
12Amadei (Amidei), Girolamo (Hieronymus Lucensis, Hieronymus de Luca), b. Siena ca. 1483, d. Lucca 1543 

Not in DGI. M. Rosa, in DBI. A. was trained as a theologian and not as a lawyer. He was a member of the Servite order (O.S.M.), and spent a considerable amount of his life working for the reform of his order. As a writer, he had a taste for controversy. His only known legal work, the De cambiis (t. 6.1), defends the inherent legitimacy of the cambio against those who had argued to the contrary.

itemt. 6.1, fol. 408ra
 Amaedeos a Ponte LombriascusPonte, Amedeo 
 Ambertus de AntramoniaAntramonia, Ambertus de 
13Ambrogio da Vignate, fl. sec. 15 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus, s.n. Vignati, Ambrogio. Italian edit16 describes him as ‘Giureconsulto originario di Lodi, lettore all’Università di Torino. Fiorì nel 1468’. The floruit seems a bit late. He is described in Biondo Flavio’s Italia Illustrata (ed. C. J. Caster, Binghamton, N.Y.: Global Academic Pub. 2005, 1:116, 118) under Lodi as ‘Ambrosius Vignatensis iurisconsultus prestantissimus, bonarumque artium studiis deditissimus’, and as having died in 1463. A. is mentioned as a doctor of canon law at the short-lived branch of the university of Torino in Savigliano in 1435. T. Vallauri, Storia delle università degli studi del Piemonte, 2d ed. (Torino 1875), 67.

itemt. 7, fol. 50rb; t. 11.2, fol. 1ra
 Ambrosius de VignateAmbrogio da Vignate 
 Amedeus Justinus de CastelloGiustini, Amedeo 
 Amici, GiovanniBernardino d’Aquila 
14Andosilla y Arlès, Martín de, b. Peralta [prov. Navarra], d. Navarra 1521 

DBE. A. was an Augustinian, and much more a theologian than a jurist.

itemt. 11.2, fol. 402va
 Andrea CiaffusCiaffi, Andrea 
15Andrea, Buonincontro d’, b. Bologna . . . , d. Bologna 1350 

Not in DGI or CERL Thesaurus. K. Pennington, in MEMJ reports: ‘The oldest legitimate son of Johannes Andreae, Bonincontrus received his doctorate in both laws in 1309 and taught for most of his life side by side with his father at Bologna. In 1347, he appeared briefly at Padua, but returned soon after. Ultimately, he conspired against the Bolognese signory, was uncovered and beheaded in 1350.’

itemt. 5, fol. 45vb; t. 11.1, fol. 5va
 Andreas ab ExeaExéa, André d' 
 Andreas AlciatusAlciato, Andrea 
 Andreas BarbatiusBarbaza, Andrea 
 Andreas HispanusEscobar, André Dias de 
16Angelo degli Ubaldi (Angelus de Perusio), sr., b. ?Perugia 1327/8, d. Perugia 1407 

C. Frova, in DGI 1.68–71. ‘Senior’ to distinguish him from his grandson (c. 1400-1490), also a law professor at Perugia. A. was almost as well-known as his brother Baldo, and like his brother, his production was large.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 142va; t. 4, fol. 75rb; t. 4, fol. 76ra; t. 4, fol. 76va; t. 7, fol. 226va; t. 8.2, fol. 155va
 Angelus de Gambellionibus AretinusGambiglioni, Angelo 
 Angelus de Periglis, de PerusioPerigli, Angelo 
17Angleberme(s), Jean Pyrrhus d’, b. Orléans ca. 1480, d. Milano 1521 

A. Wijffels, in DHJF. A noted humanist, A. was a professor of law at the university of Orléans and ended his life as a member of the sovereign council of Milano. He wrote on French customary law as well as on the ius commune.

itemt. 1, fol. 135va; t. 4, fol. 73ra; t. 8.2, fol. 154rb; t. 9, fol. 474ra; t. 14, fol. 338ra; t. 14, fol. 342ra; t. 14, fol. 366rb; t. 14, fol. 402vb; t. 16, fol. 202ra
18Anguissola, Giovanni degli, b. Cesena sec. 13/2, d. . . . sec. 14/incipiente 

Not in DGI. L. Prosdocimi, in DBI (3 [1961]). There is more bibliography but less biography in MEMJ, s.n. Johannes de Anguissola. The authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists him as ‘Aguselli, Giovanni degli’, which is simply a translation of ‘Joannes de Agusellis’, the name by which he is known in the only work attributed to him that it is in print, De protestantibus (t. 17). Both Guido de Baysio and Alberto Gandino mention him as their teacher. A. seems to have taught at Padova and Bologna, perhaps at Paris. Other than the De protestationibus, an apparatus, or a part of an apparatus, of his on the Liber extra survives in manuscript. He is probably the author of the shorter version of the De sponsalibus, attributed to Giovanni d’Andrea in the incunabula, while Prosdicimi posits that Giovanni was the author of the longer version, usually called De sponsalibus et matrimonio.

itemt. 17, fol. 221ra
19Aniñón, Miguel de, b. ?Zaragoza 1528, d. ?Zaragoza 1596 

CERL Thesaurus. Not in DBE, at least not with this Christian name. The dates are taken from the authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, and we have not been able to verify them. The suggested place is derived from the only printed work attributed to him. The cover page of what seems to be the first edition of the De unitate ovilis et pastoris (Zaragosa 1578) (t. 13.2) identifies him as ‘doctor decretorum Caesaraugustanum et sancti officii consultor’.

itemt. 13.2, fol. 23vb
 AnonymousAuctor incertus 
20Antiboul, Pierre, b. Le Cannet-des-Maures [dép. Var] . . . , fl. 1303 X 1340, d. ?Marseille a. vi.1357 

A. Gouron, in DHJF; C. Donahue and D. Coleman, in MEMJ.

itemt. 12, fol. 19rb
21Antonino (Pierozzi), saint, archbishop of Florence, b. Firenze 1389, d. Firenze 1459 

A. D’Addario, DBI 3 (1961). A. was a Dominican. He wrote a Summa theologiae or Summa moralis, which is largely devoted to moral and legal questions and which was printed many times. He also wrote a Chronicon and was, of course, active in ecclesiastical politics.

itemt. 7, fol. 78va
 Antoninus Archiepiscopus FlorentinusAntonino (Pierozzi) 
22Antonio (Bencioli) da Cannara, b. Cannara ?1375 X 1380, d. Recanati 1451 

F. Ciapparoni, DGI 2.83–84; R. Abbondanza, DBI 3 (1961 542-3. A practicing administrator and not an academic, A. was well-known in his time as an author. A number of his works remain solely in manuscript including an important De potestate papae supra concilium generale contra errores Basilienses.

itemt. 5, fol. 39ra; t. 11.1, fol. 195rb; t. 11.1, fol. 308rb
23Antonio da Budrio (Antonius de Butrio), b. Bologna ca. 1360, d. Bologna 1408 

O. Condorelli, in DGI 1.80–3 (who revises the traditional birthdate of 1338 to the one given above); K. Pennington, in MEMJ, s.n. Antonius de Butrio. For this well-known canonist, see further the Ames Foundation’s introduction to its online publication of A.’s works and the references given there.

itemt. 4, fol. 50ra
 Antonius ColumbaColomban, Antoine 
 Antonius Corsetus SiculusCorsetti, Antonio 
 Antonius de CanarioAntonio (Bencioli) 
 Antonius de Mattheis RomanusMattei, Antonio 
 Antonius de PraetisPreti, Antonio 
 Antonius de RosellisRoselli, Antonio 
 Antonius FumeusFumée, Antoine 
 Antonius Gubertius CostanusCostanus, Antonius Gubertius 
 Antonius Maria CoratioCorazzi (Coraa, Corazio, Corasi), Antonio Maria 
 Antonius Massa Galesius, civis RomanusMassa, Antonio 
 Antonius Negusanus, FanensisNegusanzio, Antonio 
 Antonius NicellusNicelli, Antonio 
 Antonius Piaggius, HispellatisPiaggia, Antonio 
24Antramonia, Ambertus de [?Gandino, Alberto, fl. 1281 X 1310] 

Not in any of the standard biographical dictionaries or authority files. It has recently been suggested that the name, which is known only from his supposed authorship of the work in t. 11.1, is a corruption of Albertus de Cremona, i.e., Albertus Gandinus. M. Semeraro, ‘Osservazioni in margine al “Tractatus de Tormentis”’, Initium, 4 (1999) 479–99. See M. Valerani, Medieval Public Justice (Washington, DC 2013) 55 n. 88.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 306rb
25Arce de Otálora, Juan, b. Valladolid 1510 X 1515, d. Valladolid 1561 

CERL Thesaurus. The dates and place are taken from the authority file of the Bibliothèque nationale. DBE is more cautious, dating his birth to sec. 16/1, not giving a place for his death, and describing him as ‘oidor o juez de la Real Chancilleria de Valladolid’ and of Granada, ‘jurista’, ‘humanista’, and ‘tradista’.

itemt. 16, fol. 213va
26Arceriis (Ancheriis, Archeriis), Francesco de, fl. 1402 X 1476 

Not in CERL Thesaurus. K. Pennington, in MEMJ, s.n. Franciscus de Arceriis with an alternative name of Franciscus de Ancheriis to whom he ascribes the De fide catholica (t. 14), a work that appears in print, so far as we can tell, only in Tractatus 1549 and TUI 1584 under the name ‘Franciscus Episcopus Squillacensis’. Eubel has a Franciscus de Ancheriis (Arceriis), whom he describes as a doctor in utroque, as bishop of Squillace (prov. Catanzaro) from 1418 to 1476. His successor as bishop of Squillace was also named Francesco (Franciscus ?Cajetani, 1477–1480). That the latter is not the author of the De fide catholica is indicated by the fact that that the work, an encyclical letter from the bishop to his diocese, is dated in 1474. (Here we must disagree with E. Cortese, ‘Sulla scienza giuridica a Napoli tra Quattro e Cinquecento’, Scuole diritto e società nel mezzogiorno medievale d’Italia [Catania 1985] 1.87, who attributes the work to the latter. He has seen the manuscript, as we have not, but he does not give the dating clause, which we have no reason to believe that the printers got wrong.) On 26 February 1402 a ‘Franciscus de Archeriis fil. d. Bertucii de Archeriis mil. egr. de Calabria’ was promoted to the grade of doctor of civil law at Padova. The promotors included Bartolomeo de Saliceto and Francesco Zabarella. A Gloria, Monumenti della Università di Padova, 1318-1405 vol. 2 (Padova 1888) 395-6. In 1416, Joan II of Napoli granted an abatement of taxes to the ‘university’ (probably the city thought of as in its corporate capacity) of Monopoli (prov. Bari) through her judge Francesco Archerio di Catanzaro (prov. Catanzaro), who is described as a doctor of both laws and a knight (and, hence, presumably, not yet a churchman). F. Muciaccia, Il libro rosso della città di Monopoli Commissione provinciale di archeologia e storia patria. Documenti e monografie, 4 (Bari 1906) no. 31, p. 103-105. This is probably the student of Saliceto and Zabarella; it may not be the bishop, but it is likely that it is. In any case, it would seem that A. was in his 90s when he wrote the letter. His concern is with a group whom he calls ‘Cerretani’, whom he regards as heretical or, at least, heterodox. The work contains a number of citations to canon law, suggesting that the author was, at least at one time, a student of the topic.

itemt. 14, fol. 2ra
27Arias de Valderas, Francisco, b. ?León s. ?15/exeunte, fl. ca. 1533, d. . . . 

Not in DBE. CERL Thesaurus. C. Donahue, in MEMJ, s.n. Franciscus Arias. Little is known of A’s life, and much that is said about him is demonstrably wrong or questionable. We begin with ourselves. For some time we identified A. with the Jesuit spiritual writer Francisco Arias de Párraga (1534–1605). They are not the same person. Italian edit16 says that A. was born at the end of the 16th century, and dates him to second half of that century. The first statement cannot be right because the first edition of his only known work, Libellus de belli iustitia iniustitiaue, was printed in Roma in 1533. (Edit16 also spells the first word of the title as ‘Lbellus’, followed by an exclamation point, but, as can be seen from online version of the work, that is a mistranscription, although it is found in many places on the internet.) That A. was born at the end of the 15th century is possible but not confirmed. He himself says in the first edition of the Libellus that he comes from León and that he is doctor in utroque. His toponym suggests the town of Valderas (prov. León). That he studied in the seminary there, as is sometimes said, seems impossible if we accept the standard accounts of that seminary which say that it was founded in 1738 (Spanish Wikipedia). With so much out there that is wrong about A., we hesitate to repeat two items reported by the 17th-century bibliographer Nicolás Antonio that are plausible but unconfirmed: that A. studied at the Collegio di Spagna in Bologna and that he was a member of the Dicastery of Santa Clara in Napoli.

The Libellus is dedicated to Estaban Gabriel Merino, a prelate long associated with León and with Carlo I (V). Merino became cardinal-priest of San Vitale in 1533, but died in 1535 (online biography). The dedication suggests, though it does not quite say, that A. wrote the work in response to a consultation. That A. thought that the cardinal needed this advice is possible if we consider how deeply the latter was involved in war.

itemt. 16, fol. 325ra
 Arnaldus AlbertinusAlbertini, Arnaldo 
 Arnulphus RuzaeusRuzé, Arnoult 
 Ascanius Clementius AmerinusClementini, Ascanio 
28Auctor Incertus 

(1) De cessionibus (t. 3.2). The ed. Köln 1591 seems to be slightly better printed, but has no further clues as to the author. (2) De diversis contractibus usurarum (t. 7, f. 50rb). The work also appears in Tractatus 1549, t. 5. A work of the same title appears in a manuscript dated to 1476 in a private collection (now probably in Leiden) (NRHD, 16 (1892) 361) and in another manuscript of approximately the same vintage sold at Christie’s in 2003. (3) The Tractatus de crimine laesae majestatis (t. 11.1) is also found in Tractatus 1549 (t. 10, fol. 17r–26r), also attributed to auctor incertus. We have found no other printings of it. (4) The Tractatus seu forma procedendi contra de haeresi inquisitos (t. 11.2) is actually an extensive commentary by Francisco Peña on a tract by that title, which he says is anonymous. There is much of Peña in this work and sufficiently little of the original tract that we have been unable to identify it. There seems to be a reference to it in J. Hansen, Quellen und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des Hexenwahns und der Hexenverfolgung im Mittelalter (Bonn 1901) 66 n. 2 that could be pursued even if one doubts Hansen’s dating of the treatise to the Middle Ages. (5) Schedulare magistratuum civilium. De tribuno celerum, et principe Palatii Franciae (t 16). See Cotereau, P.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 77va; t. 7, fol. 70rb; t. 11.1, fol. 23vb; t. 11.2, fol. 408rb; t. 11.2, fol. 410rb; t. 16, fol. 184ra
29Aufréri, Étienne, b. Poitiers ca. 1458, d. Toulouse 1511 

P. Arabeyre, in DHJF; C. Donahue, in MEMJ, s.n. Stephanus Auffrerius. A.’s vernacular surname is frequently given as Aufrère or d’Aufrère, but that seems to be wrong. Professor of canon law at the university of Toulouse and ultimately a member of the parlement of Toulouse, he is known for an edition of a collection of decisions from the archiepiscopal court of Toulouse and for greatly expanding a 14th-century work on the styles of the parlements.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 355va; t. 4, fol. 140ra; t. 11.1, fol. 329va; t. 13.1, fol. 126ra; t. 16, fol. 297ra
 Augustinus Dulcetus, VeronensisDolcetti, Agostino 
 Aymarus Rivallius AllobrigisRivail, Aymar de 
 Aymonis CravettaCravetta, Aimone 
30Azzi, Tommaso, b. Fossombrone 1561, d. . . . p. 1603 

Not in DGI or DBI. A’s birth date comes from Italian edit16. We have been unable to verify it, but it is plausible. A’s De ludo scacchorum in legali methodo tractatus (t. 7) was first printed in Pesauro in 1583. 1603 saw the publication of his De infirmitate (Venezia, Giunta), which contains a dedicatory epistle to Ottavio cardinal Bandini, who was at the time papal legate in the Marche. The title page of that work describes him as ‘Forosempronienis iurisconsultus, eques, et comes aulae Lateranensis, et rotae Piceni [i.e., Ascoli Piceno] auditor’. To him is also attributed the authorship of Discorsi nuovi delle prerogative de curiali antichi et moderni Cortigiani, published in Venezia in 1600.

itemt. 7, fol. 168vb
 B. BrissoniusBrisson, Barnabé 
31Baeza, Gaspar de, b. Baeza [prov. Jaén] 1540, d. Granada 1569 

CERL Thesaurus gives the birth date but no death date and adds that Baeza operated, at least in part, in Granada. His surname is a toponym in Andalusia (prov. Jaén). A stub in Spanish Wikipedia says that he died in 1569. Normally that would be hard to believe, but that he died before he was thirty is confirmed by Jöcher (1750) 1.707, who adds that B’s works were published posthumously by his brother Melchior. The dates are now confirmed in DBE.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 204ra; t. 6.2, fol. 405va
32Bagarotto (Bagarottus de Coradis), fl. 1200 X 1246 

E. Conte, in DGI 1.142–3; R. Abbondanza, DBI 5 (1963) 170–4. B. taught at Bologna, but contemporary documents show that he was active in practice. Much passed under his name, particularly in the area of procedure, that were slight reworkings, if reworkings at all, of the works of others.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 128va; t. 4, fol. 298rb; t. 13.2, fol. 63ra; t. 13.2, fol. 131vb
33Balbo (Balbi, de Balbis), Giovanni Francesco (Gianfrancesco, Francesco), b. Avigliana [now in città metropolitana di Torino], ca. 1480, d. . . . p. 1518 

F. Aimerito, in DGI 1.143-4. C. Donahue, in MEMJ. B. was a Piedmontese originally from Avigliana who became a citizen of Torino. He was probably a member the ancient Balbo family of Chieri and was the brother of the professor and high magistrate Niccolò. B. studied with Giacomino da San Giorgio and Claudio di Seyssel at the university of Torino, where he received his doctorate in utroque in 1503 and where he taught civil law around 1510. He was called by the duke Carlo II to be part of the Consilium Thaurini residens. B. belonged to a group of prominent teachers who were deeply involved in forensic activities and in the service of the duke in the decades when the university flourished before the French domination of 1536–59.

B. is the author of the well-known Tractatus de praescriptionibus, dedicated to Carlo II in 1510 and published in Torino in 1511, which provides, in the appendix, a repetitio on l. Celsus D. De usucapionibus seu usurpationibus (D. 41, 3, 27). It was reprinted often in the 16th and into the 17th century, and achieved widespread distribution by its inclusion in TUI 1584 (17.52ra-121va). The Tractatus de praescriptionibus is very much in the style of the mos italicus. It is well suited to legal practice since it systematically organizes the arguments, reducing the vast available sources into a handy compendium. It thus took its place in a body of works aimed at simplifying the current law in response to what Amerito describes as a crisis of the ius commune in the Savoyard states in the early 16th century. With the De praescriptionibus B. became an auctoritas in the late ius commune on the question on the legal effect of the passage of time.

itemt. 17, fol. 52ra
34Baldo degli Ubaldi (Baldus de Ubaldis, Baldus Perusinus), b. Perugia 1327, d. Pavia 1400 

E. Cortese, in DGI 1.149–52. Perhaps the best-known jurist of the second half of the 14th century, B.’s production was large. He commented on both Roman law and canon law and wrote numerous consilia.

itemt. 2, fol. 86ra; t. 2, fol. 155ra; t. 3.1, fol. 364va; t. 4, fol. 71ra; t. 6.1, fol. 2ra; t. 6.1, fol. 38rb; t. 7, fol. 224vb; t. 8.1, fol. 201rb; t. 8.2, fol. 323ra; t. 11.1, fol. 200vb; t. 17, fol. 18rb
 Baldus de BartholinisBartolini, Baldo 
 Baldus de Periglis PerusiniPerigli, Baldo 
 Baptista de Sancto BlasioBattista da Sambiagio 
 Bar, Hermann vonHermannus Barensis 
35Barbaza, Andrea, b. Messina ca. 1410, d. Bologna 1479 

G. G. Mellusi, in DGI 1.165–66; K. Pennington, in MEMJ, s.n. Andreas Barbatius. B. left his native Sicily to study, first, medicine and then law at Bologna. His writings are more in the field of canon law than than of civil, but he taught both.

itemt. 4, fol. 130va
36Bardi, Marcantonio, b. Siena . . . , fl. 1563/4, d. . . . 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus. B. is said to have been a professor at Siena. The sparse biographical details come from the Italian Edit16. His De tempore utili is his only known work.

itemt. 5, fol. 210vb
37Baron, Éguiner-François, b. Saint-Pol-de-Léon ca. 1495, d. Bourges 1550 

G. D. Guyon, in DHJF 5153; CERL Thesaurus.

itemt. 6.2, fol. 365vb
 Bartholomaeus de SalycetoBartolomeo da Saliceto 
 Bartholomeus BellencinusBellencini, Bartolomeo 
 Bartholomeus Ceppola VeronensisCipolla, Bartolomeo 
 Bartholomeus de Spina (Spineus)Spina, Bartolommeo 
 Bartholomeus TaegiusTaegio, Bartolomeo 
38Bartolini, Baldo, b. Perugia 1409 or 1414, d. Perugia 1490 

S. Zucchini, in DGI. B. taught for many years in Perugia and occasionally elsewhere. He was also active in public affairs in Perugia. His best-known work is his Tractatus de dotibus (t.9).

itemt. 9, fol. 185r
39Bartolo da Sassoferrato (Bartolus de Saxoferrato ), b. Venatura near Sassoferrato 1313/14, d. Perugia 1357 

S. Lepsius, in DGI 1.177–180. Perhaps the best–known, of the medieval civilian jurists, Bartolus’ name sold books, and printers attributed much to him that he did not write. Even manuscript attributions are not totally reliable. Modern scholarship has in many cases reached a consensus about what items are genuinely Bartolan, and we attempt to report that consensus under the individual items.

itemt. 2, fol. 158ra; t. 2, fol. 163ra; t. 3.1, fol. 294va; t. 3.1, fol. 330va; t. 3.2, fol. 140va; t. 4, fol. 63rb
40Bartolomeo da Saliceto, b. Bologna ca. 1345, d. Bologna 1411 

G. Speciale, DGI 1.185–187.

itemt. 6.2, fol. 411ra
41Bartolus de Hucio, fl. sec. ?14/ineunte 

CERL Thesaurus suggests ‘Uzzo, Bartolomeo da’ and that he operated at the beginning of the 14th century, an attribution and date that is supported by the authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. We have, as yet, found no further information.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 211vb; t. 8.1, fol. 437va
42Barzi, Benedetto, b. Perugia a. 1380, d. Ferrara 1459 

F. Treggiari, in DGI 1.187–8. B. taught at Perugia. He is not Benedetto da Piombino (de Pisis, de Aputheo/Puteo, Dal Pozzo) (mid-14th c. – 1410), for whom see P. Maffei, in DGI 1.216–17, s.n. Hence, it is the alias in the Latin name in TUI 1584 that turns out correctly to identify the author.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 141vb; t. 6.2, fol. 340ra; t. 8.2, fol. 24ra
43Battista, da Sambiagio, b. Padova ca. 1425, d. ?Verona ?Brescia 1492 

M. Piccialupi, DBI 7 (1970). Mentioned in DGI only as a teacher of Diplovatazio. The CERL Thesaurus lists his name as either Baptista de Sancto Blasio or Sancto Blasio, Johannes Baptista de. The toponym that he seems to have used may be San Biagio di Callata in the Veneto.

itemt. 1, fol. 185ra; t. 3.1, fol. 296ra; t. 3.2, fol. 43ra; t. 9, fol. 450ra; t. 18, fol. 260vb
44Baudouin (Baudoin, Bauduin), François, b. Arras 1520, d. Paris 1573 

A. Wijffels, in DHJF 1.69-70. A well-known French humanist jurist, who also tried to negotiate between Catholics and Protestants during the French religious wars. He lead a peripatectic life, teaching privately and publicly in numerous places, none of them for very long. As a jurist, he is said to have invented the method of palingensia, reconstructing older works from the surviving fragments in the Corpus Iuris.

itemt. 1, fol. 225vb; t. 6.1, fol. 268va
 Baviera, MarcantonioBonetti, Marcantonio 
 Beatus Bernardinus AquilanusBernardino d’Aquila 
45Becchini (Bettini), Galvano, b. Bologna sec. 14/1, d. Bologna a. 1395 

L. Prosdocimi, DBI 7 (1970). Known in the literature as Galvanus de Bononia, G. taught canon law at Padova, Pécs (in Hungary), Bologna, Padova (again), and finally Bologna (again). The last series of moves was occasioned by the beginnings of the schism in 1378. He is mentioned in DGI 2.3082, s.n. Bettino da Bologna.

itemt. 1, fol. 189ra
46Bellamère, Gilles de, b. Château-du-Loire [dép. Sarthe] 1342, d. Avignon 1407 

H. Gilles, in DHJF.

itemt. 15.1, fol. 190va
47Bellencini, Bartolomeo, b. Modena 1428, d. Roma 1478 

E. Tavilla, in DGI 1.206. C. Donahue, in MEMJ. B. was a pupil of Francesco Accolti in Ferrara in 1459. Between 1465 and 1467, he taught canon law in Ferrara where he was a colleague of Felino Sandeo. He then moved on to the university of Bologna, where he was in competition with Andrea Barbazza. In 1472 he was called to Roma to be an auditor of the Rota.

In addition to repetitiones and some decisiones written as an auditor of the Rota, B. wrote Apostillae sive additiones ad Nicolai de Tudeschis et Antonii de Butrio Commentaria super Decretalibus (Venezia 1477) and a treatise De caritativo subsidio et decima beneficiorum (Modena 1489; Roma 1544).

itemt. 15.2, fol. 147vb
48Belleperche, Pierre de, b. ca. ?1247, d. Lucenay-sur-Allier [now Villeneuve-sur-Allier, dép. Allier] 1308 

F. Soutemeer and M. Bassano, in DHJF.

itemt. 10.2, fol. 2ra
49Belli, Pierino, b. Alba 1502, d. Torino 1575 

C. Donahue and Mary Beth Chopas, in MEMJ. G. S. Pene Vidari in DGI, 1.207–8 offers an assessment of B. that we find convincing and that we attempt to summarize here: B. was from a prominent family of Alba (prov. Cuneo), who were in military service to the marquis of Monferrato. B., however, dedicated himself to the study of law at Perugia. From 1533, he practiced law in service to Monferrato and the Empire, filling various offices in an area devastated by the local wars and by the widespread clashes between the French and the imperial forces. In 1546, he was appointed uditore generale di guerra (roughly, judge advocate general) of the imperial army operating in the area. In 1560, after the peace of Cateau Cambrésis, Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy appointed B. a councillor of state. He was successful in his work as consultant and diplomatic representative, and was known for his ability to handle difficult and complex international legal disputes. As a result, he rose socially and economically, and acquired land. He and his son became members of the ruling elite of the time.

B’s only known work, De re militari et bello, finished in 1558, published in Venezia in 1563 and reprinted in TUI 1584, was the product of long experience. As an author B’s method was that of Italian humanism rather than Italian Bartolism. He knew the sources, both ancient and more recent, that could be applied to the problems of military law and war, but his practical experience freed him from the excessively academic. His experience had convinced him that much in the practice of war in his time was morally and legally unacceptable especially as it concerned non-combatants. In his hands humanism became what we would call humanitarian, as he sought in his treatise to use reason and law to curb the excesses to which war had led in his time.

B. was aware that political changes in his time called for a revision of the traditional approaches to international relations. He was on the imperial side, but he recognized the plurality of princes. Unlike Alberico Gentili and Hugo Grotius, however, who later wrote on the same topics, B. did not recognize religious pluralism, but remained an orthodox Catholic. His understanding, moreover, was that of a writer of the mid-16th century. He did not foresee the new international legal order that would emerge in the 17th. He relied on the traditional principles of aequitas and naturalis ratio, making his vision more medieval than totally modern.

The De re militari deals with the question of the legitimacy of war. It distinguishes between ius ad bellum and ius in bello, and thus anticipates a distinction usually attributed either to Gentili or Grotius. He strongly supported the rights of the neutrals and the legal duty not to harm defenseless persons or goods unrelated to the belligerents. He supported the use of arbitration to prevent the use of force. In all these ways he anticipates much that is still with us in the field of public international law.

B’s De re militari seems to have been forgotten after the 16th century. It was rediscovered in the 20th with the publication of the Oxford edition of 1936 with an English translation (intr. Arrigo Cavaglieri) in the Classics of International Law series, followed by that of Alba in 2006 with and Italian translation (intr. Benedetto Conforti), and finally that of Alba in 2007 with a French translation by Dominique Gaurier.

itemt. 16, fol. 335rb
 Belviso, Jacobus deIacopo di Belviso 
 Bencioli, AntonioAntonio (Bencioli) 
 Benedictus Barzis, PerusinusBarzi, Benedetto 
 Benedictus Bonius, CortonensisBoni, Benedetto 
 Benedictus de Plumbino, alias de BarzisBarzi, Benedetto 
 Benedictus de Vadis de foro SemproniiVadi, Benedetto 
 Benevenutus Straccha, patritius AnconitanusStracca, Benvenuto 
50Benincasa, Cornelio, b. Perugia . . . , d. . . . 1603 

Not in DGI. CERL Thesaurus. C. Donahue, in MEMJ. Details about B’s origins, early life, and education are sparse. Italian edit16 says that he was sometimes called ‘degli Ansidei’, that he was born in Perugia, and that he died in 1603. We have been unable to confirm these details, but they are plausible. B. was probably a doctor in utroque. He is listed on the website of the university of Perugia as a member of the faculties of both canon and law, probably from 1560 and again in 1579. A more detailed sampling from the faculty registers confirms that he did teach both disciplines. O. Scalvanti, ‘L’esame di laurea di Alberico Gentile’, Annali della Facoltà di giurisprudenza dell’università di Perugia, 8 (1898) 47–48.

A bit more about B’s career can be reconstructed or inferred from his published works. His De paupertate ac eius privilegiis (TUI 1584 t. 18) was first published in Perugia in 1562 with the subtitle: ‘In quo inter plurima quae recensentur specialia miserabilibus personis indultae: facillimus subijitur modus et ordo adeundi haereditates cum beneficio legis et inventarij, tam ex iure communi quam municipali deptōptus [recte ‘depromptus’]’. The work was reprinted, with works by other authors, in Köln in 1582. In 1572 (again in Perugia), he published a Tractatus ad titulum de constitutionibus, to which was added a brief tract De alluvione. In the dedicatory epistle he describes himself as teaching canon law, presumably at Perugia. After 1584 he published an Apologia boni publici de non constituendo consanguineos cogi pro bannitis de non offendendo cavere (Perugia 1587), a Tractatus de dote (Perugia 1590), and Ad rub. & . 1. I. ff. Solu. matri. [D.24.3 and D24.3.1] praelectiones quotidianae (Perugia 1590). The last two may be same work, but nothing of the Tractatus de dote seems to be available online. The title page of the Praelectiones (1590) says that he was teaching civil law in the afternoon. This is probably enough to surmise that he was teaching and writing in Perugia throughout a quite long career. After his death, the De constitutionibus was reprinted (Speyer 1608).

itemt. 18, fol. 138vb
 Bermondus ChoveroniusChoveron, Bermond 
51Bernardino d’Aquila (da Fossa, né Giovanni Amici), saint, b. Fossa 1421, d. Aquila 1503 

R. Pratesi, in DBI s.n. Amici, Giovanni. B. was a well-known Franciscan preacher and writer, who, after having received a doctorate in law at Perugia, took the name Bernardino in religion after the famous Franciscan saint Bernardino da Siena. There can be little doubt that he is the author of the treatise, or extract from a sermon, that is printed in t. 9. The only objection would be that Bernardino was not officially declared a saint until 1828, but he seems to have been regarded as such by his order long before that.

itemt. 9, fol. 113ra
 Bernardinus AquilanusBernardino d’Aquila 
 Bernardinus RutiliusRutilio, Bernardino 
52Bernardo da Como (né Bernardo Rategno), b. Como ca. 1450, d. ?Como 1511 X 1515) 

V. Lavenia, in DBI, s.n. Rategno, Bernardo (vol. 86, 2016). B. probably had a formation as a jurist, but he lectured on the Sentences at Roma in 1474. He was prior of a number of Dominican houses. In 1505, he became prior of the Dominican house in Como and the inquisitor for the region. The region was known for its persecution of witches, but we lack evidence as to how much B. was involved in the executions that took place during his time and shortly afterwards. His manual for inquistiors with the accompanying tract De strigiis (t. 11.2) was not published until 1566.

itemt. 11.2, fol. 333va; t. 11.2, fol. 348ra
 Bernardus ComensisBernardo da Como 
 Bernardus LaurentiusLauret, Bernard 
53Bertachini (Bertacchini), Giovanni, b. Fermo [prov. Marche] ca. ?1448, d. Fermo sec. 15/exeunte X 16/ineunte 

M. Caravale, in DGI. Basic biographical details about B. are hard to find. He is said to have taken a doctorate in utroque in 1465. That date is hard to reconcile with his supposed birth date, unless we imagine that he was some kind of prodigy. He does not seem to have taught, but is recorded as having served as a judge or in other types of public office in Siena, Tolentino, Firenze, and Cesena. His last office seems to have been as consistorial advocate in Rome during the pontificate of Sixtus IV (1471–1484). He is best known for his treatise De gabellis (t. 12).

itemt. 12, fol. 51vb; t. 13.2, fol. 301va
54Bertrand, Pierre, b. Annonay ca. 1280, d. Pujaut 1349 

M. Bégou-Davia, in DHJF 104–106; K. Pennington, in MEMJ. B. was bishop of Autun and later a cardinal at Avignon. The toponym Viennensis that appears in his Latin name in TUI 1584 (t. 3) is probably the result of a confusion of B. with the Pierre Bertrand who was archbishop of Vienne from 1352–62. He is correctly identified in what appears to be a duplicate in t. 12. As a jurist, B. is best known for his defense of the ecclesiastical position at the assembly of Vincennes of 1329 (t. 3 and t. 12). His other canonistic works remain in manuscript.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 29va; t. 12, fol. 408v
55Bianchi, Marcantonio, b. Padova 1498, d. Padova 1548 

M. G. di Renzo Villata, in DGI 1.251–2. B. taught at Padova. He is particularly noted for his works in the area of criminal law and procedure.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 138va; t. 3.1, fol. 169rb; t. 11.1, fol. 260vb; t. 12, fol. 275ra
56Blanc, Jean, sec. 13/m. 

G. Giordanengo, in DHJF

itemt. 10.1, fol. 263ra
57Błonie (Ploue, Plowe), Nicolaus de, fl. sec. 15/1. 

Not in MEMJ. J. F. Schulte, in ADB. Little is known of B’s life. That he came from Błonie seems clear. There are two places of the name in modern Poland, one closer to Warszawa, the other closer to Kraków. The former seems more likely granted B’s other associations. ‘Ploue’ and ‘Plowe’, which are more common in the manuscripts and printed editions, would seem to be attempts to Latinize ‘Błonie’. B. is called a ‘doctor decretorum’ in the manuscripts. He preached in Płock, and became the chaplain of the bishop of Poznań. Bishop Stanislaus I of Poznań (1427-1438) commissioned his treatise De sacramentis, which was approved by the chapter and commended to the use of the clergy of the diocese. It is a single work, many times printed. It is broken up into parts in TUI 1584 (t. 14 and 15.2).

itemt. 14, fol. 77ra; t. 14, fol. 91vb; t. 14, fol. 333rb; t. 14, fol. 400ra; t. 15.2, fol. 564va
58Boccacci (de Boccatiis), Verginio, b. Cingoli . . . , fl. 1568, d. . . . 1596 

E. Fabbricatore, in DGI 1.271. B. received his first law degree in 1568. He was a practicing lawyer and writer with a decidedly humanist bent. As might be expected of a practicing lawyer, his method paid more attention to the role and decisions of the courts than did that of his more academic contemporaries. During the pontificate of Gregory XIII, Boccacci was forced to leave Rome. In the early 1580s he was a member of the college of advocates in Macerata, and he probably taught there. He returned to Rome when Sixtus V became pope in 1585 and died there in 1596.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 300vb
59Bohier, Nicolas, b. Montpellier 1469, d. Bordeaux 1539 

G. D. Guyon, in DHJF. B. seems to have received his formation as a jurist at Bourges before it fell under the influence of Alciati, and B. taught there briefly, but was also a practicing lawyer. At the request of Louis XII he made extensive additiones to Jean Montaigne’s (q.v.) De auctoritate Magni Consilii (t. 16), additiones that were more favorable to the Grand Conseil. He served as councillor of the Grand Conseil from 1507 to 1517. Beginning in 1511 he began a career as a parlementaire of Bordeaux, becoming its third president in 1518. He is mentioned as active in the parlement until at least 1536. His best-known work is a collection of decisions of the parlement of Bordeaux, which was published posthumously and many times. The editions sometimes include the De auctoritate with B’s additiones, a collection of B’s consilia, and a number of short tracts, including the De seditiosis (t. 11.1) and De statu et vita eremitarum (13.2). The De potestate legatis a latere (13.2) was originally published in ?Lyon in 1509 as an occasional piece dealing specifically with Georges d’Amboise (cardinal legate from 1503, d. 1510). So far as we can tell, it was reprinted only in Tractatus 1549 and TUI 1584. B’s work was frequently cited by later jurists. Guyon characterizes it as giving primacy to the customary law without losing sight of the secondary authority of the ius commune.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 89va; t. 13.2, fol. 142vb; t. 13.2, fol. 432ra; t. 16, fol. 281rb
60Bolognetti, Alberto, b. Bologna 1538, d. Villach [prov. Carninthia, ÖST] 1585 

G. De Caro, DBI 11 (1969). Not in DGI. B. taught law at Bologna and Salerno, but after the publication of a couple of legal works, he was called into diplomatic service by the pope, and ultimately became a cardinal.

itemt. 1, fol. 289rb
61Bolognini, Lodovico, b. Bologna 1446, d. Firenze 1508 

A. De Benedictis, in DGI 1:278-8. C. Donahue and M. B. Chopas, in MEMJ. B. was born into a family originally from Lucca, the members of which had long been citizens of Bologna. The family were one of the most important and richest in Bologna, connected to the merchant class in sympathy and financially. B. completed his legal studies at the Bolognese studium under Alessandro Tartagni and Andrea Barbazza, receiving his doctorate in civil law in 1469, and that in canon law in 1470. He taught at Bologna at various times throughout his life, lecturing on the Institutes, the Sext, the Clementines, the Code, all three parts of the Digest, and, at the end of his life, the Decretals.

During a brief stay in Ferrara in the 1470s, B. was a judge of appeals there. At the Roman Curia (probably in 1486–89) he was a consistorial advocate, an office that he continued to hold by the authority of Innocent VIII after he had left Roma. He was one of judges of the ‘Anziani Consoli’ in Bologna in 1479, 1487, 1493, and 1506. In 1482 and 1493, he was a judge of the ‘Foro dei Mercanti’. In 1496, he was part of the ‘Gonfalonieri del Popolo,’ who from that year were also called ‘Tribuni della Plebe’. In 1494, on the eve of the Italian wars, the king of France, Charles VIII, named B. a councillor. During the lordship of the Bentivoglio, B. was never among the authoritative ‘Sedici Riformatori dello Stato di Libertà’, but when Julius II ousted the Bentivoglio (1506), he replaced the Sedici with the ‘magistratura dei Quaranta’ of which B. was a member. In the five years of his stay in Firenze, between 1501 and 1505, B. was judge of the Rota and podestà in 1503.

B. legated his patrimonial library to the Libraria nova of San Domenico, a testimony to his ties with the Dominican order, although the Libraria nova ultimately got only a part of B’s library. In 1496, when the ‘mal francese’ was discovered in the Italian peninsula, B. was active along with others in the restoring the hospital of San Lorenzo dei Guerrini, later called San Giobbe, for the treatment of syphilis patients. His pro-papal position did not prevent him from defending the city’s jurisdiction when Julius II wanted to subjugate it completely to his legate. In 1507, at the height of the Italian wars, he was twice appointed ambassador to Louis XII, with the mission to convince the king of France to abandon the Bentivolesco party. From Lyon, where he was in February 1508, B. returned to Roma in May to report to the pope. But at the beginning of July, struck by illness, he left for Bologna. He got worse and had to stop in Firenze in the convent of San Miniato, where he died on 27 July.

Among the many works of which B. was the author or editor, the repetitiones on fragments of the Corpus Iuris Civilis are connected with his teaching and were printed in Ferrara and Venezia in 1475; in Bologna in 1476, 1481, 1490, 1492, 1494, and 1495. They are also found in the Lyon collection of repetitiones of 1533. In particular, the Repetitio sup. § Cato. l. iiii. ff. de uerbo. obliga. (Dig., published in Bologna at the end of 1490, contained a restoration of that text on the basis of the littera Florentina, about which L. had corresponded with the Florentine humanist Angelo Poliziano. At this point that B. realized that philology was required for textual criticism. This realization is evidenced in his handwritten notes, written in 1501–02 while he was in Firenze, on an incunabulum of the Digestum novum (Venezia 1489) (now in Bologna, Bibl. dell’Archiginnasio, 16. D. I. 14). Much textual criticism is contained in his manuscript notebooks, formerly at San Domenico and now in the Archiginnasio (B. 1415, B. 1416, B. 1417, B. 1418 and B. 1567). Among these B. 1418 stands out, a first draft of a project to transcribe the Florentine Pandects, a project not realized until the Torelli edition of 1553. B’s two volumes of Interpretationes novae (Bologna 1494–95, 1497) are also dedicated to textual criticism of the legal books. Since the sixteenth century, the quality of B’s work has been the subject of unflattering judgments. Recently the harshness of those judgments has been questioned (Murano, Balbi, but cf. Osler).

In 1486 and 1489, B. published two works on canon law: Syllogianthon, seu Collectio florum in Decretum and De indulgentiis (t. 14), and, again in 1489, one in utroque iure, the Forma arboris consanguinitatis secundum ius canonicum et civile. In 1499, a volume of his Consilia was published; it had numerous subsequent editions (Venezia 1504 and 1576, Lyon 1556 and 1597, Frankfurt 1597).

B. was also the editor of works of others. In 1475 he published the Consilia of Niccolò Tedeschi and in 1481 those of his teacher Alessandro Tartagni, to which he added a repertorium (1484) in which he devised new criteria for indexing. Both collections were many times reprinted. In 1495, B. published the Consilia of Giovanni da Imola. He edited (Bologna 1489, Torino 1490) the collection recently called the Tractatus deorum: De successionibus ab intestato by Matteo Mattesillani; De beneficiorum permutatione by Pietro degli Ubaldi; De translatione Concilii Basileae ad civitatem Ferrarie of Cataldino de Boncompagni; the quaestio of Signorolo degli Omodei De praecedentia doctoris et militis; and De materia tormentorum by Guido da Suzzara.

Finally, a long and elaborate allegatio on the validity of the statutes of the universitas mercatorum, written in 1482 while B. was a judge of the ‘Foro dei Mercanti’, survives in manuscript (Bologna, Bibl. Univ. Lat. 897) and a work on the Privilegium Theodosii pro universitate Bononiae concessum survives in print (Bologna 1491).

itemt. 14, fol. 141vb
62Bonacossi (Bonacossa), Ippolito, b. Ferrara 1514, d. Ferrara 1591 

R. Volante, in DGI 1.280–281. B. was a scion of a noble family of Mantova that had to flee to Ferrara when the Gonzagas took over Mantova. He apparently did not have to work for a living for a living and, it would seem, he did not. He wrote poetry and treatises on law, the most fanciful of the latter being the one De equo sive caballo (t. 6.1). His most serious treatise, according to Volante, Quaestiones criminales does not appear in TUI 1584.

itemt. 6.1, fol. 108vb; t. 6.1, fol. 121va
63Bonaguida d’Arezzo, b. Arezzo . . . , fl. 1243 X 1258, d. . . . 

M. Semenaro, in DGI. K. Pennington, in MEMJ.

itemt. 14, fol. 173rb
 Bonaguida de AretioBonaguida d'Arezzo 
64Boncompagni, Cataldino, b. ?Visso ?1370, d. Visso p. 1450 

E. Basso, DGI 1.286.

itemt. 7, fol. 349vb; t. 13.1, fol. 15vb
65Bonetti, Marcantonio Baverio de, b. . . . sec. 15/m, d. . . . 1500 

G. Orlandelli, DBI 11 (1969). CERL Thesaurus has Baviera, Marcantonio (1500 – ). If the date is supposed to be a birth date, it is wrong, but the surname is not necessarily wrong. While both his father (a famous professor of medicine) and his older brother used the surname Bonetti, B. does not seem to have used it. He taught at both Pavia and Bologna.

itemt. 4, fol. 364vb
66Boni, Benedetto, b. Cortona 1524, d. . . . ca. 1570 

Not in DGI. CERL Thesaurus (2 entries). The Italian Edit16 reports ‘Nobile nato a Cortona, fiorì nel 1560 e fu giurista a Pisa e Roma’. The birth and death dates come from the authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek.

itemt. 6.2, fol. 162rb
 Bonicontus, BononiensisAndrea, Buonincontro d' 
 Bonus de CurtiliCortili, Buono de 
 Borgninus Cavalcantus, FivizanensisCavalcani, Borgnino 
67Bosc, Jean du, seigneur d’Emandreville, b. . . . , d. . . . 1562 

CERL Thesaurus. Boschaeus is so listed in the catalogue of the Bibliothèque nationale, and the ABES (French Union) Catalogue gives his death date as 1562. Other than the Dikaiogamias (t. 9), his only known work is a list of Venetian magistrates to 1539 that is sometimes appended to Pietro Bembo’s Historiae Venetae. WorldCat. Apparently without realizing the identity of Boscaeus and Bosc, the catalogue of BN on the basis of the list of Ventian magistrates tells us that B. was the seigneur of Emandreville (a suburb of Rouen), and that he was président of the Cour des aides of Rouen. B. mentions that he heard Andreas Alciatus lecture, and he attempts to explicate a passage from Roman law that Alciatus said he could not understand. Dikaiogamias, 2.30, TUI 1584, 9:87va. He was clearly influenced by legal humanism, and he may have had reformist leanings. C. Donahue, ‘The Role of the Humanists and the Second Scholastic in the Development of European Marriage Law from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Centuries’, in J. Ballor, W. Decock, M. Germann, and L. Waelkens, ed., Law and Religion: The Legal Teachings of the Protestant and Catholic Reformations (Refo500 Academic Series, 20; Göttingen 2014) 46, 58, should be corrected to read ‘Emandreville’ in place of ‘Embreville’.

itemt. 9, fol. 85ra
68Bottis, Henricus de, fl. 1529 

CERL Thesaurus. Library cataloguers seem to have settled, without much confidence, on the vernacular name ‘Enrico Botteo’ (the surname does not seem to exist) for ‘Henricus de Bottis’ (ed. 1529). B’s only printed work seems to be De synodo episcopo et de statutis episcopi synodalibus (t. 17), first published in Lyon in 1529, reprinted in Tractatus 1549, and again in TUI 1584, and not, so far as we can tell, again. WorldCat. The 1529 edition does not tell us much about the author, but it does give him the toponym ‘Bressianus’, and the dedicatory epistle of the author is dated ‘ex burgo Bressiano’. This certainly suggests Bourg-en-Bresse (dép. Ain), which is not too far from Lyon. The surname is, perhaps, Italian, ‘degli Botti’. There are modern Italian surnames ‘Botta’, ‘Botti’, and ‘Botto’. Ganino Cognomini Italiani. All three surnames exist in modern France, as does ‘Botte’. Noms de famille. None of them is common, and none of them seems to exist today in the département of l’Ain. We have some confidence in identifying B. with Bourg-en-Bresse. (Brescia would seem to be excluded by ‘ex burgo Bressiano’, by the fact that the topic is one much more typical of France than of Italy, and, perhaps most tellingly, by the fact that the dedicatory epistle is addressed to, among others, Louis de Gorrevod (ca. 1473–1535), bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne and of Bourg-en-Bresse [English Wikipedia] .) We have no confidence in translating B’s name into a modern vernacular; hence we have left it in Latin.

itemt. 13.2, fol. 377vb
69Bovio, Giovanni Battista, b. Regio Calabria . . . , fl. 1565, d. . . . 

CERL Thesaurus. There is no reason to doubt the identification in Italian edit16: B. was born in Reggio Calabria; he was an advocate in Roma, and he was alive in 1565. The first edition of De statutaria urbis praescriptione (t. 17) was published in Venezia in that year. It was reprinted in Venezia 1569, and reprinted again in TUI 1584, and not, so far as we can tell, again. The dedicatory epistle of the 1569 edition identifies B. as coming from Reggio and is to the cardinal camerarius of the Roman church. Not enough of it is available online to confirm that he was practicing in Roma, but it is clear that he was a practicing lawyer at the time.

itemt. 17, fol. 176rb
70Braun, Konrad, b. Kirchheim am Nekar ca. 1495, d. München 1563 

German Wikipedia. B. took his doctorate utriusque at Tübingen in 1522. After a brief but distinguished academic career there, he entered the service of the bishop of Würzburg, was vice-chancellor of the archbishop of Mainz, served as chancellor of two counts of Bavaria, and chancellor for the cadinal-bishop of Augsburg. He was a leading figure in the German counter-reformation, writing extensively on both theological and legal matters. He served on the Reichkammergericht, and participated in the first session of the council of Trent. Shorter biographies of him may be found may be found in NDB and ADB.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 98vb; t. 11.2, fol. 271ra
71Brisson, Barnabé, b. Fontenay-le-Comte 1531, d. Paris 1591 

O. Deschamps, in DHJF. Brisson’s best-known works are his De verborum quae ad ius civile pertinent, a massive dictionary of the Corpus Iuris Civilis, and Le code du roy Henry III, a systematic arrangement of the legislation of the French kings. Both works had a long publication history. Brisson’s life was tragic. A well-known scholar, though never an academic, he was an advocate of the parlement of Paris and ultimately one of its presidents. When the Seize took over Paris in 1589, forcing the king to flee, they appointed Brisson as first president of the parlement. He attempted to broker a settlement between the warring factions, and the Seize had him executed in 1591.

itemt. 9, fol. 97rb; t. 9, fol. 103va
72Bruneau, Jean, b. Orléans or Dampierre [dép. Aube] . . . , d. . . . 1534 

A. Wijfels, in DHJF. B. was professor of canon law at the university of Orléans from at least 1508 until 1531, when he became official and vicar general of Antoine Duprat, the archbishop of Sens. Three of his works were printed: (1) two repetitiones on the decretals, (2) De dignitate et potestate legati, and (3) De sponsalibus et matrimoniis (t. 9).

itemt. 9, fol. 3vb; t. 13.2, fol. 230vb
73Bruni (Bruno), Alberto, b. Acqui Terme 1467, d. Asti 1541 

F. A. Goria, in DGI 1.347–8. B. was a practicing lawyer rather than an academic. He worked for the dukes of Milano, and his works, in many cases, seem to be derived from his practice interests. He is well represented in TUI 1584 t. 17 in a series of treatises, which may originally have been one, on the topic of changes in property that are the object of litigation, for example, adding to property by alluvion or avulsion.

itemt. 2, fol. 165ra; t. 2, fol. 245va; t. 12, fol. 207ra; t. 17, fol. 348vb; t. 17, fol. 348vb; t. 17, fol. 370rb; t. 17, fol. 379va; t. 17, fol. 385vb; t. 17, fol. 389va; t. 17, fol. 395rb; t. 18, fol. 349ra
74Bruni, Francesco, b. . . . , d. . . . ca. 1510 

A. Bettoni, in DGI. B. obtained his doctorate in utroque at Perugia sometime between 1450 and 1464. He was a judge in Siena in 1493–4. It was there that he published, in 1495, his treatise De iudiciis et tortura (t. 11.1), which enjoyed a great printing success. TUI 1584 associates him with San Severino (prov. Macerata). Bettoni says simply that he came from a noble family of that city.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 246rb
75Bruni, Matteo, b. Rimini 1503, d. Rimini 1575 

A. Mazzacane, in DBI vol. 14 (1972). B. had a humanistic formation, but he received his doctorate in utroque at Bologna in 1533. He enjoyed the patronage of Isabella d’Este Conzaga, the marchesa of Mantova. He served in various judicial and governmental positions in the Marche, returning to Rimini in 1546, where he served as podestà in 1549. He was podestà of Cervia in 1557, perhaps also of Ravenna in 1553. A large number of his consilia were published after his death. Perhaps his best-known and most-often printed work is his De cessione bonorum (t. 3.2), which departs from the normal style of academic treatises, not only in its use of rhetoric but also in its focus on contemporary cases.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 179rb
76Cabanis (Cambanis), Vitalis de, fl. 1435 X 1454 

S. Feodale, in DBI s.n. Cabanis, Vitale de (15 [1972]). C. Donahue, in MEMJ. The authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek ventures that C. was a jurist and notary, perhaps born in Napoli, and gives bracketing floruit dates of 1435 X 1454. Italian edit16, s.n. Cambanis, Vitale, is even more cautious: ‘Del sec. XV. Non si hanno notizie sicure. È comunemente ritenuto napoletano, fu giureconsulto e protonotaro di Sicilia, fu al seguito di Renato d’Angiò.’ The floruit dates are, however, quite secure. As Feodale shows, C. is found in documents associated with René d’Anjou from 1435 to 1454, and seems to have been one of his most important councillors in that period. The only reason to doubt that he is the original author of the De clausulis (t. 18) is that all the printed editions, beginning with the incunabulum edition of 1478, spell his name ‘Cambanis’, whereas he himself seems to have spelled it without the ‘m’. Considering the vagaries of spelling in this period, that does not seem to be enough to raise serious doubts. Whether the item printed in TUI 1584 is entirely the work of C. is a more difficult question. The original work is known to have been reworked by Paride dal Pozzo. Some of the printed editions prior to TUI 1584 describe the work as jointly authored by C. and Celse-Hugues Descousu, whose work on the same topic also appears in t. 18. That some of what is in t. 18 under C’s name is his work seems reasonably clear. How much of it is requires more investigation.

itemt. 18, fol. 369rb
77Caccialupi, Giovanni Battista, b. San Severino Marche ca. 1425, d. Roma 1496 

D. Quaglioni, in DGI 1.369–70. C. was an Italian humanist jurist, who was interested in reforming legal studies.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 359vb; t. 3.2, fol. 148ra; t. 6.1, fol. 8ra; t. 6.1, fol. 30rb; t. 7, fol. 155rb; t. 10.1, fol. 10va; t. 15.1, fol. 230va; t. 15.1, fol. 320va
78Calderini, Giovanni, b. Bologna sec. 14/ineunte, d. Bologna 1365 

O. Condorelli, in DGI. K. Pennington, in MEMJ.

itemt. 14, fol. 325rb
79Calefati, Pietro, b. Piombino 1499, d. Pisa ca. 1586 

M. Tocci, in DGI. A. Mazzacane, in DBI 16 (1973). C. Donahue, in MEMJ. C. was born of a family which had moved from Pisa to Piombino (prov. Livorno) when the Florentines conquered Pisa in 1406. He studied both at Siena and Pisa; he earned his doctorate at the latter in 1525, having studied under Filippo Decio, Ormanozzo Deti and Mariano Socini the younger. He took up the position of judge of appeals and of the mercantile court in Lucca in 1527, but ceded that position to a candidate favored by the duke of Urbino. He returned to Piombino where he served as podestà on a number of occasions. In 1530, he went with Jacopo V Appiani, the lord of Piombino, to the coronation of Carlo V at Bologna. The latter named him count palatine and cavaliere aurato in 1537. C. served as auditor of the Sienese Rota in 1541. In 1545, he became a member of the regency council at Piombino for Jacopo VI, whose tutor he became. He served as ambassador both at the imperial court and at that of the Medici.

In 1547, C. appears for the first time as an ordinary professor civil law at Pisa, giving what seem to be repetitiones on Dig. 1.21, Cod. 6.9, Dig. 12.1, and Cod. 2.1. He was a member of the college of jurists at Pisa, and gave many consilia. With the death of his senior colleague at the university, he obtained the chair as first lecturer on civil law in 1555, a position that he held for the rest of his long life. The last document that testifies that he was still alive is dated in June of 1586.

C’s published works all seem to date from the 1560s. They include repetitiones: Enarrationes in aliquot leges Digestorum (Firenze 1564) (included in vol. 1 of Repetitones in varias iuris civilis Leges [Venezia 1608]) and Enarrationes in Rub. C. de edendo (Bologna 1566). 1564 also saw the publication in Lucca of his Speculum verae politicae nobilitatis, an elaboration on the Bartolan distinction between ‘natural’ and ‘political’ nobility. Mazzacane describes this work, which was also translated into Italian, at some length. Both Mazzacane and Tocci date C’s De equestri dignitate et principibus to 1567 (t. 18) without giving it a place of publication. The first edition that we have found is that of Milano 1581. C. is said to have rendered some 600 consilia, but according to Mazzacane and Tocci the only ones that have been found are those that G. B. Ziletti inserted in his Consilia criminalia (Venezia 1582). The online edition of the ed. 1560 suggests that these are not consilia, but decisions that C. rendered when he was auditor of the Sienese Rota (?1541).

itemt. 18, fol. 27va
 Camillus CautiusCauzio, Camillo 
80Campeggi, Giovanni Zaccaria, b. Mantova 1448, d. Mantova 1511 

B. Pieri, in DGI 1.403–4. C. taught at Pavia, Padova, and Bologna. He was also involved in politics, on the papal side. His Latin toponym (Bononiensis) comes either from the fact that his family was Bolognese or from the fact that he taught there.

itemt. 2, fol. 263ra; t. 4, fol. 88rb; t. 9, fol. 274v
81Campeggi, Tommaso, b. Pavia 1481, d. Roma 1564 

B. Pieri, in DGI.

itemt. 9, fol. 113vb; t. 13.1, fol. 398vb; t. 15.2, fol. 531vb; t. 15.2, fol. 532vb; t. 15.2, fol. 533vb; t. 15.2, fol. 533va; t. 15.2, fol. 533va; t. 15.2, fol. 535va; t. 15.2, fol. 536ra; t. 15.2, fol. 536va; t. 15.2, fol. 537ra; t. 15.2, fol. 537vb; t. 15.2, fol. 539rb
82Can (Cane, a Canibus, de Canibus), Giovnni Giacomo, b. Padova 1425, d. Padova 1494 

I. Briocchi and A. Mattone, in DGI 1.407408; K. Pennington, in MEMJ. s.n. Johannes Jacobus de Canibus.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 185vb
83Cancellaria apostolica 

A corporate author created to assign to the list of fees of the Apostolic Chancery that are found in t. 15.1 without an author.

itemt. 15.1, fol. 368ra
84Cantiuncula, Claudius, b. Metz ca. 1490, d. Ensisheim 1549 

Neue Deutsche Biographie (linking to the Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz). C. was Catholic German jurist of the first half of the 16th century, who spent a considerable amount of time in Basel. Though not a religious reformer, he worked on reform both of legal education and of city statutes from a humanist perspective.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 72ra
 Capestrano, CapistranoGiovanni da Capestrano 
85Carafa, Giovanni Antonio, b. Napoli ca. 1408, d. Napoli 1486 

E. Cortese in DGI 1:439-40. C. Donahue and M. B. Chopas, in MEMJ. C., the son of Tommaso, was destined for an ecclesiastical career. He held various chaplaincies at a young age. Probably by 1433, he had received a doctorate utriusque iuris at the studium in Napoli. The head of the Carafa family, Antonio, called ‘Malizia’, had been supporting the Aragonese since 1420. He persuaded Alfonso V ‘the Magnanimous’ of Aragon to promote C. as archbishop of Salerno in 1439, but the move did not succeed, and C. abandoned the clerical state and became a layman. When Alfonso took over Napoli in 1442, he made C. the castellan of Castel Capuano. From 1449 C. was a judge of the Sommaria and a member of the Sacro Regio Consiglio. On the death of Alfonso in 1458, the new king, Ferrante, confirmed C. in all his offices, and made him president of the Sacro Regio Consiglio in 1463.

C. claimed that he had taught at the studium from 1425, but he is documented as teaching civil law there only from 1453. In 1463, he began to lecture in canon law, and did so for the rest of his life. When Jean d’Anjou attacked Napoli in 1459, C. began to work at the studium at a slower pace and only intermittently. In 1460, he conducted a doctoral exam in his own house. In September of 1463, with the defeat of Angevins at hand, King Ferrante wanted to revive the studium. He made C. the vice-chancellor and authorized him give both ordinary and extraordinary lectures. In January of 1465, the studium was solemnly refounded with a papal bull, and C. was charged to reform it. From that time forward he was the star of the school and of canon law in Napoli. At the time of the repression of the conspiracy of the barons in 1486, C. was among the judges who condemned Francesco Coppola and Antonello Petrucci and their two sons to death.

Most of C’s writing remains in manuscript. The only printed work that we know of is his treatise De simonia first published in Napoli (GW 06117; Jodokus Hohenstein, after 1477; reprinted Roma 1556; TUI 1584 t. 15.2). Cortese calls particular attention to C’s repetitio on the regula ‘Peccatum’ (VI 5.12.[6.4]), probably given in 1479–80. Cortese also tells us that C. is known to have written other treatises, De ambitu, De iubilaeo, De restitutionibus, and a commentary on the Justinian’s Code. Many of C’s consilia and repetitiones have recently been discovered in manuscripts at the Vatican (Vat. lat. 5922; Vat. Barb lat. 1493) and at the Collegio di Spagna in Bologna (H. c 173 n. 6).

C. married Caterina d’Acaia. They had eight children, one of whom, Orsina, married the famous Neapolitan jurist Matteo D’Afflitto, who used to cite his father-in-law, distinguishing him from the antiqui doctores.

itemt. 15.2, fol. 116vb
86Carbone a Costacciaro, Ludovico, b. Costacciaro [prov. Perugia] ?1545, d. Venezia ?1597 

Not to be confused with the better-known Ferrarese humanist of the same name, who lived a century earlier, and not in DBI, we have taken our information about C. from J. D. Moss and W. A. Wallace, Rhetoric & Dialectic in the Time of Galileo (Washington, DC 2003) 47–49 (followed [49–110] by a translation of passages from his Introductio ad logicam). E. Puletti, Ludovico Carbone da Costacciaro. Vita, pensiero ed opere (Gualdo Tadino 2013) was unavailable to us. The website of an exhibition held in C’s home-town and curated by Puletti puts his birth-date 13 years earlier. Moss and Wallace seem to have more solid evidence, but they did not know that C’s signature is found in a local cave. It seems more likely that C. did this when he was nineteen than when he was six. Nothing is known of C’s university education and what is known of his earlier formation is guess-work, based on what was possible in his area and on the thanks that offers to teachers in some of his works. It is likely that he studied at the Jesuit college in Roma. He was probably ordained a priest. He wrote widely, mostly on philosophical and theological topics. Most of his works are fairly elementary, leading to the possibility that he taught in one or more Jesuit colleges, though he does not seem to have been a Jesuit. Almost all of his works were first published after 1584. The De pacificatione (t. 12) was first published in Firenze in 1583.

itemt. 12, fol. 249rb
87Carerio, Lodovico, b. Reggio Calabria . . . , fl. 1540 X 1560, d. . . . 

I. Briochi and M. N. Miletti, in DGI. Biographical details about C. are sparse. He is recorded as holding various offices in Reggio Calabria and seems to have been a practicing lawyer throughout his life. He is best known for his Practica causarum criminalium (Neapoli 1546), which enjoyed considerable publishing success. That work seems to have begun life as a repetitio on C.7.65.2, but ultimately devolved into three separate treatises: De appellatione, De indiciis et tortura, and De homicidiis. Later he wrote a treatise De haereticis (t. 11.2), which is sometimes awkwardly combined with the Practica. His works are principally works of the ius commune, but they contain occasional references to the statutes of the Regno.

itemt. 11.2, fol. 42va
88Caron (Charondas), Louis le, b. Paris 1534 X 1536, d. ?Clermont-en-Beauvaisis 1613 

Y. Le Gall, in DHJF 625–628, s.n. Le Caron, Louis (auto-surnommé Charondas par allusion à Charondas de Catane). C. was a well-known French humanist jurist and politique, who wrote extensively on both Roman law and French customary law. He lacks a full-scale modern biography, and as a result basic biographical details are hard to find. We have taken his place of birth from the Nouvelle biographie générale and his place of death from A. Pinvert, Clermontois et Beauvaisis: notes d'histoire et de littérature locales (Paris 1901) 149 (who makes the same complaint about the lack of a modern biography). A brief English-language account, placing him in his time, can be found in N. L. Roelker, One King, One Faith (Berkeley 1996) 32–3. The Godefroy edition of the Corpus Iuris Civilis has many notes and comments by him.

itemt. 1, fol. 267va
89Carriero (Cariero), Alessandro, b. Padova 1545, d. Padova 1626 

S. Oliveri Secchi, in DBI (v. 20, 1977). It is not completely certain that C. is the author of De sponsalibus (t. 9), but he probably is. C. obtained a laureate in utroque at Padova, but he never practiced law nor, although was invited to, did he teach it. He was a priest, and engaged briefly in pastoral work. He was of a noble family and apparently did not lack for funds. He devoted most of his life to his writings. C. wrote about Dante, but his best known work is De potestate Romani Pontificis adversus impios politicos libri duo (Padova 1599). The work is extreme, even for its time. It espouses the direct power of the pope over secular affairs, contrary to the prevailing and developing view in Catholic circles that the power of the pope in such affairs is indirect. Cardinal Bellarmine attacked the work as heretical, and it was put on the index of prohibited books in 1600. C. withdrew from the controversy and devoted the rest of his life to writing a history of Padova. That work was never published, but pieces of it survive in manuscript.

itemt. 9, fol. 61vb
90Casoni, Francesco, b. Oderzo . . . , d. . . . 1564 

S. Parini, in DGI. C. earned a law degree in utroque at Padova in 1527, and after a brief period as an advocate, served in numerous places in the Veneto as an assesor or judge, particularly in criminal cases. His De indiciis et tormentis tractatus duo (t. 11.1) enjoyed considerable publishing success. The work, among other points, offers speculations about the prediction of criminality from physiognomy. At the end of his career he was chief criminal officer in Brescia, where he published another work: De arte et ratione criminum . . . dialogus (1561).

itemt. 11.1, fol. 281ra; t. 11.1, fol. 311ra; t. 11.1, fol. 455rb
91Cassoli, Filippo, b. Reggio Emilia sec. 14/ineunte, d. Pavia 1391 

Mentioned in DGI 1.913, 1991 as a teacher of Raffaele Fulgosio, and as a colleague of Uberto da Lampugnano, at Pavia; A. Dillon Bussi, in DBI. There is no known record of Cs having obtaining his law degrees; it was probably at Padova. He first appears in 1348 as a member of commission to revise the statutes of Milano. He went on to become a famous teacher of civil law at Pavia. He engaged in many diplomatic missions, but his only known writing is the De testamentis, which, if we are to believe the title, was a disputatio that took place in the last year of his life.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 107vb
92Castaldi, Ristoro, b. Perugia . . . , fl. 1532 X 1540, d. . . . 1564 

CERL Thesaurus. Italian edit16, in addition to giving C’s birthplace and death date reports that he taught at Perugia and Bologna. We have not yet been able to confirm the teaching at Bologna or the death date, but have no reason to doubt them. In 1532, C. published in Perugia a volume of annotationes on the Institutes (online). That work rather strongly suggests that he was teaching civil law in Perugia at the time. In 1540, he published in Roma his Tractatus de imperatore, designed to support Charles V (online). It was reprinted in TUI 1584 (t. 16), and not, so far as we can tell, thereafter, but it attracted the attention of John Selden and of a number of modern writers on the political theory of the time. Modern writers, and even some librarians, have a tendency to use the Latin form of C’s name: Restaurus Castaldus.

itemt. 16, fol. 30ra
93Castiglionchio, Lapo da, b. Firenze . . . , d. Roma 1381 

E. Spagnesi, in DGI. M. Palma, in DBI (22 [1979]). C. Donahue and M. B. Chopas, in MEMJ. C. is frequently called ‘il vecchio’ or ‘senior’, to distinguish him from his grandson, a humanist of the early 15th century of the same name. The toponym that serves as their surname is now a neighborhood in Rignano sull’Arno (città metropolitana Firenze) in the Val di Sieve about 20 km. southeast of Firenze. C’s family descended from the Lombard lords of Quona (not precisely identified) in the Val, aristocrats but not high nobility. This family history influenced the ideas that C. expressed in Italian in his Epistola to his son Bernardo (ed. L. Mehus, Bologna 1753; ed. again in Antica possessione con belli costumi: due giornate di studio su Lapo da Castiglionchio il Vecchio (Firenze-Pontassieve, 3-4 ottobre 2003) [Firenze 2005]), a document that is taken to illustrate the intellectual pride of ‘the nobles’.

We first see C. around 1353, when he is studying canon law with Giovanni Calderini in Bologna, but we know that before that he was associated with the circle of Florentine literary friends of Francesco Petrarca (Zanobi da Strada, Francesco Nelli, and Giovanni Boccaccio). They regarded C’s move to law as a kind of apostasy. They continued to share, however, similar social and political views, views that tended to elitism, support of the Guelfs, and of the Florentine oligarchy.

When Firenze reopened its studium in 1357, C., now a doctor, was paid, in some cases quite handsomely, to lecture, at various times, on the Decretals, the Sext, and the Clementines. The payments continued only until 1369–70, but it is possible he continued to teach for free until 1378, the year of his exile. He had illustrious colleagues in Firenze including the Perugian Baldo degli Ubaldi, who was such a good friend that C. was godfather to his son Giovanni in 1360. A list of C’s library survives. On the civil-law side he had only the basics: Azzone, Roffredo, Accursio, Bartolo, and of Corpus iuris civilis only the Institutes. On the canon-law side, he had all the parts of the Corpus iuris canonici that were available in his time and a full representation of the literature: the 13th-century masters, such as Bartolommeo da Brescia, Ostiense, Durante; the masters of the previous generation such as Giovanni d’Andrea, Alessandro dell’Antella, Guillaume de Montlauzun, Jesselin de Cassagnes, and contemporaries such as Giovanni Calderini, Federico Petrucci, Paolo de Liazari.

C. played an important role in Florentine politics. Within the city, he served as: ‘console’, ‘consigliere’, member of the ‘Arte dei giudici e notai’, ‘sapiente’, ‘consigliere del Comune’, and captain of the Guelf party. Outside the city, he was podestà of Monsummano and ambassador to the pope at Avignon, where he gave three discourses that survive; ambassador to Lucca, to Siena, and to Genova. C. went too far, however, in the name of the Guelph party, in the use of warnings (‘ammonizioni’) and proscription, attracting the hatred of many. After the revolt of the Ciompi of 1378, from which he was lucky to escape, he was declared a rebel, sentenced to death, and the confiscation of his property, and ultimately to exile in Barcelona. Permission to kill him was given to anyone who found him elsewhere. But the following year, despite the warnings sent by the Florentine government, he was called to lecture on the Decretals at Padova. Following that he was in Roma, to which the pope had returned from Avignon. Urban VI made him a senator, and C. pronounced the official prayer when the pope invested Carlo di Durazzo with the kingdom of Napoli. It seems that C., with others of the exiles, was planning to intervene in Florentine affairs. In January 1381, a few months before his death of natural causes, there was an attempt to poison him.

The three short unpublished works called Disputationes in studio paduano (a quaestio and two repetitiones) may be connected with his stay in Padova. The repetitio known as Tractatus de hospitalitate (t. 14) certainly stems from C’s experiences in Firenze. In it C. shows that Firenze had the most ancient system of what was elsewhere a new and complicated hospital law. The De canonico portione et de quarta (t. 15.2), which Panciroli suspected was the work of Panormitano, is also, almost certainly, C’s.

C’s Allegationes were his best-known work, as is evidenced by the subsequent reworkings of it. Spagnesi describes them as the first printed consilia. If we define the genre broadly, that is true. But unlike later consilia, these seem to be mostly arguments that had been, or should be, used in court. Antonio da Budrio wrote an abstract of them that the printer Riessinger put in the Florentine edition of 1568, in a work edited by Bernardo Zanchini, a descendant of C’s. The number of the allegations went from 132 (of which some were canceled) to 140. Three years later, Quintiliano Mandosi is said to have purged the text of defects and certainly accompanied each of them with extensive commentary and updates (Ziletti ed., Venezia 1571). For example, in allegation 89 Mandosi’s additio reaches fifteen pages, almost three times as much as the text commented on.

itemt. 14, fol. 162rb; t. 15.2, fol. 193rb
94Castillo de Villasante, Diego del, b. Vaillo (prov. Zamora) sec. 15/exeunte, d. Valladolid 1552 

The birth and death dates and the form of the name are taken from the Diccionario Biográfico Español (DBE), which lists him as ‘Juez, Alcalde de casa y corte, Corregidor, Consejero (Oidor) del Consejo Real de Castilla, Humanista, Fiscal, Presidente del Honrado Concejo de la Mesta’, without giving any dates or sources. Italian Edit-16 says that he was inscribed in the Spanish College at Bologna from 1515 to 1523, and that he lectured in the Studio bolognese in 1521 and lists his repetitio on C.6.14.3 published in Bologna in that year. That he was the author of a glossed version of the Leyes de Toro, published in Medina del Campo in 1553 (but there may be earlier versions) seems clear. That he was also the author of De duello (t. 12), first published in Torino in 1525, seems highly likely. Further one would not want to go without consulting the paper version of DBE.

itemt. 12, fol. 284rb
 Cataldinus de Boncompagnis, de VissoBoncompagni, Cataldino 
 Catellianus CottaCotta, Catelliano 
95Cauzio, Camillo, sec. 16/m 

CERL Thesaurus. The authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek gives floruit dates of 1541 X 1560, says that C. was born in Padova and worked in Cittadella (prov. Padova) and in Venezia, and says that he was a jurist, a translator, and a protonotary apostolic. Italian edit16 ventures no floruit dates, repeats that he was a jurist and a translator, and substitutes ‘archpriest’ (‘ariciprete’) for ‘protonotary apostolic’. It also gives the first printings of ten works that are attributed to him, with first publication dates ranging from 1547 to 1587. The floruit dates come from the Archivio biografico italiano, which is no better than the secondary sources that it cites, some of which are of dubious quality. We have yet to examine the printed copy of G. Casati, Giovanni, Dizionario degli scrittori d’Italia 1 (1926), which is not available online. That C. had a humanist formation seems likely. His first two works (Roma 1547 and Venezia 1548) are translations into Italian of books 9 and 10, respectively, of Ovid’s Metamorphoses. In 1558, 1559, and again in 1559, he published in Venezia three tracts against specific doctrines in the Lutheran catechism. In all three, he identifies himself as a lawyer, and argues in the dedicatory epistle of one that he is expounding the law of God. Two other controversial works about what we would call theology followed in 1561 and 1566: Commentarium iuris Camilli Cautii . . . quo respondet ad iniustas aduersarii sui querimonias, Romae in concistorio publico habitas (Venezia 1561); Obseruationes haeresum, atque censura defensionum Bartholomaei Fontij haeresiarchae (Padova 1566). A Commento sopra alcuni versi della cometa dell’anno M.D. LXXVII.: Doue anco si dimostra la nobilta, e la vera nobilta, e la vera pronontia della lingua italiana (Venezia 1579) (1 fol.) shows that he was alive at least as late as 1577. The Tractatus de pensionibus episcopalibus (t. 15.2) was not published until 1582 with the title De pensionibus episcopalibus in romanum responsum obseruationes & espositiones Camilli Cautii (Girolamo Polo, Venezia). F. Ziletti also published it separately at approximately the same time as TUI 1584, with the title Camilli Cavtii i. c. prot. apost. venetijs iura reddentis Tractatvs de pensionibus episcopalibus. Tum aliorum doctorum sententijs, tum eius annotationibus, & allegationibus, sic re tuenda & explicanda suadente, contextus. It does not seem to have been published after that. More work needs to done, but we would seem to have expanded C’s floruit dates by at least 17 years.

itemt. 15.2, fol. 534ra
96Cavalcani, Borgnino, b. ?Fivizzano 1553, d. . . . 1607 

A. Labardi, DGI 1.494–495.

itemt. 8.2, fol. 334ra
97Cavallini (Caballino), Gaspare, b. Cingoli ca. 1530, d. Cingoli 1589 

G. Santoncini, DGI 1.497–498; J. Becker, DBI 22 (1979) 773–774. For sometime it was thought that C. was simply a pseudonym for Charles du Moulin (1500–1566), q.v., because some of the latter’s works, including, De eo quod interest, were published in Italy under his name and with some editing by him in order to avoid censorship. C. has recently been rehabilitated as a quite distinguished jurist in his own right, and the works that are attributed to him in t. 6 seem to be his.

itemt. 6.1, fol. 82va; t. 6.1, fol. 97ra
 Celsus HugonisDescousu (Dissutus), Celse-Hugues 
98Chiavari, Fabiano, b. ?Genova 1489, d. . . . 1569 

Not in DGI. CERL Thesaurus. The Italian edit16 reports ‘Genovese, agostiniano, procuratore generale dell’ordine’, and gives the dates.

itemt. 6.1, fol. 410va
99Choppin, René, b. Bailleul [dép. Sarthe] 1537, d. Paris 1606 

A. Frigerio, in DHJF.

itemt. 18, fol. 90va
100Choveron, Bermond, b. . . . , fl. sec. 15/m, d. . . .  

CERL Thesaurus. One hesitates to put ‘Bermondus Choveronius’ into any vernacular. The Christian name is rare; the surname so rare as to be almost non-existent. ‘Chover’ is a Portugese verb meaining ‘to rain’. Be that as it may be, C. is described in the first edition (Lyon 1550) of his De publicis concubinariis (t. 11.1) as a doctor of both laws and a canon of Viviers (dép Ardèche). The work itself, the only work that we have found ascribed to him, is a commentary on the decree of 5 Lateran (1514) on the same topic.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 145ra
 Christophorus Lafranchinus VeronensisLanfranchini, Cristoforo 
 Christophorus RoffiniacusRoffignac, Christophe de 
101Ciaffi, Andrea, b. ?Pisa sec. 13/exeunte, fl. 1320 X 1322, d. . . . 

C. Galligani, in DGI, M. T. Napoli, in DBI (25 [1981]). C. Donahue and M. B. Chopas in MEMJ. The variations on C’s surname are great: Cassus, Ciafari, Criffi, Graffi, Zacci, Zaffi, Ziaffa, Ziaffi. He is also known as Andrea da Pisa (Andreas Pisanus). Library cataloguers have followed suit. The authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek settles on Andreas Pisanus, but reports 19 variants. This variety reflects that fact that relatively little solid information about C. is available, and over the course of centuries since his death bibliographers, historians of universities, and historians of Italian towns have filled in gaps with guess-work. C. was probably born in Pisa. Napoli even gives the name of the neighborhood in which his family’s house was located. In the 19th century, however, an historian of Forlì (P. Bonoli) claimed him for that town and said that he was called ‘Pisanus’ because the Pisans made him a citizen when he taught at the studium there. One 19th-century bibliographer (G. Moroni) follows Boloni, but only one. The only solid dates that we have for C’s life are that he taught at Pisa in 1320, at Perugia in 1321, and at Siena from the autumn of 1321 through the autumn of 1322. He was cited and praised by his contemporaries and those of the next generation, notably Bartolo and Baldo. From what they say we can construct a bit more about his life and make some guesses as to why he was important. That he studied with Dino del Mugello at Bologna seems clear. He then is said to have gone to France and to have studied with Pierre de Belleperche at Orléans. If that is right, then we would have a solid terminus ante quem, because Pierre left the university in 1296. It is unlikely, however, that C’s studies at Orléans were with Pierre himself as opposed to being with those who followed his method. If we can rely at all on the reports that C. studied at Orléans, then it is plausible, as Calligani suggests, that C. was as responsible as Dino for spreading the methods of the school of Orléans in Italy, because the latter knew the work of that school only through, apparently, manuscripts and a brief encounter with Pierre at Bologna. More at this state of our knowledge we cannot say about C’s life, and perhaps we should not say this much.

We also know little about his work. The treatise De gerundis is solidly attributed to him both in print (Tractatus 1549, TUI 1584 t. 18, the only known printings) and in manuscript (see Dolezalek, Manuscripta juridica, s.n. Andreas Ciaffi [Pisanus]). In it C. analyzes the different meanings and legal effects that the gerund may have in the various circumstances. A consilium of his is found in a printed edition of the consilia of Ludovico Pontano (ed. Venezia 1500, no. 447, fol. 153v). In it C. confirms the opinion of Cino da Pistoia on a question dependent on the interpretation of the l. Hac edictali, C. De secundis nuptiis (Cod. 5.9.6). Others of C’s consilia are found in manuscript (Città del Vaticano, BAV, Vat. lat. 8069; id. Vat. lat. 10726). A treatise De quaestionibus is attributed to him in some manuscripts but not in others (see Dolezalek, Manuscripta juridica, s.n. Andreas Ciaffi [Pisanus]). If TUI 1584 t. 11.1, fol. 291vb is the treatise De quaestionibus in TUI 1584 to which Napoli is referring, it is there attributed to Iacopo da Arena. A rather large collection of additiones to the gloss on the Infortiatum by various authors, including C., survives in manuscript (München, BSB clm 28162; Olomouc, Dombibl. Zemský A, C.O.591 [not necessarily the same text]). More could be done with what we know that survives, particularly in manuscript, and it is always possible that more will be discovered in manuscript. The testimony of contemporaries or near-contemporaries suggests that C. was important. In the present state of our knowledge we really do not know why.

itemt. 18, fol. 273ra
102Cino Sinibuldi da Pistoia, b. Pistoia ca. 1270, d. Pistoia 1336 

P. Maffei, DGI 1.543–546.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 319rb
 Cinus PistoriensusCino Sinibuldi 
103Cipolla, Bartolomeo, b. Verona ca. 1420, d. Padova 1475 

G. Rossi, in DGI 1.547–9; Lange/Kriechbaum, Kommentatoren 842–8, s.n. Bartholomäus Caepolla; C. Donahue and others in MEMJ, s.n. Bartholomaeus Caepolla. C. was both a practicing lawyer and a teacher at Padova.

itemt. 1, fol. 181va; t. 6.2, fol. 176vb; t. 6.2, fol. 209va; t. 7, fol. 2ra; t. 16, fol. 308rb
104Cirier, Jean Le, b. . . . , d. Paris 1555 

P. Arabeyre, in DHJF, s.n. Le Cirier, Jean. C. taught canon law at the university of Paris from 1515 to, probably, 1521. The remainder of his career was spent as a parlementaire of Paris. His De iure primogeniturae vel majoricatus (t. 10.1), his only known work, was written on the occasion of the birth of the dauphin François in 1518 and was first published in 1521.

itemt. 10.1, fol. 18vb
105Claro, Giulio, b. Alessandria 1525, d. Cartagena 1575 

G. P. Massetto and S. Parini, in DGI 1.552–555

itemt. 8.1, fol. 80va
 Claudius CantiunculaCantiuncula, Claudius 
 Claudius CotereusCotereau (Cottereau), Claude 
 Claudius CotereusCottereau, Claude 
106Claudius Saturninus, sec. 2/2 AD 

A Roman jurist, whose monograph on penalties is the subject of a commentary by Joannes Rogeraius Trochaeus (t. 3.1).

107Clementini, Ascanio, fl. ?1568–?1597 

Not in DGI. Not in DBI. D. Coleman and C. Donahue, in MEMJ with references and a bibliography is sumarized here: The old noble Clementini family originated in Rimini and established branches in Amelia in 1295 and Orvieto in 1332 (both prov. Terni, ITA). C. was probably born in Amelia (Amerinus), almost certainly during the first half of the 16th century. In the second half he seems to have held several important ecclesiastical positions in and around Amelia. An Ascanio Clementini is said to have been prior of San Valentino de Arcis, a former Benedectine abbey not far from Amelia, until 1568. C. may have held this post before moving on to other positions. He served as canon penitentiary in Amelia and was appointed vicar general there by 1592 (Mazzatinti, 4.7), although this combination of offices was prohibited by 1611 at the latest. Finally, an Ascanio Clementini is listed as uditore del nunzio in Venice in 1597. Although geographically distant from Amelia, this diplomatic position is not impossible for C. to have held. His only known work, the Tractatus de patria potestate, was published in Venezia in 1571 (reprints in Frankfurt 1572, TUI 1584, and Helmstadt 1674). The work suggests that C. had legal training, and contains more than hints of humanist and theological influence, without departing too far what might be described as the mos italicus in its extensive citations of medieval jurists.

itemt. 8.2, fol. 98ra
108Collegium Papiense 

We have found an edition of this item: Monteferrato 1549. The corporate group that rendered this consilium would not seem to be ancestor of any of the modern residential colleges of the university of Pavia, the oldest of which date to later in the 16th century. Whether it is the law faculty of the studium at Pavia in its corporate capacity or the college of doctors of law at Pavia requires more exploration. The latter seems more likely.

itemt. 12, fol. 218vb
109Colomban, Antoine, sec. ?16/1 

CERL Thesaurus. The Bibliothèque nationale authority file puts the name into the vernacular, dates C. only by century, describes him as a jurist of Lyon, and cites printings in 1536 and 1537 of his Sommaire forme de proceder extraordinairement es causes criminelles. The German national authority file leaves the name in Latin (‘Antonius Columbanus’), and gives a floruit of 1533–1536. A Latin edition of the Compendiaria (t. 11.1) appeared in Lyon in 1540. That printing seems to have included forms in French, which TUI 1584 does not.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 341rb
 Conradus BrunusBraun, Konrad 
 Constantius (Constantinus) Rogerius (Constant Roger)Rogerius, Constantius 
110Conti (de Comitibus), Prosdocimo, b. Padova ca. 1370, d. Padova 1439 

C. Valeschi, in DGI 1.574–5; B. Kohl, DBI 28 (1983) 463–5. C. was active in politics in Padova. He also taught there, principally, canon law.

itemt. 1, fol. 190rb; t. 9, fol. 140va
111Cop, Jean, fl. 1535 X 1536 

CERL Thesaurus. A rather large number of 16th-century imprints bear the name of a Joannes Copus in one capacity or another. The German VD-16/17 lists 78. That the eight items in TUI 1584 that deal with the topic De fructibus are all derived from a work published in Paris in 1535 and reprinted there in 1536 seems clear. That the author is one Jean Cop whom the authority file of the Bibliothèque nationale describes as ‘Juriste, professeur d’éloquence. - Fils de Guillaume Cop, médecin de Louis XII. - Parfois confondu avec son frère Jean-Michel, chanoine de Notre-Dame de Cléry’ also seems clear. He also is the author of a tract De restitutis, published in Paris in 1535. Both works are dedicated to Francis I. The description does not mention that another of Jean’s brothers, Nicolas, was the rector of the university of Paris for a brief period in 1533. Nicolas’ inaugural address got him accused of heresy, as a result of which he fled to Basel. NBG t. 13 and French Wikipedia. That Jean himself was a sympathizer with Calvin, perhaps a follower, seems likely, but disentangling his career and his works before and after 1535 X 1536 is something that we did not undertake. The ODNB (by subscription) has an article on Michel Cop, basically to affirm that he had nothing to do with England other than the fact that two of his books were translated from French and published in England. It mentions that Guillaume had three sons but says nothing of Jean. Tantalizingly, the 1572 edition of Jacob Middeldorp, Academiarum orbis christiani libri duo (Köln 1572) sig. **3 has a brief epistle addressed to the author from ‘Ioannes Copus Oxonien. Anglus’.

itemt. 17, fol. 236ra; t. 17, fol. 237va; t. 17, fol. 238ra; t. 17, fol. 239vb; t. 17, fol. 240rb; t. 17, fol. 240rb; t. 17, fol. 240va; t. 17, fol. 248va
112Coras, Jean de, b. Réalmont 1512, d. Toulouse 1572 

J. Poumarède, in DHJF 264–266. C. was a well-known French Protestant jurist and parlementaire of Toulouse. He figures prominently in, and his account is the source of, Natalie Davis’s The Return of Martin Guerre (Cambridge [MA] 1983). His production, however, is much larger than that, and has been the subject of 12-volume treatment by A. London Fell. C. was a victim of the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre in 1572.

itemt. 1, fol. 59ra; t. 8.2, fol. 165ra; t. 15.2, fol. 287va
113Corazzi (Coraa, Corazio, Corasi), Antonio Maria, b. Cortona 1548, d. . . . p. 1623 

G. Rossi, in DGI.

itemt. 18, fol. 222ra
 Cornelius BenincasiusBenincasa, Cornelio 
114Corsetti (Corsettus, Corsectus, Corsictus), Antonio, b. Noto [prov. Siracusa, Sicily] ca. 1450, d. Roma 1503 

C. Pedrazza Gorlero, in DGI 1.581–2. C. pursued an academic career in canon law, taught canon law at Padova, and ended his career as auditor of the Rota and non-residential bishop of Malta.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 325va; t. 4, fol. 359ra; t. 8.1, fol. 437rb; t. 12, fol. 224ra; t. 12, fol. 324ra; t. 16, fol. 130va; t. 18, fol. 186vb; t. 18, fol. 266va; t. 18, fol. 269ra
115Corso, Rinaldo, b. Verona 1525, d. Strongoli 1582 

C. Pederazza Gorlero, in DGI 1.584 recounts fascinating career of the C., an Italian humanist jurist, who, having been married and widowed, ended his life as bishop of Strongoli.

itemt. 1, fol. 279vb; t. 12, fol. 243rb
116Corti, Francesco jr. (Franceschino), b. Pavia 1470, d. Padova 1533 

M. G. di Renzo Villata, in DGI. Senior and Junior were, respectively, uncle and nephew. The former taught the latter. C. has received his doctorate at Pavia before 1487. After teaching briefly at Mantova, he returned to teach at Pavia. His support for the French had led to his imprisonement and confiscation of his goods after the battle of Pavia (1525). In 1528 he moved to Padova, following his brother Matteo, who was a distinguished professor of medicine. The emoulments of his position at Padova allowed him to recover his fortunes. Commentaries of his on both the Digest and the Code and, particularly, on the feudal law (t. 10.2), and consilia are known.

itemt. 10.2, fol. 43rb
117Corti, Francesco sr., b. Pavia . . . , d. Pavia 1495 

CERL Thesaurus. Mentioned in M. G. di Renzo Villata, in DGI, s.n. Corti, Francesco jr. Senior and Junior were, respectively, uncle and nephew. The former taught the latter. There is, so far as we are aware, less written about C. than about his nephew. He is mentioned in Lange/Kriechbaum 82 as having taught at Pavia along with his nephew, but the fullest discussion of a work of his (id. at 862–3) is of a consilium in a collection of consilia that bears his name, but the consilium is not by him but by Bartolomeo Socini. Consilia that are said to be by C. were published in Milano (1496), [Lyon] (1534), Lyon (1547), Venezia (1580) and Speyer (1603). We have seen references to his consilia in the four-volume collection of consilia by various authors published in Frankfurt in 1588.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 130rb; t. 3.2, fol. 143vb; t. 4, fol. 10ra; t. 4, fol. 125rb; t. 12, fol. 205ra
118Corti, Rocco, b. Pavia . . . , fl. 1470 X 1515, d. ?Pavia . . . 

M. G. di Renzo Villata, in DGI 1.586–7. C. taught canon law at Pavia. He was also a counselor to the marquis of Monferrato and member of the senate of Milano. His De consuetudine (t. 2) is probably his best-known work. He also wrote on the ius patronatus.

itemt. 2, fol. 345ra
119Cortili, Buono de, b. Brescia . . . , fl. 1528, d. . . . 

Not in DGI. Not in Italian edit16. CERL Thesaurus. The first edition of the De nobilitate (t. 16) was published in Lyon in 1528 with the title Nobilitatis fertilis et perutilis tractatus in quo omnis nobilitatis materia: hactenus dispersa et pene incognita: eleganti stylo [et] ordine: perfecte et cumulate traditur (online). The author is described, and describes himself, as a doctor in utroque and gives his toponym as ‘brixiensis’. The work is dedicated to Carlo [III], duke of Savoy (1504–1553), whom C., quite blasphemously, calls ‘divus’, and to one of his officials. That is probably enough, pending further investigation, to assign a place of origin and a floruit date to him. Library cataloguers vary considerably as to how to render the surname (‘de Curtili’). Neither ‘Cortili’ nor ‘Curtili’ is found in Ganino Cognomini Italiani. We rather suspect that the second element in C’s name is the modern ‘Curtolo’, which is found in the Veneto, but changing it to that would make him even harder to find. The De nobilitate was reprinted in Tractatus 1549, and not again, so far as we can tell, after 1584.

itemt. 16, fol. 1ra
120Costa, Stefano, b. Gambolò . . . , d. Gambolò 1486 

M. Lucchesi, in DGI 2.397–398; K. Pennington, in MEMJ. C. received his doctorate utroque in 1446, which suggests a birth date sometime in the 1420s. He taught some civil but mostly canon law at Pavia for most of his life. He is best known for his treatise De ludo (t. 7), which shows considerable influence from humanistic ideas and was printed many times.

itemt. 7, fol. 161va; t. 9, fol. 132rb
121Costanus, Antonius Gubertius, fl. 1558 X ?1578 

We left C’s name in Latin because we are unsure how to render ‘Costanus’, which appears on the title pages of all of C’s works. Antonius Gubertius should be Antoine Gobert, a plausible French name, but Costanus does not fit. There was pastor of a Protestant Paris church in the mid-16th century of that name, who was deprived for heretical (to Protestants) views (R. N. Kingdon, Geneva and the Consolidation of the French Protestant Movement, 1564–1572 [Paris 1967] 88), but that almost certainly not our Costanus and just compounds the puzzle. C. Donahue, ‘The Role of the Humanists and the Second Scholastic in the Development of European Marriage Law from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Centuries’, in J. Ballor, W. Decock, M. Germann, and L. Waelkens, ed., Law and Religion: The Legal Teachings of the Protestant and Catholic Reformations (Refo500 Academic Series, 20; Göttingen 2014) 58–9, attempts to reconstruct C’s career on the basis of his published writings. It concludes that he was a parlementaire of Toulouse, probably a professor at the university, that he was alive and writing between 1558 and 1563, that he was probably still alive in 1578, when the De sponsalibus (t. 9) was first published, and that he was probably not a Protestant but that his views on the issues about which wrote were acceptable to Protestants.

itemt. 9, fol. 46va; t. 9, fol. 395rb
122Coster (al. Custodis, al. de Bont), Willem de, b. Leuven sec. 15/ineunte, d. Leuven 1454 

E. Poullet, in Biographie nationale de Belgique, s.n. De Coster, Guillaume de (5:16–19) (online pdf); K. Pennington, in MEMJ. The attribution that is sometimes made of the De usuris to Willem de Bondt, the Dutch jurist of the early 17th century is impossible; he was born in 1588. C’s mother was the daughter of Willem de Bont, the chancellor of the duchy of Brabant. C joined his maternal grandfather’s name to his father’s and eventually came to use it exclusively. C. was active in the affairs the university at Leuven from 1427, though he seems to have taken both his arts and law degrees at Paris. From 1438 he was professor of canon law at Leuven, a position that he held until his death. The De usuris is a quodlibet that he gave at Leuven in 1450, first published in ?Paris (s.d.), whence it appeared in Tractatus 1549 and in TUI 1584.

itemt. 7, fol. 74va; t. 11.1, fol. 328rb
123Cotereau (Cottereau), Claude, b. Tours 1499, d. . . . 1550 

Not in DHJF. CERL Thesaurus, s.n. Cotereau, Claude. The authority file of Bibliothèque nationale gives the birth and death dates with some confidence. The NBG t. 12 offers no dates, but tells us that he was born in Tours, studied at Poitiers, practiced law for while, and then became an ecclesiastic. He seems to have ended his ecclesiastical career as a canon of Notre-Dame de Paris. He had a command of Latin and Greek, and knew some Hebrew. His main works are the Tractatus de iure et privilegiis militum (t. 16), the De officio imperatoris, first published together in Lyon in 1539, and a translation into French of Columella’s De re rustica (Paris 1552 and 1555).

itemt. 16, fol. 428vb
124Cotereau, P[?ierre], fl. 1525 

French cataloguers attribute the Schedulare magistratuum civilium (t. 16), which first appeared in an edition in Paris in 1525, to an otherwise unknown ‘P. Cotereau’. That edition does not seem to be available online. Catalogue Collectif de France. Burkhard Gotthelf Struve’s Bibliotheca historica 9.1 (Leipzig 1797) 303, says that the dedicatory epistle in the 1525 edition is signed by Claude Cotereau (q.v.), but J. Le Long, Bibliothèque historique de la France 3 (Paris 1771) 127 says that it is signed by P. Cotereau. Le Long also notes that the epistle is addressed to Cardinal Louis de Bourbon and that P. Cotereau’s family came from Tours, as did Claude’s, and bore arms. The authority file of the Bibliothèque nationale follows suit, creating a ‘Pierre Cotereau’, with a floruit of 1525. The subtitle De tribuno celerum, et principe Palatii Franciae (t. 16) seems to be the title of the first section of the work. The subtitle on the edition of Paris 1525 would seem to be sive Liber magistatuum gallicorum ad magistratus romananorum collatitius. This is certainly the kind of thing that Claude Cotereau could have done. Is it possible that we should read the ‘P.’ as ‘Père’? We do not know whether Claude was a priest at this time, but he certainly became one.

itemt. 13.2, fol. 434ra; t. 13.2, fol. 436ra; t. 13.2, fol. 437ra
125Cotta, Catelliano, b. . . . , fl. 1512, d. Milano 1553 

M. G. di Renzo Villata, in DGI 1.601. Cotta was a practicing lawyer and a private scholar.

itemt. 1, fol. 137va
126Covarrubias y Leyva, Diego, b. Toledo 1512, d. Madrid 1577 

CERL Thesaurus (2 entries). Perhaps the best-known Spanish jurist of the sixteenth century who wrote principally about private law. He is known as the Spanish Bartolus. He was, however, influenced by the thought of the neo-scholastics in a way that would have been impossible for Bartolus.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 98va; t. 8.1, fol. 382vb; t. 12, fol. 220va
127Cravetta, Aimone, b. Savigliano 1504, d. Savigliano 1569 

A. Lupano, DGI 1:607–608.

itemt. 6.2, fol. 281ra; t. 17, fol. 121va
128Crotti, Giovanni (Crotus de Monteferrato), b. Casale Monferrato ca. 1475, d. Pisa 1517 

E. Dezza, in DGI 1.615-16.

itemt. 4, fol. 199vb
129Cucchi, Marco Antonio, b. ?Brescia ca. 1510, d. Pavia 1582/3 

L. Sinisi, in DGI 1.616. The dates frequently given for C’s life, 1506–1567, are wrong. After having taught civil law at Pavia, C. became a cleric in 1561, turned his attention to canon law, and moved to Rome where he served as one of the Correctores romani. He is best known for his Institutiones iuris canonci, first published in Pavia in 1563. He died with only one of his three planned volumes of an enlarged edition of the Institutiones published.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 291rb; t. 17, fol. 200ra
130Cujas, Jacques, b. Toulouse 1522, d. Bourges 1590 

L. Winkel, in DHJF 291–293. Perhaps the best-known of the ‘pure scholars’ among the humanist jurists of the 16th century, C. taught both at Bourges and at Valence. The fact that his scholarship is so good (it can be used today) makes it difficult to recover why it was so important in its time. A Paris thesis about him Xavier Prévost, Jacques Cujas (1522–1590), Le droit à l’épreuve de l’humanisme has just appeared in a revised version: Jacques Cujas (1522–1590): jurisconsulte humaniste (Genève 2015). For the item in TUI 1584, see below under Ulpian.

131Cun (Cunh, Cugno, Cunho, de Cuneo), Guillaume de, b. Rabastens (dép. Tarn) . . . , d. ?Comminges 1336 

J. Krynen, in DHJF. The second element in C’s name, which gave 16th-century printers fits, seems to be of Celtic origin, and unrelated to Cuneo in Italy, which is of Romance origin. There is an area in Pleyber-Christ (dép. Finistère) that has that name. Despite what is found in the authority file of the Bibliothèque nationale, it seems clear that C. taught at Toulouse and not at Orléans and that he died in 1336 not 1348. He obtained a doctorate in ‘laws’ at Toulouse, and is found lecturing there on Digestum vetus in 1315–16 and on the Codex in 1316–17. Those lectures seem to have resulted in commentaries on their respective books. The one on the Digest is known to be in six manuscripts, that on the Code also in six manuscripts and a printing of 1512, which has been reprinted in our times (Opera iurdica rariora, 8). J. Krynen has argued, both in DHJF and in ‘L’Église dans la Lectura super Codice de Guillaume de Cunh’, in L’Église et le droit dans le midi (xiiie–xive siècles) (Cahiers de Fanjuex, 29; 1994) 101–16, that C. had a quite original mind and that his views on the force of local law and custom were influential among the Italian commentators, such as Cinus and Bartolus. C. peppered his lectures with what in another academic environment would be called repetitiones. That on C.1.12.5 (De securitate [t. 12]) is an example. C. taught at Toulouse only briefly. After 1316 he entered into an ecclesiastical career. He was named bishop of Bazas in 1319, bishop of Comminges in 1325. He was at the assembly of Vincennes in 1329 and at the meeting with the king that dealt with the question of the beatific vision in 1334.

itemt. 12, fol. 17vb; t. 12, fol. 242ra
 Curtius, RochusCorti Rocco 
 Cyntholtz, JoannesLindholtz, Johannes 
 Dal Pozzo, ParidePozzo, Paride dal 
132Dallier, Léobin, b. . . . ca. 1497, d. . . . p. 1534 

A. Wijffels, in DHJF.

itemt. 15.1, fol. 220ra
133Damasus, fl. 1210-1217 

Mentioned in O. Condorelli, DGI s.n. Bartolomeo da Brescia, in O. Condorelli, DGI s.n. Bernardo da Parma, in M. Bertram, DGI s.n. Goffredo da Tani. K. Pennington, in MEMJ. Lange, 300–2. An important canonist of the early 13th century, who is well covered in Pennington and Lange. D’s Brocarda (t. 18) were reworked by Bartolomeo da Brescia (d. ?1258), and that is the version that we find in all the printings.

itemt. 18, fol. 506ra
134Damhouder, Joos de, b. Brugge 1507, d. Antwerpen 1581 

J. van Rompaye, in Nationaal Biografisch Woordenboek. D.’s given name was spelled in many different ways; modern biographers seem to have settled on ‘Joos’. D. studied law at Leuven and Orléans, emerging with a licentiate in both laws. He practiced law in Brugge, and held various magistracies, ultimately becoming a member of the council of finance of the Hapsburg Netherlands, a position that he held from 1552–1575. He is best known for his Praxis rerum criminalium , a work that was translated into Dutch, French, and German and was influential in developing European criminal practice. He also wrote a complementary Praxis rerum civlium. Modern scholarship has not been kind to D. He claimed a doctorate in law that he never seems to have earned, and both Praxis works turn out to have been largely plagiarized from unpublished works by one Filips Wielant. The Patrocinium pupillorum, minorum et prodigum (t. 6.1) and the Subhastationum compendiosa exegesis (t. 8.2), however, do seem to be genuine works of his.

itemt. 6.1, fol. 77ra; t. 8.2, fol. 351va; t. 8.2, fol. 371vb; t. 8.2, fol. 376rb; t. 8.2, fol. 377vb; t. 8.2, fol. 379va; t. 8.2, fol. 381vb; t. 8.2, fol. 385rb
 Del Cassero, MartinoMartino del Cassero da Fano 
135Descousu (Dissutus), Celse-Hugues, b. Chalon-sur-Saône ca. 1480, d. . . . ca. 1540 

M. Petitjean, in DHJF.

itemt. 18, fol. 490ra
 Didacus Covarruvias ToletanusCovarrubias y Leyva, Diego 
136Dino Rossoni del Mugello, b. Firenze ca. 1253, d. ?Mugello p. 1298 

A. Padovani, DGI 1:769–771.

itemt. 5, fol. 6vb; t. 8.1, fol. 318ra; t. 17, fol. 50rb; t. 18, fol. 187ra
 Dinus MugellanusDino Rossoni del Mugello 
137Dolcetti, Agostino, fl. sec. 16 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus. Described in the Italian Edit16 as ‘Giurista veronese, vissuto nel secolo XVI’.

itemt. 7, fol. 360vb
 Dominicus Jacobatius Jacovacci ( Giacovazzi, de Jacobatiis, Jacobacci, Jacovazzi), Domenico 
138Doneau (Donellus), Hugues, b. Chalon-sur-Saône 1527, d. Altdorf (near Nuremberg) 1591 

L. Pfister, in DHJF 339–340.

itemt. 6.1, fol. 258rb
139Douaren, François le, b. Moncontour 1509, d. Bourges 1559 

O. Deschamps, in DHJF 630–631. Student of Guillaume Budé and professor at Bourges for most of his quite short career, D. is principally known for his quarrels with his colleagues at Bourges. He is, however, an important figure in the development of the humanist juristic method. Of the many strands of humanistic juristic thought, D., like his student Doneau, is particular notable for his rigorous development of legal rules on the basis of critical analysis of the texts.

itemt. 1, fol. 183rb; t. 6.1, fol. 13vb; t. 8.1, fol. 428va; t. 15.2, fol. 2ra
 Du Moulin (Dumoulin), CharlesMoulin, Charles du; see also Cavallini, Gaspare 
 Du Rivail, AymarRivail, Aymar de 
140Durand (Durant, Durandi), Guillaume, l’ancien, b. Puymisson (dép. Hérault) ca. 1230, d. Roma 1296 

K. Pennington, in MEMJ, s.n. Guillelmus Durandus. F. Roumy, in DHJF. D’s views are compiled with those of Giovanni d’Andrea in Quaestiones in materia feudorum (t. 10.2).

itemt. 10.2, fol. 42vb
141Durand (Durantis), Guillaume, dit le Jeune, b. Puimisson (dép. Hérault) ca. 1260, d. Nicosia 1330 

M. Bégou-Davia, in DHJF. K. Pennington, in MEMJ s.n. Guillelmus Durantis junior

itemt. 13.1, fol. 154ra
142Durante, Giovanni Diletto, b. Gualdo Tadino . . . , fl. sec. 16/1, d. . . . 

Mentioned in DGI 1.252 as having written a work that appeared in a collection of Tractatus cautelarum along with a similar work of Marcantonio Bianchi; mentioned in DBI as the father of the scientist Castore Durante (1529–1574 X 1576). Biographical details about D. are hard to come by. The first edition of his De arte testandi was published in Roma in 1540 and is dedicated to Girolomo cardinal Ghinucci, who died in 1541. The work was a considerable publishing success. The man himself seems to have disappeared.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 109rb; t. 8.1, fol. 112rb; t. 8.1, fol. 119rb; t. 8.1, fol. 120rb; t. 8.1, fol. 127va; t. 8.1, fol. 136ra; t. 8.1, fol. 137va; t. 8.1, fol. 139va; t. 8.1, fol. 140ra; t. 8.1, fol. 141va; t. 8.1, fol. 146ra
 Durantis, GulielmusDurand, Guillaume l’ancien 
 Dynus MugellanusDino Rossoni del Mugello 
 Egidius de BellameraBellamère, Gilles de 
 Eguinarius BaronisBaron, Éguiner-François 
143Ercolani, Francesco, b. Panicale [prov. Perugia] 1541, d. . . . 1569 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus, relying on the Italian Edit16, says that E. came from Panicale (prov. Perugia). ‘Perusinus’ describes him on a number of title pages of his works.

itemt. 4, fol. 12va; t. 5, fol. 254vb
144Escobar, André Dias de, b. Lisboa ?1348, d. . . . 1448 

Not in DBE. K. Pennington, in MEMJ. The Regula decimarum was first printed in Paris p. ?1500 (GW 1856) and reprinted there in 1506 (online). The incipit of the latter reads: ‘Incipit tractatus qui vocatur regula decimarum perutilis ominium ecclesiarum christifideli beneficiatus compilatus in insula maris corsice per in theologia magistrum Andream hyspanum ordinis sancti bendicti pauperem Episcopum Aiacensem olim civitatem predicandus populis diebus festivis.’ Other than the fact that it calls E. ‘magister’ whereas Pennington says that E. obtained a doctorate in theology in Wien in 1393, there is no reason to doubt the details given here. E. was, by this time, a Benedictine. He had been bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo (prov. Salamanca ESP) from 1408. He became bishop of Ajaccio (dép. Corse-du-Sud) in 1422. He was to go on to become bishop of Megara [(outikes) Attikes, HEL] in 1428. Those facts allow us to date the Regula decimarum 1422 X 1428. In addition to the Regula decimarum, E. wrote a number of works on penance that proved very popular with 16th-century printers. See Pennington for the details. The only thing that we might question is E’s birth date. It was not impossible for someone in the late 14th century to obtain a university degree at the age of 45, but it was quite unusual. Centenarians were, moreover, rare indeed in the 15th century.

itemt. 15.2, fol. 142vb
145Escut, Nicolas de l’, b. . . . (Lorraine) sec. 16/ineunte, d. . . . 1580 

P. Arabeyre, in DHJF 654–655 (s.n. Lescut (L’Escut), Nicolas de). E. is best known for having been on the negotiators of the treaty of Nuremberg (1542) on behalf of the duke of Lorraine. The duke rewarded him, but so did the emperor. His legal works all seem to date from the 1540s. He became auditor of the of the chambre des comptes of the duke in 1552, and was apparently succeeded by his brother, Nicolas, in 1563.

itemt. 4, fol. 231vb
146Esnauderie, Pierre de L’, b. Roma ?1444, d. Roma ?1527 

CERL Thesaurus. The Latin name assigned to the author of De privilegiis doctorum (t. 18) in Tractatus 1549 and TUI 1584, ‘Petrus Lenauderius’, is confusing. Only the dedicatory epistle in Tractatus 1549 allows one to guess that the ‘L’ is a prefix. Most library cataloguers leave the name in Latin. We have reproduced the dates given in authority file of the Bibliothèque nationale without much confidence in them, a lack of confidence that the BN cataloguers seem to share. We would be inclined to date his birth almost twenty years later on the basis of what seems to be student works from the 1490s. That E. was alive and teaching at the university of Caen in 1516 seems clear. The first edition of the De privilegiis doctorum, which gives his surname in French, was published there in that year. It is dedicated to Gabriel Huvot in his capacity as conservator of the privileges of the university, a position that Huvot held in that year, and is dated at Caen 15 Aug. 1516. Full catalogue description in L. Delisle Catalogue des livres imprimés ou publiés à Caen avant le milieu du XVIe siècle 1 (Caen 1903) no. 238 p. 211; details about Huvot and a transcription of dedicatory epistle in id. 2 (Caen 1904) p. cix-cx, 25. E. describes himself as a doctor of both laws, something that we have no particular reason to doubt, but his other works range more into the realm of philosophy and morals: La louenge de mariage et recueil des hystoires des bonnes, vertueuses et illustres femmes (Paris 1523 and 1532); Epistola incitativa ad vitam contemplativam activamque fugiendam (s.l., s.d.), and a couple of occasional works that seem to date from his student-days at Caen in the 1490s. More about his work for the university of Caen may be found in A. de Bourmont, ‘La fondation de l’université de Caen’, Bulletin de la Société des antiquaires de Normandie, 12 (1884) 297–301.

itemt. 18, fol. 3vb
147Esteve i Joan, Josep (Josè Esteve, Josephus Stevanus), b. Valencia 1550, d. Ayora [prov. Valencia] 1603 

CERL Thesaurus. Not in DBE. We have not confirmed, but have no reason to doubt, the places and dates of E’s birth and death and that he was a professor of both philosophy and canon law. Italian edit16. He is described as a canon and operarius of Segovia in 1586, when the pope made him bishop of Viesti (now Vieste, prov. Foggia, ITA), a position that he resigned in 1589, when the pope collated him to deanship of Valencia. In 1594, the pope made him bishop of Orihuela (prov. Alicante, ESP), a position that he held until his death. Eubel. The De adoratione pedum Romani pontificis (t. 13.2) was first published in 1578 by Francesco Ziletti in Venezia, where E. is simply described as ‘Valentinus’. The title page adds: ‘Adiecta praeterea eiusdem authoris disputatio de coronatione, & eleuatione Rom. pont.’ These items would also seem to be included in TUI 1584, without giving them separate titles. The exensive quotations of Greek and Latin authors in the work and the full quotation of the Dictatus papae of Gregory VII suggest that E. was a man of considerable learning. The work was reprinted twice in Roma in 1588, in one of which reprints E. is described as the bishop of Viesti. In 1584, his Sacri Rosarii Virginis Mariae ab haereticorum calumniis defensio was published in Roma. It was reprinted in Venezia in 1587 as part of the three-volume collection of material designed for the use of the Confraternity of the Holy Rosary. The oration that he gave on Ash Wednesday before Pope Gregory XIII was published in Roma in 1585, where he is described as a doctor of theology. The oration that he gave on the occasion of the profession of obedience of Philip II to Sixtus V was published in Roma in 1586 and 1587, and in Milano in 1586; in all three he is simply described as ‘Valentinus’. His De potestate coactiua quam Romanus pontifex exercet in negotia saecularia was published twice in Roma in 1586, one printing of which describes him as bishop of Viesti, the other as a doctor of theology and canon law and the operarius of Segovia (a position that he seems to have retained when he was made bishop of Viesti [Eubel]). His De luctu minuendo collectana ad Ludouicum de Torres vtriusq. signaturae referendarium, published in Roma in 1587, describes him, once more, as a doctor of theology and canon law, and the operarius of Segovia. The last known work of his of which we are aware, In causam Henrici Borbonii, ad episcopos, & presbyt. ceterosque catholicos regni Francorum, was published in Valencia in 1590, and in Trento (and elsewhere) in 1592. In edition of Valencia 1590, he is described simply as bishop of Viesti; in the the Trento edition, he is described as bishop of Viesti and dean of Valencia. The history of these publications may be enough to suggest that E. was operating in Roma in the 1580s and that he returned to Spain when he resigned the see of Viesti and became dean of Valencia.

itemt. 13.2, fol. 50vb
148Exéa, André d’, b. Valence [dép. Drôme, FRA] ca. 1500, d. ?Valence 1575 

P. Aryabeyre, in DHJF 412–413; D. Coleman and C. Donahue in MEMJ, summarized here from a longer account with full bibiographical references. E’s surname derives from the town of Ejea de los Caballeros (prov. Zaragosa, ESP) where his family possessed a fief. One branch of the family settled in the county of Foix (now dép. Ariège, FRA) during the reign of Charles VI (1380–1422). E’s father Bernardin, a medical doctor, was drawn to the Dauphiné by the baron de Tournon and settled in Valence. E. himself was born in Valence around 1500 and lived in a turreted house called ‘la Saudeyra’ in the rue Perollerie. It is unclear precisely when or where E. received his doctorate utriusque, but his lengthy career in civil law took place mainly at the university of Valence, where he may have begun teaching as early as 1517 and where he was still presenting candidates for doctoral degrees in 1571. (Earlier literature that tries to make him a professor at Valencia [ESP] is simply mistaken.) For seven years (1526–1533) E. also taught at Montpellier. He obtained the position of juge-mage of that city in 1546, but it is unclear how often and for how long he functioned in that position. He was eventually appointed vice-seneschal of Montélimar in 1563, serving in that capacity until his death in 1575. Intellectually, E. is said to occupy an intermediate position between the mos italicus and the mos gallicus. He is like the latter in his willingness to augment the authority of contemporary jurists with abundant references to the ancients – from Plato and Aristotle to Cicero and Thomas Aquinas. He departs, however, from both schools in his broad focus on natural law and the law of nations, in contrast to the narrower historical focus of the humanists or the traditionalism of the scholastics. (F. Carpintero, ‘Mos italicus, mos gallicus y el Humanismo racionalista. Una contribución a la historia de la metodología jurídica’, Ius commune, 6 [1977] 143 [online].) His printed works consist of two treatises: De aerario fiscoque (1st ed. 1532) and De pactis (1st ed. 1542) (t. 6.2); two commentaries: De constitutionibus (X 1.2) (1st ed. 1545) and De jurisdictione omnium iudicum (Dig. 2.1) (1st ed. 1559), and a ‘commentariolus’ on mortgages of moveables in French customary law: In eam Galliæ consuetudinem qua dicitur: Meubles n’ont point de suyte en hypothèque quand ils sont mis hors la puissance du débiteur, printed with the commentary on Dig. 2.1. E. also edited for publication the Responsorum of Girolamo Grati of Bologna, who had lectured at Valence at the end of his life (Lyon 1544, reprinted 1572, 1585).

itemt. 6.2, fol. 1ra
 Fabianus de Monte Sancti SaviniGiocchi, Fabiano 
 Fabianus GenuensisChiavari, Fabiano 
 Faianus, NicolausNicolaus Faianus Viterbensis 
149Falconi, Enea de’, fl. ?sec. 15/2 X sec. 16/1 

Not in DGI. CERL Thesaurus. We hesitate describe this jurist at all. Little is known about him, and much that has been said about him seems to have little support. That he was already dead in 1539 when the first edition of Tractatus reservationum papalium ac legatorum (t. 15.1) was published through the efforts of Luis Gómez, bishop of Sarno (1534-1543) and auditor of the Rota, seems clear. He is described as ‘quondam I.U.D. Do. Aenea de Falconibus de Magliano Sabineñ’. Magliano Sabina (prov. Rieti) was then, and is now, a relatively small town, and not known as a legal center. When we couple that fact with the fact that we find the reference to it in a position where we normally find an indication of the author’s place of origin, we would normally conclude that F. came from there, not that he operated there. The authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, however, says that he was born in Lecce (prov. Lecce). Italian edit16 says the same. That statement goes a long way back but not, so far as we can tell, back far enough to be reliable. The first reference that we have found to F. being born in Lecce is in Nicolò Toppi, Biblioteca napoletana (Napoli 1678) 76 where he lists two authors of a Tractatus de reservationibus beneficiorum one an Enea de’ Falconi di Lecce for whom he cites a reference in Conrad Gessner’s Biblioteca universale (Zürich 1545) fol. 13, and an Enea delli Falconi di Magliano, for whom he cites the editions in Tractatus 1549 and TUI 1584. He says that the Magliano is the modern Magliano in Toscana (prov. Grosetto) and that Gómez got it wrong when he said Magliano Sabina. It is unclear whether Toppi thought that there were two men named Enea Falconi. What is clear is that he got the reference to Gessner wrong. What Gessner refers to is a work by Aeneas Silvanus Piccolimini in which Aeneas Silvanus comments critically on a work of Antonius Panormitanus on Alfonso king of Aragon. There is a reference to Aeneas de Falconibus in the second edition of Gessner (Zürich 1574, p. 12), but it simply cites the De reservationibus and says nothing about Lecce. L. Maggiulli, ‘Studenti e professori Salentini nell’università di Padova’, Rivista storica salentina 1 (1903) 348, repeats that F. was born in Lecce and adds that he studied at Padova and became a famous canonist. His only reference is to Gessner (this time p. 13 rather than fol. 13) and TUI 1584. He may have had independent evidence that F. studied at Padova. If so, he does not cite it. More work in more recent sources is called for, but for now we are inclined to think that Gómez probably got it right. F. probably came from Magliano Sabina. He may have studied at Padova, but of this we certainly cannot be sure. That F. is not mentioned in A. Belloni, Professor giuristi a Padova nel secolo XV (Ius commune Sonderhefte 28; Frankfurt 1986) is not dispositive; she does not purport to list everyone who studied law at Padova in the 15th century. It is, however, cause to doubt that F. was there. In addition to the De reservationibus, F. wrote a number of additiones to Panormitanus’ works, which were frequently published with Panormitanus’ works, beginning in 1512. That probably means that F. was operating after Panormitanus’ death in 1445. F. was dead by 1539. We, so far, have not been able to tie him down tighter than that.

itemt. 15.1, fol. 248vb
150Fanucci, Fanuccio, fl. sec. 16/m 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus suggests a number of ways to put F.’s name into the vernacular, all of which replace the Latin ‘Ph’ with ‘F’, and confirms that he came from Lucca. No dates beyond the 16th century are given. Another CERL record gives Fanucci, Fanuccio. Under that name Italian Edit16 reports him as: Giureconsulto di Lucca, fiorì alla metà del XVI secolo.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 358va; t. 8.2, fol. 265vb; t. 9, fol. 408rb
151Fara, Giovanni Francesco, b. Sassari 1543, d. Sassari 1591 

A. Mattone, in DGI 1.820–821

itemt. 8.2, fol. 388r
152Federici (de Federicis), Stefano, b. Sonico sec. 15/ineunte, d. . . . a. 1496 

M. Semeraro, in DGI 1.832–3. Biographical details about F. are sparse. He was probably a practicing lawyer in Brescia and a private scholar with theoretical interests. In addition to his De interpretatione legum (t. 1), he is also the author of a treatise De iusticia et iure, which remains in manuscript (BL Egerton 1158, f. 1–46).

itemt. 1, fol. 208va
 Federicus de SenisPetrucci, Federico 
 Federicus SchenchSchenck, Frederick 
 Federicus Schench (Schenk)Schenck, Frederick 
 Felinus SandeusSandeo, Felino 
 Ferdinandus Paez OlisiponensisPais, Fernando 
 Ferrariis, Albertus de Albertus de Ferrariis 
153Ferrarius Montanus (né Eisermann), Joannes, b. Amöneburg (Hessen) 1485/6, d. Marburg 1558 

T. Muther, in ADB 6.719. F. devoted most of his life to the newly-founded university of Marburg. His legal writings are serious, but the fact that he changed his name, and added ‘Montanus’, probably a reference to his place of birth, suggests that he was not without a lighter side.

itemt. 5, fol. 62rb; t. 10.2, fol. 93rb
154Ferrault, Jean, sec. 15/exeunte X sec. 16/ineunte 

P. Arabeyre, in DHJF.

itemt. 16, fol. 174vb
155Ferretti, Domenico (Emilio), b. Castelfranco di Sotto 1489, d. Avignon 1552 

A. Legnani Annichini, DGI 1.848–849 (correct TUI reference to ‘VI/2’). Known more as a diplomat for Francis I and a literary humanist, F. concluded his career as a professor of civil law at Avignon.

itemt. 6.2, fol. 414vb
156Ferretti, Giulio, b. Ravenna 1480, d. San Severo [prov. Foggia, Apulia] 1547 

P. Maffei, in DGI. Although he studied both canon and civil law at Padova, F. does not seem to have taken a doctorate. Rather, he practiced the profession of a notary in Ravenna from 1513 to 1530. From 1531–2, he was in the service of the pope. In the latter year, he took up the first of a series of judicial and governmental positions in the Regno, ending his life as governor of Capitanata and Molise. He wrote a number of legal works and twenty-two Consilia de duello. His writings display a wide range of learning and are not in the style typical of juristic writing of the period. His additions to Andrea Bonello da Barletta’s Contrietates iuris civilis Romanorum et iuris Langobarum, often mistakenly attributed to Bartolus, are particularly notable. His range in topics of pubic law was wide. Collections of his works were published after his death in 1562, 1575, and 1579. From these were drawn the three tracts that appear in TUI 1584.

itemt. 12, fol. 76rb; t. 12, fol. 308va; t. 12, fol. 325va
157Festasio, Niccolò, b. Modena . . . , d. ?Modena ?1567 

CERL Thesaurus. F’s De aestimo et collectis was published in Modena in 1569, perhaps after his death, though the dedicatory epistle shows that he was still alive in 1567. It was published again in Venezia in 1571, and after its publication TUI 1584 (t. 12) in Venezia in 1588. Of the author we have yet found nothing except that he says that he was engaged in tax collection for the military in 1550 in Piacenza and Parma.

itemt. 12, fol. 173va
158Fichard, Johann von, b. Frankfurt 1512, d. Frankfurt 1581 

ADB; NDB. Humanist and practicing lawyer, F.’s interests ranged widely. In his youth, he translated extracts from Galen and from the commentaries of John Chrysostom on the letters of St Paul from Greek into Latin. In addition to the two standard biographies cited above, a nice sense of the man can be obtained from German Wikipedia.

itemt. 1, fol. 156rb
159Follerio, Pietro, b. Mercato San Severino 1520, d. . . . p. 1586 

I. Birocchi and M. Miletti, in DGI 1.884–886

itemt. 6.2, fol. 117va
160Forcadel, Étienne, b. Beziers 1518, d. Toulouse 1578 

G. Cazals, in DHJF 440–442. F. pursued his studies in law at Toulouse, where he obtained a doctorate utriusque in 1544. He did not receive a chair, however, until 1557. He plunged himself into the life of university, was saved from prison 1575 on suspicion of Protestant leanings by the intervention of the king, but retired from the university. His early works are strongly influenced by the humanists. He wrote imaginary dialogues between jurists of antiquity and contemporary jurists. His more mundane legal works, such as his De mora (t. 6.2), were not published until after his death.

itemt. 6.2, fol. 422ra
161Forster, Valentin, b. Wittenberg 1530, d. Helmstädt 1608 

ADB. F. had a long and complicated life. He studied with Melancthon in his home town and then studied law at various times at Padua and Bourges, dabbled in mathematics in Spain, and finally returned to Bourges to take his doctorate under Doneau. He succeeded Oldendorp as professor at Marburg, Doneau as professor at Heidelberg, practiced law in Worms, and ended his life as professor at Helmstedt.

itemt. 1, fol. 25vb
 Fortunius GarciaGarcía, Fortunius 
162Fraguier, Raymond, fl. 1531 X ?1549 

Not in DHJF. CERL Thesaurus. F. seems to have been what in French could be called an ‘éditeur scientific’, and in English, somewhat more bluntly, a ‘publishers’ hack’. We have not found any of the editions on which he is said to have worked online, so we rely here on the fullest of the descriptions that we have been able to find in WorldCat, supported, as we discovered after we had written it, by a recently published article about him: R. Menini,‘“R. F.” (et non “F. R.”): De François Rabelais à Raymond Fraguier’, Bibliothèque d’Humanisme et Renaissance, 75 (2013) 515-522. So far as we can tell, he appears first in Denis de Harsy’s edition of the consilia of Étienne Bernard (2 vols., Lyon 1531, 1532). He is there described as ‘iurisstudiosus’, presumably a law student, and what he did on the edition is described as ‘concinnator’, a word that at least classically means ‘hair dresser’. In 1533, Simon Vincent and Harsy published in Lyon Andrea da Isernia’s lecturaon the Neapolitan constitutions, which they called Peregrina lectura, and in which they urged the reader: ‘en damus tibi lector optime peregrina Comentaria D. Andrææ ab Isernia inter classicos LL. autores jure supremi: quæ qde sparsim & circuncise in Constitutiones Neapolitani regni maxima studiorum tuorum comoditate ædidit : Sed hac tandem accipe Peregrina ab exotico habitu exutam, & novo dotata ornatu opera Remudi Fragrier. I.S. qui illam suis vigiliis ex proselyta domestica tuam fecit’. (‘Proselyta here may mean ‘alien’). In Harsy’s edition of the Decisiones Neapolitani of Matteo D’Afflitto (Lyon 1533, repr. 1537), his work is described more conventionally as ‘[cum] sumarijs, titulis, additionibus & indice illustratum opera praesertim Remundi Fraguier Iuristudiosi’. To Vincent’s Aerarium constitutionum regni Siciliae he is said to have contributed an index, a table of Isernia’s Peregrina lectura, and a catalogue of the constitutions. To the Tabella of the decisions of D’Afflitto published by the heirs of S. Vincent (Lyon 1535), he is said to have contributed a digest. He made some contribution (not specified in the catalogue, probably the index) to the edition that the heirs of S. Vincent published (Lyon 1535) of Alberto Trotti’s De vero et perfecto clero (see Albertus de Ferrariis) and another unspecified contribution to A. Vincent’s edition of the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (Lyon 1538). He wrote a poem to accompany the edition of Aulus Gellius that the heirs of S. Vincent published in 1539. In Tractatus 1549 and TUI 1584 (t. 14), the only editions that we found of his Tractatus de religiosis sectis eorumque auctoribus, he is described as ‘legum professor’, but that may be publishers’ hyperbole. The work itself is not particularly legal, an attempt to list all the religious orders and types of committed religious life, from the beginnings of Christianity to his day. There can be little doubt that he was active between 1531 and 1539. Whether he was still alive and active in 1549 is a matter of more doubt, but it is certainly possible. That he was is suggested by the fact that he supplied a brief avis au lecteur to the edition in Tractatus 1549 of L’Esnauderie’s De privilegiis doctorum (t. 18).

itemt. 14, fol. 103vb
163Franchi (della Franca), Fillippo, b. Perguia ca. 1415, d. Perguia 1471 

C. Bukowska Gorgoni, DBI 50 (1998). More a canonist than a civilian, F. taught at Perugia, Pavia, and Ferrara.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 326vb
 Francischinus Curtius JuniorCorte, Franceso jr 
 Franciscus a Brunus de Sancto SeverinoBruni, Francesco 
 Franciscus AriasArias de Valderas, Francisco 
 Franciscus BalduiniBaudouin, Francois 
 Franciscus CasonusCasoni, Francesco 
 Franciscus Curtius SeniorCorte, Francesco sr 
 Franciscus Curtius seniorCorti, Francesco 
164Franciscus de Acceptantibus, b. Arezzo . . . , d. ?Arezzo ca. 1374 

Not in DGI, DBI, or CERL Thesaurus. What seems to be F.’s sole work is also in Tractatus 1549. There is an incunabulum (GW 145) with the explicit: ‘Explicit tractatus que sit interlocutoria et que difinitiua. Editus a domino Francisco de Acceptantibus de Aretrio iuris utriusque doctore excellentissimo, tunc Presidente in Terra Cinguli Marchie Anco’, followed by a few additiones. GW attributes the work to Franciscus de Accoltis (Francesco Accolti detto l’Aretino), but it is hard to see how Accoltis got garbled as Acceptantibus, and Terra Cinguli is not one the many places where Accolti is known to have operated. That there was a doctor utriusque in Arezzo named Franciscus Joannes de Acceptantibus, who died c. 1374, is confirmed by S. Cohn, The Cult of Rembrance and the Black Death: Six Renaissance Cities in Central Italy (Baltimore 1997) 260, who describes the images that he ordered at the time of the plague for one church, and that were planned for his tomb in another church, in Arezzo.

itemt. 5, fol. 3va
 Franciscus de PlateaPiazza, Francesco 
 Franciscus de Porcellinis PatavinusPorcellini, Francesco 
 Franciscus DuarenusDouaren, François 
 Franciscus DuarenusDouaren, François 
 Franciscus Episcopus SquillacensisArceriis (Ancheriis, Archeriis), Francesco de 
 Franciscus Gioannettus, BononiensisGiovanneti (Gioanetti, Joanettus, de Zoanettis), Francesco 
 Franciscus HerculanusErcolani, Francesco 
 Franciscus Herculanus, PerusiniErcolani, Francesco 
 Franciscus PegnaPeña Calvo, Francisco de 
 Franciscus PonzinibiusPonginibbi, Giovanni Francesco 
 Franciscus Sarmentus HispaniSarmiento de Mendoza, Franciscus 
 Franciscus Solsona AngulariensisSolsona, Francesco 
 Franciscus SonsbeciusSonsbeck, Franz 
 Franciscus VargasVargas Mejía, Francisco de 
 Franciscus ZoanettusGiovanetti, Francesco 
 Francisus Lucanus ParmensisLucani, Francesco 
 Fridericus Schenek ex liberis baronibus a TautenbergSchenck, Frederik 
165Fumée, Antoine [l’oncle], seigneur de Blandé, b. . . . 1511, d. . . . 1570 or 1587 

P. Arabeyre, in DHJF 454–455. Arabeyre has attempted to disentangle the biographies of F. and that of his nephew of the same name. Both were noble; both held central positions in the government during the tumultuous years of the religious wars. One of them became premier president of the parlement of Paris in 1572, but it is not sure which, because the death dates of both of them are confused. For our purposes Arabeyre has established that the three treatises attributed to ‘Antonius Fumeus’ in TUI 1584 are the work of the uncle.

itemt. 5, fol. 14ra; t. 8.1, fol. 221rb; t. 18, fol. 278ra
 Gabrielis PalaeotusPaleotti, Gabriele 
166Gallia, Lancelotto, b. Alessandria [prov. Alessandria] 1532, d. . . . 1595 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus says that G. came from Alessandria (prov. Alessandria) in the Piedmont region of Italy.

itemt. 2, fol. 283va
 Galvanus de BononiaBecchini, Galvano 
167Gambiglioni, Angelo (de Gambilionibus, Aretino, d’Arezzo), b. Arezzo ca. sec. 14/exeunte, d. Bologna 1461 

P. Maffei, DGI 1.939–941. A well-known civilian, who taught at Bologna.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 31ra
168Gammaro (Gambarus), Pietro Andrea, b. Caslafiumanese 1480, d. ?Viterbo 1528 

A. Padovani, in DGI 1.941–942; G. dall’Olio, DBI 52 (1999) 82–83. After a brief period of teaching canon law at Bologna, G. went into the service of various popes. In 1528, he was named bishop of Faenza but died on his way there. His De veritate ac excellentia legalis scientiae libellus (t. 1), was, so far as we can tell, first published in Bologna in 1506. It was reprinted with Ulrich Zasius’ Rhetoricae ac Dialecticae Tractatio legalis in Basel, beginning in 1530, and in Tractatus 1549. His De officio atque auctoritate legati de latere (t. 13.2) was not, so far as we can tell, printed until it appeared in Venezia in 1571. His Tractatus permutationum (t. 15.1) appeared in Tractatus 1549. It may have appeared earlier; the topic was a popular one, and not all the collections of treatises on the topic are fully analyzed. G’s De extensionibus (t. 18) also appeared, apparently for the first time, in Tractatus 1549. His De modo disputandi ac ratiocinandi in jure does not appear in TUI 1584 (although it does appear in Tractatus 1549), but is listed at the end of works in t. 1 because it appears in HOLLIS as if it were in TUI 1584.

itemt. 1, fol. 132ra; t. 13.2, fol. 150va; t. 15.1, fol. 208rb; t. 18, fol. 247ra
169García [?de Saavedra], Juan, fl. sec. 16/2 

CERL Thesaurus. Not in DBE. The De expensis et meliorationibus (t. 17) was first published in Alcalá de Henares [prov. Madrid] in 1578. It enjoyed a large printing success, being reprinted many times and well into the 17th century. We have found no copy of the first edition online, but the edition of Antwerpen of 1586 (online) seems to contain the original dedicatory epistle to the bishop of Patti [prov. Messina, Sicilia], the president of senate of all Spain (roughly equivalent to the parlement of Paris). G. there calls himself ‘Ioan. Gars. Gallecus’, i.e. Juan García Gallego, and he is also so called on the title page. The title page adds the he ‘in Galleco olim, nunc in Supremo Hispaniae Senatu causarum forensium relator [est]’. We have no reason to doubt any of this, nor do we have any particular reason to doubt what G. says in the dedicatory epistle, that the work is one of his youth, done when he was a student at Salamanca. What is missing is any connection with the ancient Galician noble family of Saavedra, something that virtually every library cataloguer adds, perhaps by association with the 17th-century Spanish jurist, sometimes called ‘the younger’, who does seem to have been named Juan García de Saavedra.

itemt. 17, fol. 257rb
170García de Ercilla Arteaga, Fortún, b. ?Bermeo [prov. Vizcaya, ESP] 1492 X 1494, d. Dueñas [prov. Palencia] 1534 

The form of the name, places, and dates are taken from DBE. The basics on this Spanish jurist who taught at Bologna and died young may be found in CERL Thesaurus.

itemt. 1, fol. 105vb
171García de Villadiego, Gonzalo, b. Burgos ca. 1438, d. Roma 1487 

CERL Thesaurus. Form of the name, places, and dates are taken from DBE, which describes him as ‘Auditor de la Rota, Catedrático, Escritor, Jurista, Eclesiástico, Obispo’. G. was admitted as an auditor of the Rota sometime in 1484. He is described as a canon of Toledo, a cleric of Burgos diocese, once as a doctor in untroque and once as a doctor decretorum. E. Cerchiari, Capellani papae et apostolicae sedis auditores causarum sacri palatii apostolici seu sacra Romana Rota ab origine ad diem usque 20 septembris 1870. 2: Syntaxis Capellanorum auditorum (Roma 1920) 70. In August of 1485, he was made bishop of Oviedo. His successor was appointed in May of 1487, by which time G. was clearly dead. His three works in TUI 1584, were all published, so far as we can tell, for the first time in Roma: De cardinalium excellentia et dignitate (t. 13.2) (1482) (online), Tractatus contra haereticam pravitatem (t. 11.2) (1485) (online), and De legato (t. 13.2) (1485) (online).

itemt. 11.2, fol. 32rb; t. 13.2, fol. 57va; t. 13.2, fol. 258rb
172Garons, Jean de, b. ?Garons [dép. Gard] . . . , fl. 1407, d. . . . 

G. is obscure, a fact perhaps indicated by his absence from the comprehensive ‘index auctorum omnium’ in t.1. The German national authority file makes no attempt to convert his name into the vernacular and leaves the second element of his name in what may be thought of as an ablative plural: Garonis, Johannes de. As a surname, ‘Garon’ is very rare. There is, however, a Garons (dép. Gard). It seems likely that ‘Garonis’ is a toponym and that we should be thinking of a Jean de Garons. The heading of what seems to be the first printing (Titulus Co[m]prehensoriu[m] feudale d[omi]ni Jo. Raygnaudi . . . [Lyon ca. 1517] fol. 129) of his Tractatus de poenis et remediis secundo nubentium (t. 9) reads in its entirety: ‘Sequitur lectura excellentis caesari iuris professoris Domini Ioannis de Garonis doctoris Avenionen’ super titulo de secundis nuptiis C. [C.5.9] in eadem universitate per ipsum lecto anno Domini millesimo .iiijc. [sic] die vero xvi Novembris incepto &c’. TUI 1584 supplies what seems to its own title and then transcribes what is in the 1517 edition in full beginning with ‘excellentis’ and rendering whatever it is that the original printer intended to follow ‘millesmimo’ with a ‘D’ and reading ‘venero’ for ‘vero’. 1407 is almost certainly what was intended for the year of the lecture (i.e., ‘iiijc’ = CCCC = quadringentesimo). (See further about the contents of the ca. 1517 printing under Raynaud, Jean, et alii.) ‘Vero’ is almost certainly right; even if we can imagine a 16th-century printer typing ‘venero’ when he meant ‘veneris’, 16 November 1407 was a Monday (and the same date in 1507 was a Tuesday). Compare Tractatus 1549, 6.82v, which has a fifth ‘c’ but has ‘vero’ right. It seems most likely, then, that a Jean de Garons, doctor of civil law, gave what might have been his ‘inaugural lecture’ or a repetitio on C.5.9 as a professor at the university of Avignon in 1407. We have so far found nothing more about him. He may have died young.

itemt. 9, fol. 115rb
173Garzoni, Girolamo, sec. 16 

CERL Thesaurus says that he was an auditor of the rota of Ferrara and gives his birthplace as Osimo. That seems to conflict with toponym which he is given in TUI 1584. Auximatis normally suggests Ancona, but Osimo is known as Vetus Auximum.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 310rb; t. 10.2, fol. 165va
 Gaspar BeatiusBaeza, Gaspar 
 Gaspar CaballiniCavallini, Gaspare; see also Moulin, Charles du 
174Gaspar de Perusio (Rossi, Gaspare), b. Perugia sec. 14/exeunte, d. ?Frigento [prov. Avellino] 1455 

K. Pennington, in MEMJ s.n. Gaspar de Perusio. Italian edit16 notes that G. was a Benedictine (Camaldolese), that his secular name was Gaspare Rossi, that he was born in Perugia in 1422 and died as bishop of Frigento in 1455. All of this seems to correct, except the date of birth, which is rather badly wrong. J. Fabricius, who also notes that G’s secular name was Rossi, says that he attended the council of Constance in 1414, which would force his birth date back into the 14th century. Biblioteca latina mediae et infimae aetatis (Hamburg 1735) 3.64. Eubel notes that he was appointed by Martin V as bishop of Foligno (prov. Perugia) in 1421 when he was abbot of S. Petri de Perusio (O.S.B.), but he refused the position while he was still elect. The appointment to Frigento followed in 1424 when he is listed as abbot of S. Joannis Eremi Montissterilis and a doctor decretorum, and he held that position until his death in 1455. He is listed in the Compendium Auctorum Latinorum Medii Aevi fasc. 4.1, in which it appears that a number of his works remain in manuscript. The Tractatus de reservationibus beneficiorum (t 15.1), which appears to be his only printed work, was first published in Roma in 1539. Like Falconi’s Tractatus reservationum papalium ac legatorum (t. 15.1), G’s work was published through the efforts of Luis Gómez, bishop of Sarno (1534-1543) and auditor of the Rota, and appears to be part of an effort to get ‘how-to-do-it’ books in the hands of the papal bureaucracy and those who dealt with it.

itemt. 15.1, fol. 244ra
 Gasper de PerusioGaspar de Perusio 
175Gentili, Iacopo, da Perugia, sec. ?15 

Not in DGI, DBI, or CERL Thesaurus. G. is obscure. Francesco Calasso, writing about Bartolus de Saxoferrato in DBI (6 [1964]), says that an ordo iudiciarius, sometimes attributed to Bartolus, is also sometimes attributed to one Iacopo Gentili da Perugia. A website that purports to list all the professors who ever taught civil law at Perugia lists a Lorenzo di Iacopo Gentili as having taught there from 1415–?, and 1429–?. G. could be Lorenzo’s father, or it could be Lorenzo himself, whose Christian got forgotten and his patronimic remembered. More work on this author is clearly called for.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 41ra
 Georgius Nata (once Natan)Natta, Giorgio 
176Giganti, Girolamo, b. Fossombrone sec. 15/exeunte, d. Venezia ?1566 

R. Isotton, in DGI.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 33va; t. 13.2, fol. 369va; t. 15.1, fol. 331rb
177Gillot, Jean, sec. ?16 

Not in DHJF (Gillet, Jean, at 480 is almost certainly not the same man). CERL Thesaurus is not much help. The date that it gives, 1538– , is simply the date of the first edtion of G.’s De iurisdicione et imperio (t. 3.1). A man of this name was a theologian and philologian in the 16th century, the editor of a number of large editions of works of the church fathers. We hesitate to identify G. with the philologian, and the Thesaurus may be indicating the same thing by having a separate entry that, so far, lists only the philologian’s edition of St Basil. A clue to an identification may lie in the toponym in G.’s Latin name, Briennensis, which may be Brienne-le-Chateau, dép. Aube.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 2ra
178Giocchi, Fabiano, b. Monte San Savino 1421, d. . . . 1498 

Not in DGI. CERL Thesaurus. The Italian edit16 reports ‘Uomo di legge, podestà di Urbino e avvocato concistoriale in Roma’. Edit16 is also the source of the name and the dating information.

itemt. 6.1, fol. 39ra
179Giordano, Lelio, b. Napoli . . . , d. ?Rossano 1583 

Not in DGI. Not in DBI. CERL Thesaurus. We have been unable to confirm G’s origin in Napoli, but have no reason to doubt the statement to that effect in Italian edit16. In 1570, when he was regent professor of civil law at the university of Roma, G. was made bishop of Acerno (prov. Salerno), with dispensation for defect in orders: ‘quia persona erat nota et doctor utruisque iuris ac iuris canonici in Curia Romana interpres et semper in habitu clericali incessit’. Eubel. At the end of his life (1580), he was translated to the archiepiscopal see of Rossano [prov. Cosenza], but he died at the beginning of 1583. G’s only known published work, Tractatus de maioribus rerumque capitalium episcoporum causis ad Papam deferendis et Romanae Sedis origine atque authoritate (t. 13.2) was first published in Venezia in 1572, with a dedicatory epistle to Pius V. Whether the version in TUI 1584 is the whole work or an extract remains to be explored.

itemt. 13.2, fol. 2ra
180Giovanetti, Francesco, b. Bologna 1510 or 1515, d. Bologna 1586 

A. De Benedictis, in DGI 1.1007–1008

itemt. 6.1, fol. 67rb
181Giovanneti (Gioanetti, Joanettus, de Zoanettis), Francesco, b. Bologna 1510 or 1515, d. Bologna 1586 

A. De Benedictis, in DGI.

itemt. 16, fol. 20rb
182Giovanni d’Andrea, b. ?Bologna ca. 1270, d. Bologna 1348 

K. Pennington, in MEMJ, s.n. Johannes Andreae. A. Bartocci, in DGI.

itemt. 9, fol. 2r; t. 14, fol. 344va
183Giovanni da Capestrano, b. Capestrano 1386, d. Ilok [Croatia] 1456 

A. Bartocci, S. Parent, in DGI 1.1012–13. G. was a Franciscan friar, active in missionary and reform work. He was canonized in 1690.

itemt. 1, fol. 323vb; t. 7, fol. 91vb; t. 9, fol. 77va; t. 13.1, fol. 32ra; t. 14, fol. 388ra; t. 14, fol. 398va
184Giovanni Oldrendi da Legnano, b. ?Legnano ca. 1325, d. Bologna 1383 

D. Girgensohn in DGI. K. Pennington in MEMJ s.n. Johannes de Lignano. G. received his doctorate in canon law at Bologna in 1350 and began immediately to teach canon law there. He did so until his death. He may have received his doctorate in civil law a bit later. G’s writings were extensive, and many of them remain only in manuscript. His range was also wide. The treatise De amicita (t. 12), for example, is as much about what we would call moral theology as it is about law. In addition to his teaching, he served in various offices, which were under papal control, in Bologna, and he was made a citizen of Bologna toward the end of his life. At the beginning of the schism he supported the election of Urban VI.

itemt. 12, fol. 227ra; t. 12, fol. 281rb; t. 14, fol. 307vb; t. 14, fol. 335ra; t. 14, fol. 336ra; t. 15.1, fol. 110va; t. 15.2, fol. 558ra; t. 16, fol. 371rb
185Giustini, Amedeo, b. Citta di Castello . . . , d. . . . ca. ?1477 

E. Cortesi, DGI 2.1035. G. was active in politics. His Tractatus sindicatus is his best known work, and the only one that seems to have been published. He may have been a student of Baldo degli Ubaldi; he was certainly influenced by him.

itemt. 7, fol. 332rb
186Gómez, Luis, b. Orihula [prov. Alicante, ESP] . . . , d. Sarno [prov. Salerno, ITA] 1543 

Not in DBE. K. Pennington, in MEMJ. The basics of G’s biography are given in MEMJ as are references to his commentaries on the regulae of the Apostolic Chancery, probably his best-known and most published work. He appears in Tractatus 1549 and TUI 1584 as the ‘editor’ of two treatises written by others on various types of papal letters (see Falconi and Arceriis). The Tractatus sive compendium gratiarum expectativarum per quam utile, et necessarium (t. 15.1) is clearly related to Stafileo’s Tractatus de gratiis expectativis (t. 15.1) which it follows both in Tractatus 1549 and TUI 1584. The first mention that we have found of his contribution to Stafileo’s treatise is in Secunda edictio Tractatus de gratijs expectatiuis, ac alijs literis ad uacatura beneficia. De stiloque, ac usu signature R.P.D. Io. Staphilei . . . ac De breuibus eiusdem, ac R.P.D. Ludouici Gomesij . . . cum summarijs & additionibus, necnon cum qubusdam [sic] notabilibus de officio legati apostolici, ex diuersis locis collectis, & sub certis capitibus dispositis, ac in unum nouiter redactis published by Michele Tramezzino in Venezia in 1549. So far as we can tell, the Stafileo treatise was first published in Venezia in 1540 also by Tramezzino. He was also the publisher (i.e., he funded) the other works that G. was involved in that were published in Roma in 1539. The 1540 edition is not available online, and none of the library catalogues mention any contribution by G. to that edition. Since he was dead by the time the second edition was published, he certainly would have had to have made his contribution to it before the second edition was published. It may not, however, have been included in the first edition. In addition to these works, Tramezzino also published in Roma in 1539 G’s Commentaria . . . in nonnullos libri sexti Decretalium titulos quos ipse tunc junior Patavii publice interpretabatur, additis sub titulo de rescriptis quibusdam opusculis, reprint Lyon 1546. A work that pretty clearly dates from G’s time at Padova is his Commentaria super difficili titulo institutionum de actionibus first published in Padova in 1523 (also ?Lyon and Venezia in the same year), reprint Lyon 1527, reprint with other works on similar topics Lyon 1567 and 1574, and beyond. G. also made additions to Giovanni Nevizano’s Index librorum omnium qui in utroque iure hinc inde eduntur, first published in Venezia in 1525, reprint Frankfurt 1579. This index was added to Bernardino Rutilio’s Iurisconsultorum vitae veterum quidem, published in Basel in 1537, reprinted 1533. In 1531, G. published in Roma De prodigiosis Tyberis inundationibus ad orbe condito ad annum MDXXXI. In 1542, he published at Roma a collection of papal bulls from John XXII to Paul III, reprint 1550. His Decisiones as an auditor of the Rota were not published until 1623 (Lyon).

itemt. 15.1, fol. 302va
187Goñi, Remiro de, b. Peralta [prov. Navarra] 1481, d. Muniain [prov. Navarra] 1554 

CERL Thesaurus. DBE, whence the places and dates. Italian edit16: ‘Nobile e dottore nel diritto, canonico della Chiesa di Pamplona’. Library cataloguers seem to agree that G., the Spaniard from Navarra, is the author of De immunitate ecclesiarum, personisque ad eas confugientibus (t. 13.1), but they leave the name in Latin (Remigius de Gonny) or convert it to French for the Tractatus de charitativo subsidio (t. 15.2). The former seems to have been first published in Toulouse in 1549, the latter simultaneously in Toulouse and Lyon in 1550. There is no reason to doubt that the authors are the same person and that that person is G.

itemt. 13.1, fol. 86ra; t. 15.2, fol. 169ra
188Grassi, Giovanni, b. Castelnuovo Scrivia sec. 15/ineunte, d. Valenza Po 1473 

M. G. di Renzo Villata, in DGI 1.1048–9; id., DBI 58 (2002) 621–3. That his name is properly spelled with a ‘G’ seems clear, though a spelling with ‘C’ has some support in later printed editions. G. was a canonist who taught principally at Torino.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 22rb; t. 3.1, fol. 366vb; t. 3.2, fol. 31ra; t. 3.2, fol. 72va
 Gregorius de MagalottisMagalotti, Gregorio 
 Gregorius Rhamnusius TarinatisRamusio, Gregorio 
189Grillandi, Paolo, b. ?Castiglione a Casauria [prov. Pescara] sec. ?15/exeunte, fl. ?1517 X 1536, d. . . . 

CERL Thesaurus. Mentioned by M. Sammarco in DGI, s.n. Tirabosco, Marcanonio. The German National authority file gives his place of origin as Castiglione del Conte in Abruzzo (now Castiglione a Casauria [prov. Pescara]) and mentions, as does TUI 1584, that he was a judge in Rome. TUI 1584 adds that he was a judge of criminal cases. There is reason to question the identification of Castiglione as the one in Abruzzo. TUI 1584 says that G. was of ‘Castilionis Florentini’, which would be modern Castiglion Fiorentino (prov. Arezzo). Unfortunately, all the previous editions that we have been able to consult (1536, 1545, 1547) simply descibe G. as ‘Castilionei’, which could be any one of a large number of places. What tips the balance in favor of Abruzzo is that the dedicatory epistles in the 1536 and a number of subsequent editions are to the archbishop of Chieti and the bishop of Fano. A stub in English Wikipedia ventures that he was born c. 1490, and states that he was a judge of heretics and witches in Rome from 1517. The annotated sources were unavailable when we tried them, but the statements are plausible, if not confirmed. Three of his works, De hereticis et sortilegiis (t. 11.2), De questionibus et tortura, and De relaxatione carceratorum (t. 11.1), first published together (Lyon 1536), enjoyed considerable printing success, and his ideas about inference are of some interest.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 294rb; t. 11.1, fol. 298rb; t. 11.1, fol. 347vb; t. 11.2, fol. 24rb; t. 11.2, fol. 381va
 Guerrinus Pisonus SoaciusPiso, Guarino 
190Guido da Suzzara (de Suzaria), b. ?Suzzara [prov. Mantova] . . . , fl. 1247, d. Bologna 1293 

C. Benatti, in DGI 1.1093–4; G. Mazzanti, DBI (2003) 421–6. It is not completely clear that G. came from Suzzara, but since he first appears as a lawyer in Mantova, that makes geographical sense. He led a peripatetic life. We find him in Modena, Venezia, Treviso, Padova, Bologna, Napoli, Reggio Emilia, and, once more, Bologna, where he seems to have taught from 1281 to his death in 1293. His teaching seems to have been entirely in civil law, but some of his works branch out into consideration of statutes.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 34rb; t. 6.1, fol. 189ra; t. 6.2, fol. 338rb; t. 11.1, fol. 241ra
 Guido PapaPape, Gui 
 Guilielmus de CunisCun, Guillaume de 
 Guilielmus de MandagotoMandagout (Mandagoti), Guillaume de 
 Guilielmus de MonserratMonserrat, Guillem de 
 Guilielmus DurandusDurand (Durantis), Guillaume, dit le Jeune 
 Guillelmus Le Rouille AlenconiensisRouillé, Guillaume le 
 Guinones Papa, DelphinatesPape, Gui 
 Gulielmus Bont.Coster, Willem 
 Gulielmus DurantisDurand, Guillaume l’ancien 
 Gulielmus HannetoniusHaneton, Guillaume 
 Gulielmus LuveranusLuveranus, Gulielmus 
 Gulielmus RedoanusRedoano, Guglielmo 
 Gundissaluus VilladiegoVilladiego, Gonzalo 
191Gutiérrez, Juan, b. Plasencia [prov. Cáceres] ca. 1535, d. Ciudad Rodrigo [prov. Salamanca] 1618 

Places and dates are derived from DBE. Pending an examination of the paper edition of DBE, we are assuming that DBE accepts the identification tentatively suggested in what follows: G. seems to be the Spanish jurist of the same name who is listed in CERL Thesaurus as having died in 1618. That seems a bit late for our G. The opera omnia of a Spanish canonist and moralist of that name were published in 7 volumes in Venezia in 1609. He is probably the same man as the one who is identified in what is described as the second edition of his consilia in 1595 as a canon of Ciudad. (This could be Ciudad Rodrigo, given as G’s place of death in DBE.) The toponym Placentini indicates that he came from Plasencia (prov. Cáceres). A brief biography of a man of that name is found in the Jöcher (1750) 2.1285–6. The biographical and bibliographical details match, but the only date offered is ‘lebte zu Ende des 16Seculi’. Considering how common the name is, it is possible that there was more than one Spanish legal writer of this name in this period.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 383ra; t. 6.2, fol. 35rb; t. 8.1, fol. 174ra
192Haneton, Guillaume, b. in or near Lille 1506, d. Tournai 1586 

C. Donahue, in MEMJ. The ascription of his De iure feodorum (t. 10.1) in HOLLIS to Gobler [recte Göbler], Justinus, 1503 or 4–1567, is simply mistaken, a confusion, it would seem, of the De iure feodorum with H’s De ordine et forma iudiciorum (not in TUI 1584), which Göbler translated into German (Frankfurt 1543).

itemt. 10.1, fol. 162vb
 Henricus BottaeusBottis, Henricus de 
 Hercules Severolus FaventiniSeveroli, Ercole 
193Hermannus Barensis, fl. sec. 15 ineunte 

The library cataloguers seem to have settled on ‘Hermann de Bare’ as the name of the author, identify him as German, and give him a floruit of 1410. CERL Thesaurus. The date appears in at least one of the sample libels (f. 96ra). H.’s toponym suggests the duchy or town of Bar[-le-Duc, dép. Meuse]. The copy in TUI lacks the dedicatory epistle that is found in the ed. Strasbourg 1510 (under the title Refugium advocatorum, sig. a[1r]), and which allowed M. A. Bethmann-Hollweg (Der Civilprozess des gemeinen Rechts [Bonn 1874] 6.1.257–9) to identify the author as an advocate in the imperial court who reworked a similar formulary of Pierre Jacobi’s.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 89vb
 Hieronymus de LucaAmadei (Amidei), Girolamo 
 Hieronymus de Monte, BrixiensisMonti, Girolamo 
 Hieronymus de ZanetinisZanettini, Girolamo 
 Hieronymus Garzonius AuximatisGarzoni, Girolamo 
 Hieronymus GigantisGiganti, Girolamo 
 Hieronymus ManfredusManfredi, Girolamo 
 Hieronymus MangiarieMangiaria, Hieronymus 
 Hieronymus Muscornus CypriusMuscornus, Hieronymus 
 Hieronymus Praevidellus RegiensisPrevidelli, Girolamo 
 Hippolytus Bonacossa, Nobilis FerrariensisBonacossi, Ippolito 
194Hojeda de Mendoza, Alfonso, b. Carmona [prov. Sevilla] . . . , fl. 1579, d. . . . 

Not in DBE. CERL Thesaurus. H. should not be confused, as some library cataloguers do, with his contemporary Alfonso de Mendoza, who was an Augustinian theologian. The title of what seems to be the first edition of H’s only published work, Tractatus de beneficiorum incompatibilitate atque compatibilitate (Venezia 1579), describes H. as ‘Carmonensis’ and ‘Collegii Sanctae Mariae de Jesu et Vniuersitatis Hispalensis collegae, Cathedrae primariae dictae Vniuersitatis Iuris Pontificii Regentis’. His dedicatory epistle to Gregory XIII says that he studied both laws at Salamanca. That he was teaching canon law in Sevilla at the time of the publication seems reasonably clear. We have been unable to discover anything more about him.

itemt. 15.1, fol. 112ra
195Hoppers, Joachim, b. Sneek 1523, d. Madrid 1576 

CERL Thesaurus. A distinguished jurist of the Hapsburg Netherlands. A brief account of his life may be found in Dutch Wikipedia.

itemt. 1, fol. 81va
 Horatius Lucius GalliensisLuzi, Orazio 
 Horatius Mandosius Mandosio, Oratio 
196Hugo (Huck, Hug, Hugonis), Johannes, b. Schlettstadt [now Sélestat, dép. Bas-Rhin] ca. 1460 , d. ?Strasbourg p. 1504 

U. Muhlack, in NDB. H. received a humanistic formation from a well-known rector of the church in his home town. He moved to Strasbourg where he became the vicar of a church. He translated Terence into German, was made a papal and imperial notary, and around 1500 became involved in the dispute between the emperor Maxmilian and the German cardinals. He published his best-known work, the Quadrivium ecclesiae in 1504 in which he sought, in a manner reminiscent of the 11th century, to untangle the relationship between regnum and sacerdotium. Whether the Tractatus de officio quatuor praelatorum is an extract from the Quadrivium or whether it is an independent work requires more exploration. The De officio does not seem to have been published independently until its appearance in Tractatus 1549. References to H. after 1504 are vague, and his death date is unknown.

itemt. 13.2, fol. 289vb
 Hugo DoneliusDoneau (Donellus), Hugues 
 Iachobus RaevardusRaevardus, Jacobus 
197Iacopo Balduini (di Balduino, de’ Balduinis, Baldovini), b. Bologna  . . , fl. 1210, d. Bologna 1235 

N. Sarti, DBI 1.1095–6 . I. was a student of Azo’s. For the item that is possibly his in TUI 1584, see below under Jacobus Aegidii.

198Iacopo Bottrigari, b. Bologna ca. 1274, d. Bologna 1348 

M. Kriechbaum, in DGI 1.1096–1098; Lange/Kriechbuam, Kommentatoren 621–632. I. was born and remained in Bologna all his long life. He qualified as a notary and did not receive his doctorate until 1309. He wrote comments on selected titles of the Digestum vetus, a Lectura on the Code, and a number of short treatises. His method is regarded as transitional between the glossators and the commentators. He died of the plague.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 206ra; t. 4, fol. 60va; t. 6.2, fol. 404ra; t. 9, fol. 448rb
199Iacopo da Arena, b. Parma sec. 13/1, d. ?Napoli 1297/98 

D. Quaglioni, in DGI 1.1099–1101, who warns that the ‘fervida attività delle tipografie giuridiche del secolo XVI [si tradusse] in una larga attribuzione a I. di opere di dubbia paternità’. Lange/Kriechbaum, Kommentatoren 435-444. Little is known of I’s life. He seems to have taught at Padova, perhaps at Bologna, and probably ended his life in Napoli. He left a Lectura on the Code and comments on various passages of the Digest. For the treatises attributed to him see the two sources cited above.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 34vb; t. 3.2, fol. 74va; t. 3.2, fol. 141ra; t. 3.2, fol. 143rb; t. 3.2, fol. 394vb; t. 4, fol. 3ra; t. 8.1, fol. 194vb; t. 11.1, fol. 291vb; t. 11.1, fol. 355rb
200Iacopo di Ardizzone (Jacobus de domino Ardizone de Broilo), b. Verona sec. 12/exeutnte X sec 13/ineunte, d. p. 1244 

F. Roggero, in DGI. After studying at Bologna I. returned to Verona, where he became a practicing lawyer and held a number of public offices. He is the author of an important Summa feudorum (t. 10.1), which is incorporated in the second recension of the Libri feudorum and hence was used for purposes of instruction in that work.

itemt. 10.1, fol. 225rb
201Iacopo di Belviso (Belvisi), b. Bologna p. 1270, d. Bologna 1335 

G. G. Mullusi, in DGI 1.1102–1103; Lange/Kriechbaum, Kommentatoren 613–620. I. studied in Bologna, but seems to have earned his doctorarate at Napoli, where he is recorded as a teacher. He also taught at Perugia and Siena, returning to Bologna as a teacher at the end of his life. He was a teacher of Bartolus and an important figure in developing the method of the commentators. He left important commentaries on the Novels and the Libri feudorum, consilia, and a number of shorter works, though not all of those later ascribed to him are in fact by him.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 136vb; t. 14, fol. 387ra
 Incertus auctorAuctor incertus 
202Innocent (Innocentius) IV, Pope, b. Genova a. 1200, elected pope 1243, d. Napoli 1254 

K. Pennington, in MEMJ. Known as Sinibaldus Fliscus (Sinibaldo de’ Fieschi, Sinibaldo Fieschi dei conti di Lavagna) before he became pope, he wanted his work as a writer on canon law to be distinguished from his official acts as pope. In this he was disappointed. Scribes of manuscripts, authors of legal works, and, of course, when they came into being, printers, cited him as Innocentius papa. His most important canonistic work is a lectura on the Liber extra.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 104ra
203Innocent (Innocentius) V, pope (né Pierre de Tarentaise), b. . . . ca. 1224, d. Roma 1276 

I. was elected pope in January and died in June of 1276. His place of origin is controversial, because there are a number places that could answer to ‘Tarentaise’. We need not pursue the matter here because it turns out that he was not a jurist. The attribution to him in TUI 1584 of De exceptionibus (t. 3.2) is erroneous. For that work, see Innocent IV. He is sometimes said to have written the well-known abbreviation of Gratian’s Decreta with the incipit Verbum abbreviatum, but that also seems to be a misattribution. See Vie du Bienheureux Innocent V (Frère Pierre de Tarentaise), archevêque de Lyon, primat des Gaules et premier pape de l’Ordre des Frères prêcheurs par un religieux du même Ordre (Città del Vaticano 1896) 59 n. 1.

 Ioannes Lopez de Palatios Ruvios HispanusLópez de Vivero, Juan 
204Isidoro de Sevilla, san, b. . . . ca. 1560, d. ?Sevilla 636 

DBE. An enthusiastic biography may be found in English Wikipedia with references to more scholarly works. Suffice it to say here that I’s De fide catholica contra Iudeos (t. 14) is almost as well known as his Etymologiae, and the only issue about its reprinting in TUI 1584 is the extent to which the reprint varies from the textus receptus (Clavis patrum latinorum 1198).

itemt. 14, fol. 23ra
 Isidorus Episcopus HispalensisIsidoro de Sevilla, san 
205Jacobi (Jame d’Aurillac), Pierre, b. Aurillac ca. 1270, d. Clermont 1347 

L. de Carbonnières, in DHJF 547–549. J. served, at various times, as official of both Le Puy and Mende, and is mentioned as a secular judge in various courts in the same region. He was a professor at the university of Montpellier. His Liber libellorum, also known as Practica aurea libellorum, enjoyed considerable success for three centuries.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 309va
 Jacobus a SaaSá, Diogo de 
206Jacobus Aegidii de Veterbio, prior Aureliensis [?Aureil, dép Haute-Vienne], sec. ?13/2 

CERL Thesaurus s.n. Aegidius, Jacobus. The remaining details come from Diplovatatius’ edition of De reprobatione testium, t. 4, f. 73rb.

itemt. 4, fol. 73rb
 Jacobus BalduiniIacopo Balduini 
 Jacobus CuiaciusCujas, Jacques 
 Jacobus de ArdizoneIacopo di Ardizzone 
 Jacobus de ArenaIacopo da Arena 
 Jacobus de AyelloAjello, Giacomo de 
 Jacobus de BelvisoIacopo di Belviso 
 Jacobus de Butrigarius BononiensisIacopo Bottrigari 
 Jacobus de Castillo alias de villa sanctae [sic]Castillo de Villasante, Diego del 
 Jacobus de S. GeorgioSan Giorgio, Giacomino 
 Jacobus Gentilis PerusinusGentili, Iacopo 
 Jacobus Lanfranchinus VeronensisLanfranchinus, Jacobus 
 Jacobus NovellusNovello, Jacopo 
 Jacobus RaevardusRaevardus, Jacobus 
 Jacobus RichiusRick, Jakob 
 Jacobus SimancaSimancas, Diego de 
 Jacobus Venentus, BononiensisVenenti, Giacomo 
 Jacobus ZocchusZocchi, Giacomo di Giovanni 
207Jacovacci ( Giacovazzi, de Jacobatiis, Jacobacci, Jacovazzi), Domenico, b. Roma ?1444, d. Roma ?1527 

Not in DGI. R. Becker, in DBI (62 [2004]).

itemt. 13.1, fol. 190rb
 Joachimus HopperusHoppers, Joachim 
 Joannes a RoyasRojas, Juan de 
 Joannes AndreeGiovanni d’Andrea 
 Joannes Antonius RubeusRossi, Giovanni Antonio 
 Joannes Arze ab OtaloraArce de Otálora, Juan 
 Joannes Baptista BoviusBovio, Giovanni Battista 
 Joannes Baptista Caccialupus de Sancto SeverinoCaccialupi, Giovanni 
 Joannes Baptista de Caccialupis (Caccialupus), de S. SeverinoCaccialupi, Giovanni Battista 
 Joannes Baptista de Sancto BlasioBattista da Sambiagio 
 Joannes Baptista Lupi, GeminianusLupi Geminiani, Giovanni Battista 
 Joannes Baptista PerusinusAlfani, Giovanni Battista 
 Joannes Baptista PontanusPontano, Giovanni Battista 
 Joannes Bernardinus PandusPandi, Giovanni Bernardino 
 Joannes Blanchus MarsiliensusBlanc, Jean 
 Joannes Boscheus NeustriusBosc, Jean du 
 Joannes BrunellusBruneau, Jean 
 Joannes CalderinusCalderini, Giovanni 
 Joannes CampesiusCampeggi, Giovanni 
 Joannes CarafaCarafa, Giovanni Antonio 
 Joannes CopusCop, Jean 
 Joannes CorasiusCoras, Jean de 
 Joannes Crotus a MonteferratoCrotti, Giovanni 
 Joannes CyntholtzLindholtz, Johannes 
 Joannes de (a) CapistranoGiovanni da Capestrano 
 Joannes de Agusellis de CesenaAnguissola, Giovanni degli 
 Joannes de Bertachinus de FirmoBertachini, Giovanni 
 Joannes de GrassisGrassi, Giovanni 
 Joannes de Legnano BononiensisGiovanni da Legnano 
 Joannes de Roias, Episcopus SergentensisRojas, Juan de 
 Joannes de Selva GallusSelve, Jean 
208Joannes de Vischis, ?sec. 15 

Not in CERL Thesaurus. Not in MEMJ. Library cataloguers have given up on J. If they catalogue the work at all, they leave the name in Latin and give no identification. J. is found in no authority file of which we are aware. The Tractatus de immunitate ecclesiae was first published in Lyon in 1519 as part of a collection of treatises entitled Tractatus Singulares et in praxi contingibiles diuersorum doctorum. The book is very rare, but it was microfilmed in the project of French Books Prior to 1601, which we have not seen. WorldCat. It was not, so far as we can yet tell, published in Tractatus 1549, and was not published again before or after 1584. Ágoston Roskoványi, in his Romanus Pontifex tamquam primas ecclesiae et princeps civilis e monumentis omnium seculorum demonstratus (Neutra 1867) 1.669 lists among ‘scripta pro pontificatu contra imperium’ of the 14th century a Tractatus de immunitate ecclesiae by a ‘Ioannes de Vischbach Abbas Benedictinus’, which he dates to 1355 and which he says makes the same argument as Alberigo da Rosate: ‘impugnant universalem monarchiam Imperatoris et evolvit independentiam potestatis ecclesiasticae’. The statement of the argument of the treatise is correct. That an early 16th-century French printer could have turned ‘Vischbach’ (modern Fischbach, prov. Styria, ÖST) into ‘Vischis’ is certainly possible. Roskoványi’s identification, however, must be rejected as an identification of the treatise in TUI 1584. The work cites both Panormitanus and Zabarella frequently, and so it must date, in the form in which we have it, from at least the 15th century. We fall back, then, with some discomfort, on Ziletti’s identification of J.: ‘praepositus ecclesie cathedralis Thaurinensis, Decretum in Thaurinensi universitati legens’. That J. is not mentioned in T. Vallauri, Storia delle università degli studi del Piemonte 1 (Torino 1845), is troubling but not decisive. A more careful examination of the citations in the work might allow us to tie down the date more precisely.

itemt. 13.1, fol. 11rb
 Joannes Dilecto Durante GualdensusDurante, Giovanni Diletto 
 Joannes FeraldusFerrault, Jean 
 Joannes Ferrarius, MontaniFerrarius Montanus, Joannes 
 Joannes FicardusFichard, Johann 
 Joannes Franciscus BalbusBalbo (Balbi, de Balbis), Giovanni Francesco 
 Joannes Franciscus de PavinisPavini delle Carte, Giovanni Francesco 
 Joannes Franciscus Fara Sardus, SaxarensisFara, Giovanni Francesco 
 Joannes GaronisGarons, Jean de 
 Joannes Garsia Gallecus HispanusGarcía [?de Saavedra], Juan 
 Joannes Gillotus BriennensisGillot, Jean 
 Joannes Guterius Placentini HispaniGutiérrez, Juan 
 Joannes Hieronymus AlbanusAlbani (Albano), Giovan Gerolamo 
 Joannes Hugonis SelestadtHugo (Huck, Hug, Hugonis), Johannes 
 Joannes IureconsultusOldendorp, Johann 
 Joannes Jacobus a Canibus, PatavinusCan, Giovanni 
 Joannes Lecirier, ParisiensisCirier, Jean Le 
 Joannes Lupus, de HispaniaLópez de Vivero, Juan 
 Joannes Maria Monticellus de BobioMonticelli, Giovanni Maria 
 Joannes Mauritius, Bolani [sic, Dolani is probably meant]Mauritius, Joannes 
 Joannes MontaigneMontaigne, Jean 
 Joannes Nicholai ArelatanusNicolas, Jean 
 Joannes NiderNider, Johannes 
 Joannes QuintinusQuintin, Jean 
209Joannes Randeus, ?sec. 16 

CERL Thesaurus. Library cataloguers have pretty much given up on J. He appears by his Latin name in the authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek with no further information. Thomas-Maria Mamachi, Originum et Antiquitatum Christianarum Libri XX, 5.1 (Roma 1755) 428 cites him by his Latin name, along with many others, as a writer who in the 16th century maintained that the pope was the only monarch of the Church after Christ. TUI 1584 describes J. as ‘Gallus’, and there is no reason to doubt that. His Tractatus dispensationum per episcopos (t. 14) begins: ‘Venite ad Reverendissimum Parisiensem Episcopum’. Appended to the tract is a list of ‘Casus quibus summus pontifex non possit aut debeat dispensare’ (fol. 174v-175r). The tract is also one of the few in TUI 1584 that seems not to have had a prior printing, nor, so far as we can determine, did it have a subsequent one. J’s vernacular name may have been Jean Rande or Randé, but that does not help to identify him. The contents of the work suggest strongly that he was a cleric. He was certainly familiar with canon law, though he may not have been, as Ziletti suggests, an ‘indubitatus doctor’ in any technical sense. The context of the work may be religious conflicts in France of the 1560s, 70s, and 80s in which J. would have decidedly been on the Catholic side. Further on the evidence we have before us we cannot go.

itemt. 14, fol. 167vb
 Joannes RaynaudusRaynaud, Jean 
 Joannes RedinRedín, Juan 
 Joannes Regnaudus AvenionensisRaynaud, Jean 
210Joannes Rogeraius Trochaeus Parisiensis, sec. ?16/m 

Not in DHJF. C. Donahue, in MEMJ. CERL Thesaurus has two entries for what seems to be the same man: s.n. Trochaeus, Joannes R. with a reference to his De officio iudicis (TUI 1584 t. 3.1) and s.n. Trochaeus, Joannes Rogeraius without any reference. The surname Troche exists, though it is not common. There is a very rare Italian surname Trocheo, but everything that we know about J. suggests that he was French. He is described in the first edition of his De officio iudicis as a jurisconsult of Paris, there is no reason to doubt that he was. The work was first printed in Lyon in 1550 and is dedicated at Lyon to one Joannes Papponius, who is described as iudex silvaticae provinciae. This is probably Jean Papon, 1507–1590, who was lieutenant-general of the bailliage of Forez from 1545 to 1585 (see L. Pfister, in DHJF 782–783). The De officio iudicis has a decidedly humanist bent, and it is possible that Trochaeus is some kind of humanist in-joke based on the Latin metrical foot trochee. It is also possible that it refers to the some obscure place-name. The voivodeship of Trakai, for example, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania is Tracensis in Latin. If either of these suggestions is plausible, then we should be looking for someone named Jean Rogeray. (The plausibility of this suggestion is somewhat increased by the fact that J. refers to himself as ‘Rogeraius’ in the dedicatory epistle.) There is, for example, a Jean de la Rogeraye, a proctor in the parlement, who is listed as owning the Paraphrases of Erasmus on 26 June 1539. Guy Bedouelle and Bernard Roussel ed., Le Temps des Réformes et la Bible, Bible de tous les temps, 5 (Paris 1989) 159. Cutting the other way is the fact that there was a Maximus Trochaeus, who wrote the preface to, and probably edited, a work called Virtutum vitiorumque exempla (1st ed. Antwerpen 1550) said to have been written by Nichoalus de Hanapis, O.P., former partriach of Jerusalem. Library cataloguers who venture to put Maximus’ name into the vernacular call him ‘Massimo Trocheo’ (WorldCat).

itemt. 3.1, fol. 129va; t. 3.1, fol. 136ra
 Joannes Saporta, legum doctor TolosanusSaporta, Jean 
 Joannes StaphileusStafileo, Giovanni (Ivan) 
 Joannes ThierryThierry, Jean 
 Joannes Thoma de Marinis CapvanusMarinis, Giovanni Tommaso de 
 Joannes Ulricus ZasiusZasius, Johann Ulrich 
211Joannes, monachus Cistersiensis, fl. sec. 13/exeunte X sec. 14/ineunte 

K. Pennington and C. Donahue, in MEMJ, s.n. Johannes (?Gerhardus) Monachus. J. is frequently confused with Jean Lemoine (also ‘Joannes Monachus’ in Latin), who was not a Cistercian (or even a monk). TUI 1584, however, seems to have gotten it right.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 122ra
 Jodocus Damhouderius, BrugensisDamhouder, Joos de 
 Josephus Stevanus ValentinusEsteve i Joan, Josep (Josè Esteve, Josephus Stevanus) 
 Julius Claus AlexandrinusClaro, Giulio 
 Julius Ferrettus RavennatisFerretti, Giulio 
 L’Escut, Nicolle deEscut, Nicolas de l’ 
 La Pape, Guy dePape, Gui 
 Laelius JordanusGiordano, Lelio 
 Laelius Tavrellus FanensisTorelli, Laelio 
212Lana, Luigi, b. Brescia . . . , fl. sec. ?16/2, d. . . . 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus. The dates in the Thesaurus are publication dates. L. is described in the first edition (Venzia 1574) of the Enchiridion as a jurisconsult of Brescia and an ‘eques auratus’ but not as a doctor. The dedicatory epistle is by the bookseller, Giordano Ziletti, addressed to the college of notaries of Venice. Hence, we cannot be sure that L. was alive when the first edition was published.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 180ra
213Lancellotti, Roberto, b. ?Perugia . . . , d. ?Perugia 1583 

L. Sinisi, in DGI 1.1142. Referenced by Sinisi in the article on Lancellotti, Giovanni Paolo, the well-known 16th century canonist. L. was Giovanni’s brother, a priest, and the author of the De attentatis (t. 5), 1st ed. Roma 1576, which continued to be published through 1685. He also worked with his brother on the latter’s Institutiones iuris canonici. L.’s death date comes from CERL Thesaurus, corrected from 1585 in both the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek and the LC authority files.

itemt. 5, fol. 286va
 Lancellotus Politi (Polyti) SenensisPoliti, Ambrogio 
 Lancilottus GalliaGallia, Lancelotto 
214Lanfranchini, Cristoforo, b. Verona 1430, d. ?Venezia 1503 

F. Santi, in DBI (63 [2004]). L’s Vtrum praeferendus sit doctor an miles (t. 18) appears in a number of incunabula. It was given as an oration on the occasion of the election of Niccolò Tron as doge of Venezia in 1471.

itemt. 18, fol. 21rb
215Lanfranchinus, Jacobus, Veronensis, sec. ?15 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus tells us that L. wrote additiones for juristic works other than Quaestiones in materia arbitrorum (t. 3.1). The date that it offers for L., 1590, seems too late for an author who is already recorded in Tractatus 1549. Finding L., however, has so far evaded us. Schulte 2.392 briefly mentions a 15th-century canonist named Lanfranchinus. The name is not common, but Schulte’s Lanfranchinus came from Trani, and Trani is a long way from Verona.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 316ra
216Lanfranco da Oriano (Lanfrancus de Ariadno), b. Oriano 1400 X 1410, d. Brescia 1488 

F. Roggero, in DGI 1.1146, who notes name variants: ‘Oriani’, ‘Lanfrancus de Oriano Brisianus’; K. Pennington, in MEMJ, s.n. Lanfrancus de Oriano. L. taught both civil and canon law at Padova, Ferrara, and, again, at Padova. His writings are many in both fields, with some emphasis on procedure.

itemt. 2, fol. 391ra; t. 3.1, fol. 206va; t. 3.1, fol. 359ra; t. 3.2, fol. 58rb; t. 3.2, fol. 78va; t. 3.2, fol. 102ra; t. 3.2, fol. 103ra; t. 3.2, fol. 396ra; t. 4, fol. 29rb; t. 4, fol. 33va; t. 4, fol. 47rb; t. 4, fol. 179ra
217Lapo da Poggibonsi (Lapus Tuctus), b. Poggibonsi [prov. Siena] sec. 13/exeunte, d. ?San Miniato al Monte a. 4.viii.1363 

K. Pennington, in MEMJ, s.n. Lapus Tuctus. A. Bartocci, in DBI (63 [2004]). Much of his work remains in manuscript, particularly his consilia. For his additions to the De pemutatione beneficiorum (t. 15.1), see Petrucci. Part, but apparently only a part, of his lectura on the Sext and the Clementines was published in Roma in 1589 with the title: Lapus Abbas sancti Miniati egregii decretor. doctoris Super libro sexto decretalium et clementinis

itemt. 14, fol. 363ra
 Lapus de CastellionusCastiglionchio, Lapo da 
 Laurentius de Rodulfis, civis FlorentinusRidolfi, Lorenzo 
 Laurentius SylvanusSilvano, Lorenzo 
218Lauret, Bernard, b. ?Pézenas [dép. Hérault] . . . , d. . . . 1495 

P. Arabeyre, in DHJF. L., having studied at the university of Montpellier, was professor in utroque from at least 1455, a title that he retained throughout his long career, although it is doubtful how much teaching he actually did after the focus of his career moved to the parlement of Toulouse. From 1461 he was the king’s advocate in the parlement. In 1472 he became premier président of the parlement, a position that he held until his death. His Casus in quibus iudex saecularis potest manus in personas clericorum sine metu excommunicationis imponere (t. 11.1, repeated in t. 16), perhaps written while he was still teaching at Montpellier, enjoyed a great printing success and is taken as an indication of the growing dominance of secular over ecclesiastical jurisdiction in this period.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 328va; t. 16, fol. 301rb
 Laurus de Palazzolis (de Palatiis)Palazzolo, Lauro 
 Le Caron, LouisCaron, Louis le 
 Leobinus DalleriusDallier, Léobin 
219Leoni, Paolo, b. ?Padova . . . , d. Ferrara 1590 

Mentioned in DGI 2.1974 as having written a De substitutionibus (t. 8.1) before the publication of the work of the same title of Alessandro Trentacinque (1st ed. Venezia 1588). Not in DBI. CERL Thesaurus. L. was bishop of Ferrara from 1578 until his death in 1590. Of his career before that we have been able to find little. He apparently came from Padova; he probably taught there, because his published works (see WorldCat) have a decidedly academic bent. Possibly an earlier version of the De substitutionibus was published in Napoli in 1563.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 277rb
220Lindholtz, Johannes, b. Müncheberg near Frankfurt . . . , d. Müncheberg near Frankfurt, 1535 

Schwarze, in ADB. The spelling of L’s name as ‘Cyntholz’ is apparently the result of a printer's error. L. is known more as a philosopher and humanist than as a jurist. He wrote about Aristotle, Porphyry, and Thomas Aquinas. He did obtain a doctorate in law at the university of Frankfurt, but he taught philosophy there. The Arbores consanguinitatis (t. 9) is a relatively youthful work, first published in 1516.

itemt. 9, fol. 145ra
221López de Segovia, Juan, b. Segovia 1440, d. Roma 1496 

Form of name, places, and dates from DBE.

itemt. 9, fol. 39va; t. 13.1, fol. 2ra; t. 16, fol. 303rb; t. 16, fol. 320va
222López de Vivero, Juan, b. Salamanca 1450, d. 1524 

Form of name, dates, and place from DBE. That L. was sometimes called López de Palacios Rubios is indicated in DBE by the fact that it cross-references that name to this one.

itemt. 11.2, fol. 19va
223Lucani, Francesco, b. Parma sec. 15/1, fl. 1463 X 1484, d. . . . 

M. P. Zanonbini, in DBI (vol. 66, 2006). L. was quite well-known in his time, and it is odd that nothing is known of his death. Most of L’s career was spent in the service of Sforza dukes of Milano, and he seems to have played in important role in reorganizing the administration, particularly the legal administration, of the duchy. He wrote several works on public law, some of which were printed, and some of which survive only in manuscript. Among the former is his De privilegio fisci (t. 12).

itemt. 12, fol. 6rb
 Ludivicus Carbonis a CostacciaroCarbone a Costacciaro, Ludovico 
 Ludovicus a Sardis, FerrariensisSardi, Ludovico 
 Ludovicus BolognusBolognini, Lodovico 
 Ludovicus CareriusCarerio, Lodovico 
 Ludovicus CharondasCaron, Louis le 
 Ludovicus GomesGómez, Luis 
 Ludovicus Lana PatriciusLana, Luigi 
 Ludovicus MontaltusMontalto, Ludovico 
 Ludovicus Pelleus CarnutensisPelleus, Ludovicus 
224Lupi Geminiani, Giovanni Battista, b. S. Gimignano sec. 16, d. Firenze p. 1612 

C. Gamba, in DGI 2.1216–1217

itemt. 7, fol. 113rb
225Luveranus, Gulielmus, sec. ?16/1 

Not in DGI, DBI, or CERL Thesaurus. Appears in library catalogues either as here or uninverted. His only work appears to be the commentary on the Arbor iurisdicionum (t. 3.1), a work which seems to have been printed only TUI 1584 and in Tractatus 1549. None of the cataloguers have attempted to identify the surname (possibly a Latinization of the French toponym Louviers or of the rare southern Italian surname Luvarà). We have been unable to find out anything about him other than the attribution to him of this item.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 18va
226Luzi, Orazio, b. Cagli [prov. Pesaro e Urbino] 1541, d. . . . 1569 

CERL Thesaurus. L. is said to have studied law at Padova and Bologna, but he is not recorded as a doctor. He was nominated by Carlo Borromeo as provost of Vimercate (prov. Monza and Brianza), but he died young. An edition of the canons and decrees of the council of Trent with his annotations was first published in Venezia in 1565, and many times reprinted. His De privilegiis scholarium (t. 18.0), an appropriate topic for one of his age, was first published in Padova in 1564.

itemt. 18, fol. 67va
 M. Antonius Marsilii Columna Bononiensis I.C. archiepiscopus SalerniMarsili Colonna, Marco Antonio 
 M[?agister] M[artinus] Ra(e)vaudus (Revardus)Ravault, Martin 
227Magalotti, Gregorio, b. Roma sec. 15/2, d. Bologna 1537 

DBI. Scion of a Roman noble family, G. was a cleric who worked in papal administration. He served as governor of Roma and then as governor or legate in various papal states. At the end of his life he was bishop of Chiusi, 1534–1537, but apparently did not serve in his diocese. His only known work Securitatis ac salvi conductus tractatus (t. 11.1) was written while he was governor of Roma, but was first published postumously in 1538.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 231va
228Maistre, Gilles Le, b. Montléry [dép. Essonne] ca. 1499, d. Paris 1562 

J. Krynen, in DHJF, s.n. Le Maistre (Lemaistre), Gilles.

itemt. 13.2, fol. 433vb
229Maletta (Maletti), Alberico. b. Mortara ca. 1410, d. Campalestro 1466 

F. M. Vaglienti, in DGI 2.1234. Neither M.’s place of birth nor of his death is Pavia (Papiniensis in the Latin), but both are close to Pavia, where he was a member of the college of lawyers. He was a practicing lawyer and a diplomat.

itemt. 4, fol. 162ra
230Malvetius, Troilus (?Malvezzi, Troilo), b. . . . , d. ?Bologna ?1495 

CERL Thesaurus. The death date of 1496 given in the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek authority file may not be quite right, but it is close. The dedication of what seems to be the first printing of M’s De sortibus (t. 11.2) ([Bologna:] Ugo Rugerius [ca. 1490]) is to one A.G. who is described as the chancellor of the Bolognese Academy. A.G. can probably be identified, and that would confirm the date. In the dedication M. describes himself as doctor utriusque iuris and a canon of Bologna. This incunabulum also contains a consilium by M. De commenda beneficiorum. To M. is also ascribed the tabula of Andreas Barbatius De praestantia cardinalium (Bologna: Ugo Rugerius 1487) and a tract De oblationibus ecclesiae (t. 14), printed in the same work. His De canonisatione Sanctorum (t. 14) was published in the same year by Rugerius (GW M20167, sn. Troilus Malvitius). On the basis of the reference in this work to the death of Simon of Trent in 1475, T. Wetzstein was able to establish firm bracketing dates for the writing of this treatise. Heilige vor Gericht: das Kanonisationsverfahren im europäischen Spätmittelalter (Köln 2004) 288 n. 248. He cites (ibid.) D. Maffei’s edition of Martinus Garati’s Tractatus de canonizatione sanctorum (Studi senesi, [1988] Supplementum, 580–603) for the proposition that M. was murdered in 1495.

itemt. 11.2, fol. 398rb; t. 14, fol. 97ra; t. 14, fol. 136va
231Mandagout (Mandagoti), Guillaume de, b. . . . sec. 13/m, d. Avignon 1321 

M. Bégou-Davia, in DHJF. K. Pennington, in MEMJ s.n. Guillelmus de Mandagato. M. came either from Cros de Mandagost (dép. Hérault) or Mandagout (dép. Gard). He was archbishop of Embrun from 1295 to 1311. Clement V translated him to Aix where he served until 1313 when John XXII made him cardinal-bishop of Palestrina.

itemt. 15.1, fol. 407va
232Mandosi, Quintiliano, b. Amelia 1514, d. Roma 1593 

A. Landi, in DGI 2.1249–50. M. was a noted advocate in the Roman curia.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 59ra; t. 5, fol. 86ra; t. 17, fol. 208va
233Mandosio, Oratio, b. ?Amilia  . . , d. ?Roma 1594 

CERL Thesaurus. Mentioned in DBI, s.n. Mandosi, Prospero. We take the details about M. from Italian edit16. We have not, for the most part, confirmed them, but we have no reason to doubt them. Son of a better-known father, Quintiliano (DGI, s.n.), M., like his father, was a lawyer who practiced in the Roman courts and held various positions in the papal bureaucracy, including being an auditor of the Rota. Like his father, he is said to have been interested in philosophy and theology, as well as in law, but that is less apparent from his published works. M. seems to have predeceased his father who lived to be almost 80, which probably means that M. died in what today would be regarded as middle age. His first published work seems to be additiones to the Consilia of the juristic prodigy Ludovico Pontano (1409–1439) (Venezia 1568 [online], reprint Frankfurt 1577, Venezia 1581, Torino 1582). A commentary on the rules of the Apostolic Chancery followed (Roma 1572). The first edition of the De privilegiis (t. 18) was published in Firenze in 1575 (online). The title of the first edition mentions that the work is particularly concerned with the privileges of the Jesuits. There is a manuscript consilium of his in Berkeley, CA, Robbins MS 38, fol. 12v–14r.

itemt. 18, fol. 124va
234Manfredi, Girolamo, b. Bologna 1527, d. Bologna 1598 

Not in DGI; V. Lavenia, in DBI. Doctor in utroque, probably from Ferrara, though he also seems to have studied at Bologna, M. practiced law and worked in the bureaucracy of the Papal States, ultimately becoming prefect of Ravenna, Cesena and Faenza during the pontificate of Sixtus V. His written works all seem to be derived from his legal practice, of which the De attentatis (t. 5) is probably the best known.

itemt. 5, fol. 226va; t. 13.2, fol. 86ra
235Mangiaria, Hieronymus, sec. ?15 

The only references to this man that we have been able to find are in WorldCat, where he appears in catalogues of libraries that have done an item analysis of TUI 1584. The work Super declaratione arbore consanguinitatis etc. (t. 9) is described as ‘Hieronymi Mangiariȩ, I.C. Papiensis in Gymnasio Papiensi ordinarium legentis anno 1465 nunc primum in luce prolatus’. Perhaps we should believe it. To be checked Lauree pavesi nella seconda metà del ’400, esp. vol. 3, which has a list from 1425–1482.

itemt. 9, fol. 158va
236Mantova Benavides, Marco Antonio, b. Padova 1489, d. Padova 1582 

C. Zendri, in DGI 2.1261–1262

itemt. 6.2, fol. 273vb; t. 8.1, fol. 440ra; t. 8.2, fol. 386vb; t. 13.1, fol. 182vb; t. 16, fol. 457rb
 Marcus Antonius BardusBardi, Marcantonio 
 Marcus Antonius BavieraBonetti, Marcantonio 
 Marcus Antonius Blancus PatavinusBianchi, Marcantonio 
 Marcus Antonius CuchusCucchi, Marco Antonio 
 Marcus Mantua Bonavito PatavusMantova Benavides, Marco Antonio 
 Marcus Vertranius MaurusMaurus, Marcus Vertranius 
 Marianus SociniSocini, Mariano 
 Marianus Socinus iunior, aliter Socinus nepos, patricius SenensisSocini, Mariano jr. 
237Marinis, Giovanni Tommaso de, b. Capua . . . , fl. sec. 16/m, d. . . . 

CERL Thesaurus. The Thesaurus ventures a date of 1582 on the basis of what seems to be the first publication in Köln of the De generibus et qualitate feudorum (t. 10.1), but the work was also published in Napoli in 1565. WorldCat. The online copies of the Köln edition show that the dedicatory epistle was dated in Napoli, and probably indicate M. was alive in 1565. Of 1582 we can be less sure.

itemt. 10.1, fol. 112vb
 Marquardus de SusanisSusannis (Susan[n]a, Susani, de Susan[n]is), Marquardo 
238Marsili Colonna, Marco Antonio, b. Bologna ca. 1542, d. ?Camerino 1589 

CERL Thesaurus. M. is not to be confused, as HOLLIS does, with the better-known cardinal Marcantonio Colonna (c. 1523–1597). The latter was the archbishop of Salerno from 1568 to 1574, when he resigned the see in favor of M. who was probably his relative. DBI. M. lacks a modern biographer, but Zedler described him as the son of Cornelio Marsilli and Lavinia Colonna of Bologna, who died in Camerino in 1589 at the age of 47. There is no particular reason to doubt that he is the author of De ecclesiasticorum reddituum origine et iure tractatus, published in Venezia in 1555 (we have seen WorldCat references to an earlier edition in Lyon in 1550), nor the description on the title page of the 1555 ed. that the author is then the archbishop of Salerno. We might wonder what the publisher meant when he describes the author as ‘iuris consultus’. The work is more one of church history than it is of church law, though the presence of some citations of jurists suggests that the author may have had some legal training. To him are also ascribed a collection of synodal statutes for Salerno, published in Napoli in 1580, a Libellus de vita et gestis B. Matthaei apostoli et evangelistae, ejusque gloriosi corporis in Salernitanam urbem translatione also in Napoli in 1580, and Hydragiologia siue de aqua benedicta, published in Roma in 1586, and which also describes him as ‘iuris consultus’.

itemt. 15.2, fol. 340va
 Marti[nus] Caratus [i.e. Garetus] Laud[ensis]Martino Garati da Lodi 
239Martino del Cassero da Fano (Martinus de Fano), b. Fano ca. 1190, d. ?Bologna p. 1272 

M. Semeraro, in DGI 2.1291-2; DBI 36 (1988) 442-6.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 102vb; t. 4, fol. 12ra; t. 11.2, fol. 409rb
240Martino Garati da Lodi, b. Lodi sec. 15/ineunte, d. Bologna 1455 

C. Storti, in DBI 2.1292–1294; G. Soldi Rondinini, in DBI, s.n. Garati, Martino (52 [1999]). K. Pennington, in MEMJ, s.n. Martinus Garatus Laudensis. The spelling of the second element in M.’s name varies substantially including beginning it with ‘C’ rather than ‘G’. We have found no contemporary support for the one found in a number of library catalogues: ‘Caraziis’. M. obtained a doctorate in civil law at Pavia in 1430; he probably also obtained a doctorate in canon law at an unknown date. He was involved to some extent in the affairs of his home town, Lodi, but moved on to teach first at Pavia and then at Siena. His production of juristic writing is substantial, particularly considering that he died at a fairly young age. He is best known for his treatise De principibus, a work that has attracted the attention not only of legal historians but also of historians of political thought. He is well represented in TUI 1584. Whether the De principibus is divided among the various titles attributed to him in t. 16 or whether it is not included requires further exploration. A list of the incunabulum editions of his treatises may be found in Pennington.

itemt. 8.2, fol. 90va; t. 10.1, fol. 16ra; t. 11.1, fol. 23vb; t. 12, fol. 2ra; t. 12, fol. 203ra; t. 12, fol. 279rb; t. 13.2, fol. 59vb; t. 13.2, fol. 60va; t. 16, fol. A2ra; t. 16, fol. 204va; t. 16, fol. 212rb; t. 16, fol. 212vb; t. 16, fol. 278ra; t. 16, fol. 302rb; t. 16, fol. 324ra; t. 16, fol. 456va; t. 18, fol. 2ra
241Martino Sillimani, b. ?Bologna ca. 1250, d. Bologna 1306 

M. Semarano, in DGI. There is a brief notice in Encyclopedia italiana. S. received his doctorate utriusque probably at Bologna in 1273. He taught civil law there, virtually uninterrupted, from 1276 to 1304. His students included both Giovanni d’Andrea and Cino da Pistoia. His works, which remain almost entirely in manuscript are those of a post-Accursian glossator: additiones and adnotatationes in the various books of the CJC. Repetitiones and numerous quaestiones are also recorded. Giovanni d’Andrea says that S. wrote a Summa quaestionum on feudal law, and pieces, or the whole, of it have probably been found in manuscripts, although only a more study than has yet been undertaken would enable us to determine for certain what we have. The Tractatus super usibus feudorum (t. 10.1), however, is probably not S’s work, but probably, at least in part, the work of a Pisan jurist named Giovanni Fazioli (ca. 1223–1286) (P. Maffei, in DGI). On this, see in addition to the references in DGI, J. Cairns, Creation of the Ius Commune: From Casus to Regula (Edinburgh 2010) 51.

itemt. 10.1, fol. 2ra
 Martinus de ArlesAndosilla y Arlès, Martín de 
 Martinus de Ve.Ve, Martinus de 
 Martinus SilimanisMartino Sillimani 
242Massa, Antonio, b. Gallese 1500, d. Roma 1568 

F. L. Sigismondi, in DGI 2.1300–1; id. DBI 71 (2008) 666-8. Although he moved in humanistic circles, M.’s legal works followed the old style.

itemt. 1, fol. 168vb; t. 3.1, fol. 101vb; t. 6.2, fol. 349rb
243Mattei, Antonio (de), fl. 1541–1562 

Not in DGI or DBI. D. Coleman and C. Donahue, in MEMJ, with a full bibliography, excludes a number of men with similar names and suggests an identification with a member of the Roman Mattei family, Antonio Mattei di Trastevere, who served as minor Roman magistrate and was involved in property transactions with land of the Mattei family at approximately the same time as our M. was operating. Be that as it may be, M. appears on the 1559 ruolo of the university of Rome (‘la Sapienza’) teaching canon law. (F. M. Renazzi, Storia dell’Università degli studi di Roma [Roma 1804] 2.180 [online]), 2.180.) Italian edit16 (online) also places him there in 1548–9 teaching civil law. We have been unable to verify this, but his writings make it highly likely that he taught civil law. M. began publishing in Roma in 1541 with his Opusculum super auc. sacramenta C. si aduersus vend. [auth. ad Cod. 2.27.1], continuing with Tractatus praticabilis editionis De libris rationum, instrumentis, actis iudiciariis et eorum fide (1543), Tractatus prorogationis fori et competentiae, praeventionis, iuris revocandi domum, reconventionis, et reorum transmissionis (1547), Repetitio ad rubricam ad legem primam ff. de novi operis nunciatione; ad rubricam ad legem primam ff. de acquirenda possessione; praxis de causa possessionis et proprietats et de restitutione spoliatorum; repetitio ad l. naturaliter in § nihil commune, ff. eodem [Dig. 39.1, Dig. 41.2.1,] (1556), and finally, what seems to be a reprinting of the previous item with additional treatises De cumulatione actionum and De ordine cognitionum (1562). A Tractatus iudiciarius (t. 3.1) was published in Roma in 1558, which claims to be a first edition but looks as if it is a reprint of the item from 1547. Whether or not A. was a minor Roman magistrate in the mid-16th century, his works show that he was an academic who wrote in the style of the mos italicus and was interested in the practical application of his learning.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 105ra
244Mattesil(l)ani, Matteo, b. ?Bologna . . . , fl. 1398 X 1412, d. Bologna . . . 

A. Labardi, in DGI 2.1308. M. taught both civil and canon law at Bolgna within the years mentioned, but did not write on the latter topic. Relatively little is known of his life.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 321vb
 Matthaeus Brunus AriminensisBruni, Matteo 
 Matthaeus de AllictisAfflitto, Matteo D’ 
 Matthaeus de MathesilanisMattesil(l)ani, Matteo 
 Mattia UgoniusUgoni, Mattia 
 Maturinus MontanusMontanus, Matrinus 
245Mauritius, Joannes, fl. 1538 

Not in DHJF. CERL Thesaurus. The information given in library catalogues and the ed. Venezia 1576 suggests Dôle as the place of origin for M., in which case ‘Bolani’ in TUI 1584 is a misprint for ‘Dolani’. His De restitutione in integrum (t. 5), his only known work, was first published in Lyon in 1538. The only edition online (Venezia 1576) describes him as formerly a counselor of the Holy Roman Emperor, his ‘magister libellorum’, and his ambassador to the king of France, none of which we need to believe, but none of which we have any reason to doubt.

itemt. 5, fol. 114va
246Maurus, Marcus Vertranius, fl. ?1558 X 1563 

CERL Thesaurus. So far as we are aware, nothing has been added to M.’s biography since the Nouvelle biographie generale t. 34 (Paris 1861) col. 431–432: ‘On ne connait ni sa vie ni le nom de son pays natal’. That he had some sort of legal training seems obvious from his De iure liberorum (t. 8.2), which enjoyed some printing success. He is best known as a philologian, whose notes on Tacitus and on Varro are still occasionally used. The dedicatory epistle of the first edtion of the De iure liberorum (Lyon 1558) is written by one ‘P. Bugnonius Maticensis J.C.’ to one ‘Ianus Angelus Papius’ who is described as of Napoli and ‘I. C. professor apud Cavares Primarium’. We have not pursued any of these references; they might provide further clues.

itemt. 8.2, fol. 2r
247Medici, Sebastiano, b. ?Firenze ca. 1545, d. Roma 1595 

D. Edigati, in DGI 2.1317–1319. M. earned a doctorate utroque from Pisa in 1568. He was a secular priest and served as vicar general of various well-placed cardinals who became diocesan bishops. His last legal position was as auditor of the rota at Macerata. His writings are extensive and wide-ranging. In addition to the specifically legal treatises that appear in TUI 1584, he wrote on theological and moral issues, treatises on applying Aristotelean categories to legal terminology, and a treatise on what we would call political science called De legibus et statutis.

itemt. 6.2, fol. 258rb; t. 6.2, fol. 388vb; t. 6.2, fol. 400va; t. 7, fol. 195va; t. 17, fol. 396ra; t. 18, fol. 282ra
 Melchiore PalaezPaláez a Mieres, Melchor 
 Michael AninyonAniñón, Miguel de 
 Michael UlcurrunusUlzurrun, Miguel de 
 Molinaeus, CarolusMoulin, Charles du 
248Moncada, Pedro de, sec. 16 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus says little about him.

249Monserrat, Guillem de, b. ?Tarragona.  . .  fl. 1497 X 1507, d. . . . 

P. Arabeyre, in DHJF. Arabeyre assigns M’s birthplace to Tarragona, although his name suggests Montserrat [prov. Barcelona]. He is documented in a relatively narrow period entirely in France.

itemt. 16, fol. 178rb
250Montaigne, Jean, b. . . . , d. ?Toulouse 1516 X 1520 

P. Arabeyre, in DHJF. Arabyre has identified two 16th-century French jurists of this name. The older of the two is the author of De auctoritate sacri magni consilii (t. 16) and De bigamia (t. 9). M. studied law at Toulouse and taught there briefly. He may also have taught at Bourges around 1507–8. He served as councillor to the archbishops of Albi from 1510 to 1516. The De auctoritate is notable for its attempt to balance the power of the Grand Conseil with that of the parlements. The additiones of Nicolas Bohier are more favorable to the authority of the Grand Conseil. We are unsure whether the Tractatus de parlamentis, et collatione parlamentorum (t. 16), which appears as a separate treatise in TUI 1584, also with additiones of Bohier, is a separate work or part of the original De auctoritate sacri magni consilii. We rather suspect that the latter is the case.

itemt. 9, fol. 121vb; t. 16, fol. 263va; t. 16, fol. 272vb
251Montalto, Ludovico, b. Siracusa sec. 15/2, d. Palermo ?1528 

M. N. Miletti, in DBI (75 [2011]).

itemt. 14, fol. 8ra
252Montanus, Maturinus, fl. 1549 X 1555 

Not in DHJF. CERL Thesaurus. Two works are recorded under this author in WorldCat: the De haeredibus ab intestato (t. 8.1) and a work entitled Genialium dierum commentarii in nobile ac praeclarum Julii Pauli responsum septimo mense ff. de statu hominum. The first seems to have its editio princeps in Lyon in 1549. It is dedicated by the author to one ‘Gulielmus Comes praeses curiae Burdigalensis’. A Guillaume Le Comte de La Tresne is recorded as the fifth president of the parlement of Bordeaux on 27 August 1543. See the Liste de membres du parlement de Bordeaux published by the Archives departementales de la Gironde. The title identifies the author as being of Périgeux. The second was published in Paris in 1555. It contains a dedicatory epistle to a friend given at Périgeux, s.d. Both works have a decidedly humanist bent. Our author is probably the same as Mathurin Montaigne, who is described as both a physician and a jurist in A. Dujarric-Descombes, ‘Le docteur Jean Pascal’, Bulletin de la Société historique et archéologique du Périgord 34 (1906) 367.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 384ra
253Monte, Pietro del, b. Venezia 1400 X 1404, d. Roma 1457 

K. Pennington, in MEMJ s.n. Petrus de Monte. R. Ricciardi, in DBI (38 [1990]) s.n. Del Monte, Pietro. Library cataloguers vary considerably in the form that they use for M’s name, and many keep it in Latin. The form that we use seems to be the one most in use in the considerable amount of modern scholarship devoted to M. We have nothing to add to Pennington’s account of his legal works at this time. His humanistic works deserve more attention than we have been able to give them.

itemt. 13.1, fol. 144ra
254Montecchio, Sebastiano, b. Vicenza 1538, d. Vicenza 1612/13 

L. Faggion, in DGI 2.1368

itemt. 8.2, fol. 127rb; t. 8.2, fol. 200ra
255Monti, Girolamo, b. ?Brescia . . . , d. Bergamo 1522 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus, s.n. Monte, Heironymus de, 1565–1590. The dates are publication dates, not M.’s dates. The German authority files reference V. Peroni, Biblioteca bresciana: opera postuma (Brescia 1818–23), 2.288, who says that M. was a jurist and a secular priest, who was coopted in the college of Brescia in 1513, and who ended his life as vicar general of the bishop of Bergamo in 1522. Despite Perroni’s flowery language, the details seem plausible.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 333va
256Monticelli, Giovanni Maria, sec. 16/2 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus notes M.’s origin in Bobbio.

itemt. 4, fol. 239ra
257Morone, Nicola, b. ?Gualdo Tadino [prov. Perugia] . . . , fl. sec. 16/2, d. . . . 

CERL Thesaurus. The only firm date that we have for M. is that of the first publication of his treatise De treuga et pace (t. 11.1), Venezia, 1570. The note to the reader in that work is dated in 1569, a fairly clear indication that M. was alive at the time. His identification with Gualdo Tadino is clear from his self-description as ‘patricius Gualdensis’.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 418ra
258Moulin, Charles du, b. Paris 1500, d. Paris 1566 

J. L. Thireau, in DHJF 363–366, s.n. Du Moulin, Charles. A well-known French jurist, who wrote on both the customary law and on the ius commune and whose writings negotiate between the methods of the humanists and those of the Bartolists. His religious affiliations were complicated. His De eo quod interest was published in Italy under name of Gaspare Cavallini (1530-1589), q.v., in order to avoid the censors.

itemt. 5, fol. 17va
259Muscornus, Hieronymus, Cyprius, sec. 16 

CERL Thesaurus lists M. in three entries, the first gives dates of 1581–1596, but these are publication dates, not the dates of M.’s life. The second and third add nothing to what we already know. The sole work ascribed to him is De iurisdictione et imperio (t. 3.2). Assuming that the name is not a pseudonym, the only hope of finding him lies in the toponym. There were relatively few jurists whose works were being published in western Europe in the 16th century who came from Cyprus. The dedicatory epistle of ed. Passau 1570 is addressed to one Jacobus de Nores count of Tripoli. This is probably Giacomo de Nores, count of Tripoli, who was killed by the Turks in the battle of Nicosia in 1570. That gives a terminus ante quem. The third volume of Anton Francesco Doni’s letters is dedicated to the same man in 1546, when he was not yet count. C. Schiavon, ‘Una via d’accesso agli epistolari. Le dediche dei libri di lettere d’autore nel Cinquecento. Prima parte’, Margini 3 (2009) online. That gives a terminus post quem. More work is called for.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 15vb
260Natta, Georgio, b. Casale Monferrato ca. 1440, d. Casale Monferrato 1495 

E. Dezza, in DGI 2.1413; briefly noted by K. Pennington, in MEMJ. Doctor of both laws, N. taught civil law at Pavia, both canon and civil law at Ferrara, and canon law at Pisa. In 1479, he left teaching and devoted the rest of his life to judicial and diplomatic work.

itemt. 2, fol. 247ra; t. 6.2, fol. 29va
261Negusanzio, Antonio, b. Fano 1465, d. Firenze 1528 

M. Tocci, DGI 2.1418–1419.

itemt. 6.1, fol. 194ra
262Nello Cetti da San Gimignano (Nellus de [a] Sancto Geminiano), b. ?San Gimignano 1373, d. ?Firenze 1430 

A. Bassani, in DGI 2.1419. After taking his doctorate at Bologna, N. moved to Firenze where he held various positions in government in addition to teaching in the studium. He is best known for his treatise De bannitis, which was witten toward the end of his life.

itemt. 4, fol. 79ra; t. 11.1, fol. 357rb
263Nepos de Monte Albano, sec. 13 

B. Bernabé in DHJF 744, s.n. Montauban, Neveu de. N’s toponym is Montauban (dép. Tarn-et-Garonne). He was, apparently, a practicing judge in the senechausée of Toulouse. His Libellus fugitivus, a procedural work on exceptions in the tradition of the ordines iudiciarii, which was widely distributed in manuscript and in print, is the sole work that can be ascribed to him with any certainty. Bernabé, on the basis of citations in the work, dates it 1245 X 1274, probably 1258 X 1268.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 105va; t. 4, fol. 57va
264Niccolò degli Ubaldi, b. . . . , d. Roma 1519 

Mentioned in DGI 1.771 as the son of Roberta, daughter of Dionigi Barigiani (c. 1347 c. 1424), who married Baldo II degli Ubaldi. G. B.Vermiglioli, Biografia degli scrittori perugini e notizie delle opere loro ordinate e raccolte (Perugia 1829) 1.151–156. N. was the son of Baldo II, who was the son of Matteo, another brother of Baldo, Angelo, and Pietro degli Ubaldi. N. was an auditor of the Roman Rota and engaged in various diplomatic missions for the pope. In addition to the two Tractatus ab intestato (t. 8.1), he is mentioned as the author of decisions of the Rota. Vermiglioli also mentions manuscript consilia that were in his time at Lucca.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 337rb; t. 8.1, fol. 351va; t. 9, fol. 136vb
265Nicelli, Antonio, b. ?Torino sec. 15/2, d. ?Piacenza sec. 16/1. 

Mentioned in E. Mongiano, in DGI s.n. Nicelli, Cristoforo. CERL Thesaurus. Son of the better-known jurist Cristoforo Nicelli, who began teaching in Piacenza and moved to Torino, N. reversed his father's career, beginning in Torino and returning to Piacenza. Mongiano doubts that the De concordia glossarum (t. 18) is entirely N’s work and suspects that it is the work of his father which N. may have completed. Only what is described as the first part is in print, beginning with incunabulum edition of 1499 and an edition of 1506. His better-known Concordantiae contrarietatum Bartoli de Saxoferrato (Pavia 1495, Milano 1506, Lyon 1516 etc.) is definitely a joint work with his father.

itemt. 18, fol. 187va
266Nicolas, Jean, b. ?Arles. . . , fl. 1536 X 1542, d. . . . 

Not in DHJF. Listed in CERL Thesaurus, as a jurist from Arles. He may be the same as the Nicolaus, Johannes, in Jöcher (1751) 3.926, who is said to have come from the Dauphiné and have written a treatise De iure patronatus. It is possible that N. studied with Alciato when the latter was teaching at Avignon. He may have reworked material from Alciato into a more traditional treatise De praesumptionibus (t. 4) that is listed above under Alciato. That work seems to have first been published in Lyon in 1542, with the same attribution to Alciato and the same indication that N. had reworked it. WorldCat. To N. is also attributed a Tractatus de haereticis, quinquaginta notabilia in hac haereticorum materia (t. 11.1). The latter was printed with the same attribution, seemingly for the first time, in Lyon in 1536, along with the Tractatus contra haereticam pravitatem of Gonzalo Villadiego. It contains (sig. aij) a dedicatory epistle by N. to one Bartolomeus Chassaneus, who seems to have been a parlementaire of Aix. The first edition makes clear, as TUI 1584 does not, that the 50 notabilia, which are longer than what frequently goes under that name, are in addition to those contained in the treatise of Villadiego.

itemt. 11.2, fol. 29ra
 Nicolaus BoheriusBohier, Nicolas 
 Nicolaus de LescutEscut, Nicolas de l’ 
 Nicolaus de PloveBłonie (Ploue, Plowe), Nicolaus de 
267Nicolaus Faianus Viterbensis, b. ?Viterbo . . . , fl. 1394 X 1397, d. . . . 

N. is obscure indeed. He appears in none of the online library authority files that we have been able to consult. He occasionally appears in library catalogues that index TUI 1584 separately, always, so far as we have been able to discover, in Latin and without the toponym. He is probably to be identified with the `nobilis et egregius doctor legum Nicolaus Faianus de Viterbo’ who appears as one of a group of proctors in a political settlement in the Marche, dated 1394, found in the archives of Iesi, transcribed by L. Colini-Baldeschi, in ‘Alcuni documenti dell’archivio communale di Iesi’, Rivista delle biblioteche e degli archivi, 12 (1901) 171, 182–3. He is also probably the ‘Nicholaus Faianus de Viterbio’, who is one of a number of signers of a consilium, probably to be dated in 1397, on the Florentine statute about dowry found in Vat. Ott. lat. 1727, fol. 160r–172v, as described in the online catalogue. (This is not one of the consilia on the same topic edited in J. Kirshner, ‘Maritus lucretur dotem uxoris sue premortue in Late Medieval Florence’, ZRG (KA) 108 (77) (1991) 137-55.)

itemt. 9, fol. 121rb
 Nicolaus Festasius, MutinenseFestasio, Niccolò 
 Nicolaus Moronus, GualdensisMorone, Nicola 
 Nicolaus Ubaldis, PerusiniNiccolò degli Ubaldi 
 Nicolaus VallaVal (Duval, Valla), Nicolas Du 
268Nider, Johannes, b. Isny im Allgäu [Baden-Württemberg] 1380, d. Nürnberg 1438 

P. Segl, in NDB. N. was a Domincan, a doctor of theology, and not a lawyer. He was active in the administration of his order, participated in the condemnation of the Hussites at the courncil of Basel, worked for the reform of both clergy and laity, and wrote widely on moral and theological issues, with particular emphasis, as was appropriate for one of his order, to reducing theological complexities to a form in which they could be used in preaching. He ended his life as professor of theology at the university of Wien and died on a visitation to the Domincan convent in Nürnberg.

itemt. 6.1, fol. 279vb
269Novello, Jacopo, fl. 1547 X 1586 

L. Garlati, in DGI. Little is known of N’s biography other than what he tells us about himself in his works. The Tractatus ad defensionem (t. 11.1) (1st ed., Venezia 1552) says that he was a judge of criminal cases in Treviso in the time of the podestà Giovanni Reniero (1547). He wrote notes to the statutes of Venezia that were published in 1564. His Practica et theorica causarum criminalium was first published in Venezia in 1549, revised in 1552, and published again under the title Tractatus criminalis in 1586, when the author seems still to have been alive. Garlati describes this latter work as drawing on N’s experience as a judge in Treviso but with a good command of the ius commune on criminal law and procedure, and ‘spunti di vera originalità’.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 216va; t. 17, fol. 20ra
 Octavianus VelpellusVelpellus, Octavianus 
 Octavius Simoncellus CalliensisSimoncelli, Ottavio 
270Odofredo Denari (Odofredus de Denariis), b. Bologna sec. 13/ineunte, d. Bologna 1265 

E. Spagnesi, in DGI 2.1450–2; id., DBI 38 (1990) 700–5; Lange, Glossatoren 323–34. O. was a well-known civilian of the mid-13th c. who did not write everything that is attributed to him in TUI 1584. He taught at Bologna. His lectures on the Digest and Code survive, and they give us a better sense of the classroom than do many of the works of this period.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 32vb; t. 3.2, fol. 79vb; t. 3.2, fol. 136rb; t. 4, fol. 2ra; t. 8.2, fol. 405va; t. 9, fol. 472ra; t. 17, fol. 232va
271Oldendorp, Johann, b. Hamburg ca. 1488 (or 1480), d. Marburg 1567 

K. Luig, in NDB. O. studied at Rostock, Köln, and Bologna, but he took his doctorate at Greifswald. He was an early convert to Lutheranism and as a result taught in a number of different places, ultimately settling in Marburg. He worked on developing a genuinely Protestant law and distanced himself from those parts of the ius commune that were specifically Catholic, among them marriage law and the law of the relationship between church and state. He wrote widely, however, and a number of his works appear in Tractatus 1549. Their absence in TUI 1584 is noticeable as is the fact that his De executoribus (t. 8.1) is attributed simply to ‘Joannes iureconsultus clarissimus’. The work was printed in Köln in 1541, at 90–118 together with his Collatio iuris ciuilis et canonci. The Protestant tilt of the latter is fairly obvious, that of the former is not. We have not seen what seems to be the first edition, Frankfurt 1520, which is held only by the university library at Rostock, but if the date is to be believed it was written before O. became seriously involved with Protestantism.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 196va
 Oliverius Textoris, TuronenTextor, Oliverius 
272Omodei, Signorolo (Signorelus de Homodeis), b. Milano sec. 14/ineunte, d. Vercelli 1371 

Not in DGI. N. Covini, in DBI, s.n. Omodei, Signorolo senior (79 [2013]).

itemt. 18, fol. 23va
 Oriano, Lanfranco da, d. 1488Lanfranco da Oriano 
273Pais, Fernando, fl. 1559 

Not in CERL Thesaurus. Library cataloguers in the Iberian world seem to have settled on this vernacular name and floruit date for P. on the basis of the first, and so far as we are aware the only – other than the one in TUI 1584 t. 12 – edition of his De excusandis parentibus published in Lisboa in 1559. P. describes himself in the dedicatory epistle as a ‘doctor pontificii iuris’, i.e., canon law, and says that he studied at Coimbra. A digital copy of this edition is available online.

itemt. 12, fol. 197rb
274Paláez a Mieres, Melchor, fl. sec. 16/2 

CERL Thesaurus. Not in DBE. We took the liberty of adding an accent to P’s second name and modifying his Christian name to correspond with modern Spanish practice. The first edition of his Tractatus majoratuum (Granada 1575) does not seem to be available online, but the Bodleian catalogue transcribes from it: ‘Aucotre [sic] licenciato Melchiore Pelaez à Meres in Granatensi Praetorio Aduocato’. That would suggest that he came from Mieres [prov. Asturias] but was practicing law at the other end of the peninsula. The work was reprinted in the 17th century, not surprising considering the importance of the mayorazgo for Spanish practice. The author himself, so far as we can tell, disappears from view.

itemt. 10.1, fol. 337ra
275Palazzolo, Lauro, b. Padova ca. 1410, d. ?Padova a. 4.iii.1465 

G. Ronconi, in DGI 2.1489–90; K. Pennington, in MEMJ. P. seems to have spent his entire life in Padova, where he taught both civil and canon law at the univeristy. He was principally an academic.

itemt. 2, fol. 272ra
276Paleotti, Gabriele, b. Bologna 1522, d. Roma 1597 

M. T. Guerrini, in DGI 2.1490–1491

itemt. 8.2, fol. 45va
277Paleotti, Vincenzo, b. Bologna, fl. 1446, d. Bologna 1498 

M. T. Guerrini, in DGI. P. received his doctorate in civil law at Bologna in 1446. He began to lecture in civil law there in 1451 and save for a couple of years in Ferrara, he did so until the end of his life. He also held various magistracies in Bologna. Quite unusually, he was knighted by Henry VII of England in 1487 and made a (almost certainly honorary) councillor of the crown. His only known published work is the De dote (t. 9). Some 62 consilia and various pieces of his lectures survive in the archives at Bologna.

itemt. 9, fol. 404va
278Pandi, Giovanni Bernardino, b. Gravina di Puglia . . . , fl. 1555 X 1556, d. ?Napoli a. ?1578 

C. M. Spadaro, in DGI. P., laureate in utroque, was a successful practitioner in the courts of Napoli. He wrote two treatises on the practice of those courts: Commentaria super pragmaticam primam Regni Neapolitani de judicio summario (Napoli 1555) and Commentaria in Ritu Magnae Vicariae Neap. CLXIII de praesentatione et exequutione instrumentorum (Napoli 1556), each of which was dedicated to the regent of the Neapolitan Chancery at the time. His De datario (t. 9) was first published, probably posthumously at Napoli in 1578, with extensive additiones by his brother Francesco.

itemt. 9, fol. 460va
279Pape, Gui, b. Lyons ?1404, d. Grenoble 1477 

G. Giordanengo, in DHJF 791–792. K. Pennington, in MEMJ (correct the death date as noted below). Noted in Lange/Kriechbaum, Kommentatoren 947. Listed in some library catalogues, without any contemporary support, as Guy de la Pape, P.’s birth date is frequently given as 1402, but the only monographic study of him that we know of (L. Chabrand, Étude sur Gui Pape (1404?–1477), thèse Paris [Paris 1912]) gives it as ?1404. His death date is frequently given as 1487, but according to Chabrand and Giordanengo, this is ten years too late. P. was a doctor of law and wrote some academic legal works. He was, however, a practicing judge for most of his life, and a man of affairs, not all of them savory. He is best known for his collection of decisions of the council of the Dauphiné and of the parlement of Grenoble, which enjoyed wide circulation and imitation.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 28vb; t. 3.2, fol. 70ra; t. 3.2, fol. 139ra; t. 4, fol. 300ra; t. 5, fol. 57ra; t. 7, fol. 71va; t. 8.2, fol. 323va
 Pardulphus PrateiusPrat, Pardoux Du 
 Paris de Puteo NeapolitanusPozzo, Paride dal 
 Paulus Girlandus (Ghirlandus) Castilionis ForentiniGrillandi, Paolo 
 Paulus Leonius, PatavinusLeoni, Paulo 
280Paulus Romanus, fl. ca. 1479 X 1484 

CERL Thesaurus. One can have some sympathy with library cataloguers trying to identify a man with this name. Italian edit16 dates him to the 16th century and says that he was born in Contursi [prov. Salerno] but of a family that came from Rome. We do not know where the Contursi attribution comes from, but ‘16th century’ is clearly wrong. The De pensione ecclesiastica was, so far as we can tell, first published in Roma in 1539, a part of the effort of Michele Tramezzino of Venezia, supported by the pope, to publish technical works about the operations of the papal bureaucracy. See Gómez. The first dedicatory epistle of that work by one Antonius Masa Galersius, who apparently either owned the manuscript or an otherwise unknown earlier edition, says that the author was ‘patria Romanus, iuris utriusque doctor, haud vulgaris, in apostolicam Poenitentiariam translatus . . . sub Xisto IV’. Sixtus IV was pope from 1479 to 1484. The dedicatory epistle by the author follows, in which he identifies himself as ‘papae Sixti IV secretarius [et] domini papae poenitentiarius’, and in which he identifies his teacher as one Ioannes Franciscus of Pavia (probably Johannes Franciscus de Pavinis, d. 1484, who taught at Padova but was at this time an auditor of the Rota [MEMJ]).

itemt. 15.1, fol. 309vb
281Pavini delle Carte, Giovanni Francesco, b. Padova ca. 1424, d. Roma 1484 

S. Di Paolo, in DGI. CERL Thesaurus, s.n. Pavini, Gian Francesco.

itemt. 13.2, fol. 407va
 Pax Scala PatavinusScala, Pace 
282Peckius, Petrus (Pieter Peck), sr., b. Zierikzee 1529, d. Mechelen 1589 

CERL Thesaurus, s.n. Peck, Peter. For P., see English Wikipedia s.n. Petrus Peckius the Elder (to distinguish him from his son, who was a 17th-century diplomat) (vernacular: Pieter Peck) with references to the Nieuw Nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek. P. had an academic career, principally at the university of Leuven, and wrote on a large number of topics in the ius commune, including canon law, of which he held the chair.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 155rb
283Pelleus, Ludovicus, sec. 16 

Not in DHJF. CERL Thesaurus. Not even French cataloguers have attempted to put the author’s name into the vernacular, which would probably be Louis Pelée de Chartres (Carnutensis). We have been unable to find any works by him other than Confutatio eorum, etc. (t. 1).

itemt. 1, fol. 103va
284Peña Calvo, Francisco de, b. Villarroya de los Pinares [prov. Teruel] 1540, d. Roma 1612 

Form of name, dates, and places from DBE. P. was a well-known canonist who participated in the commission that produced the Roman edition of the Liber extra. He was also an inquisitor and wrote quite extensively on inquisitorial practice, frequently by way of notes to existing treatises. An example of such work is the Tractatus seu forma procedendi contra de haeresi inquisitos (t. 11.2). Pending a fuller biography, a sense for the man and his work can be found in English Wikipedia.

itemt. 11.2, fol. 410rb
285Pergamo, Albertus de, sec. ?15 

CERL Thesaurus. P’s De praepositionibus (t. 18) was, so far as we can tell, first printed in Tractatus 1549. It was reprinted after 1584 as an annex to Johann Strauch’s Lexicon Particularum Iuris, Seu De Usu Et Efficacia Quorundam Syncategorematum, Et Particularum Indeclinabilium: In Usum Inprimis Praxi Iuridicae Operantium, Tamq[ue] causas in foro orantium, quam Consulentium & Iudicantium (Frankfurt 1671). That probably accounts for the fact that the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek puts A’s floruit around 1600. He is clearly earlier than that. The work includes more than prepositions. There are also some adverbs and adjectives. The citations are almost all to the basic works of the two corpora, with an occasional citation to a classical author and very few to jurists. The latest that we found was to Paulus de Liazariis (d. 1356), but we did not check all the citations. Tractatus 1549, but not TUI 1584, says that he was a jurisconsult. That is possible but not required, given the work. The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek says that he was a monk. That is also possible, but, once more, not, so far as we can tell, required by the work, and is not supported by either Jöcher or Zedler, whom they cite.

itemt. 18, fol. 273va
286Perigli, Angelo, b. Perugia . . . , d. Perugia 1447 

M. A. Panzanelli Fratoni and F. Treggiari, DGI 2.1539–1541. Professor at Pergugia, P. died young. He left a number of works which found their way into print and seemed to have been particularly interested in the law of partnership (societas).

itemt. 6.1, fol. 130vb; t. 8.2, fol. 138va
287Perigli, Baldo, b. Perugia ca. 1426, d. Perugia p. 1511 

S. Zucchini, in DGI. Son of Angelo Perigli, a well-known jurist of Perugia, who seem to have died in 1446, P. taught at Perugia consistently from 1447 to 1511. What he taught is not completely clear, but we do find him lecturing on the Clementines. He should not be confused, as does the HOLLIS catalogue, with Baldo degli Ubaldi, the famous 14th-century jurist, who also taught at Perugia. In addition to his activities as a teacher, P. served frequently as ambassador of his commune to the Holy See. The work for which he is best known is De quaestionibus et tormentis (t. 11.1), published along with the De indiciis et tortura of Francesco Bruni in Roma, 1549, but it also seems to be attributed to him in an incunabulum published in Paris in 1475. WorldCat. He also, along with his son Periglio, edited his father’s lectura on the Infortiatum, published in Perugia, 1500. H. Kantorowicz doubted that P. wrote the De quaestionibus et tormentis, but we have yet to check to see on what grounds. The tractatus De exemptionibus also attributed to him in TUI 1584 (t. 12) appears to be attributed to him in a number of printings that antedate 1584. The first edition may be in the same Paris incunabulum of 1475, which includes a treatise with that title, though it does not specifically attribute it to P.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 292va; t. 12, fol. 195rb
288Personali, Achille, fl. sec. 16/2 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus adds that P. was born in Mirandola (prov. Modena). The three items in t. 3.2 may be his only published works.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 246ra; t. 3.2, fol. 276va; t. 3.2, fol. 281vb
 Petrinus BellusBelli, Pierino 
289Petrucci, Federico, b. Siena ?sec. 13/2, d. Perugia ?1343 

K. Pennington, MEMJ, s.n. Federicus Petruccius de Senis. The De permutatione beneficiorum was printed early and often, all, so far as we can tell with the additiones of Lapo da Poggibonsi. For example, Roma 1471 X 1474, where the additiones do not quite correspond to those in TUI 1584.

itemt. 15.1, fol. 187ra
 Petrus a MonteMonte, Pietro del 
 Petrus Albinianus TretiusAlbignani (Albignani Trezzio, Albinianus Tretius), Pietro 
 Petrus Andreas GammariGammaro, Pietro Andrea 
 Petrus Antibolus AllobrogisAntiboul, Pierre 
 Petrus Bertrandus ViennensisBertrand, Pierre 
 Petrus Calefatus PisanusCalefati, Pietro 
 Petrus CotereusCotereau, ?P[?ierre] 
 Petrus de BaisioPetrus de Biaxio 
 Petrus de Bella PetricaBelleperche, Pierre de 
290Petrus de Biaxio, fl. 1511 

CERL Thesaurus. The first edition of P’s Directorium electionum (t. 18) was published by Jean Petit in Paris in 1511. Not all of it is available online, but what is available makes clear that P. called himself ‘Petrus [?de] Biaxio’, a councillor in the region of Navarre, and a licentiatus in utroque. The work was reprinted in Tractatus 1549, and the Lyon printers, not making any sense of ‘Biaxio’, changed it to ‘Baisio’. The Venetian printers in 1584 should have known better. ‘Biaxio’ is Venetian dialect for ‘Blaise’ as it is in some dialects of Portuguese. Since the name is found at both ends of the Romance-speaking regions, one would hesitate to guess about P’s origins.

itemt. 15.1, fol. 380va
 Petrus de MoncadaMoncada, Petro de 
 Petrus de Ubaldis, de PerusioPietro degli Ubaldi 
 Petrus FolleriusFollerio, Pietro 
 Petrus Jacobi a Monte PessulanoJacobi, Pierre 
 Petrus Lenauderius CadomensisEsnauderie, Pierre de L' 
 Petrus Pechius ZiricaeusPeckius, Petrus 
291Petrus Ravennas (Pietro Francesco Tomai or Tomasi, de Thoma[s]is, de Toma[gl]is, de Thomasiis, also P. a Memoria, Pietro da la Memoria), b. Ravenna ca. 1448, d. probably Worms 1509/10 

D. Girgensohn, in NDB. A doctor of both laws, P., after a period of teaching canon law in Italy, went to Germany, teaching at Greifswald, Wittenberg, Köln, and Mainz. At the end of his life he was involved with the Reichskammergericht in Worms. Influenced by humanist thought, though not quite a humanist jurist, he is perhaps best known for his Phoenix sive artificiosa memoria.

itemt. 2, fol. 381ra; t. 10.2, fol. 10ra
 Petrus RebuffusRebuffi, Pierre 
 Petrus Santerna, LusitanusSantarém (Santerna), Pedro de 
 Petrus VanderanusAa, Pieter van der 
 Phanuccius de PhanucciisFanucci, Fanuccio de 
 Philippus de Casolis, RegienCssoli, Filippo 
 Philippus Francus PerusinusFranchi, Filippo 
 Philippus Probus BitturicusProbus, Philippus 
292Piaggia, Antonio, fl. sec. 16/exeunte X sec. 17/ineunte 

Not in DGI. CERL Thesaurus. Described in the Italian edit16 as ‘Giureconsulto nativo di Spello attivo tra il XVI e XVII secolo’.

itemt. 8.2, fol. 325rb
293Piazza, Francesco, b. Bologna sec. 14/ineunte, d. Bologna 1460 

K. Pennington, MEMJ, s.n. Franciscus de Platea. A. Bartocci, in DBI.

itemt. 14, fol. 347rb
 Pierozzi, AntoninoAntonino (Pierozzi) 
294Pietro degli Ubaldi, jr., b. Perugia sec. 15/ineunte, d. Perugia ca. 1499 

C. Frova, in DGI 2.1581. P. was the grandson of Pietro sr., the brother of Baldo and Angelo, and the son of Matteo, who was a jurist in his own right. P. taught both canon and civil law at Perugia between 1443 and 1493. His sole known work, previously attributed to his grandfather, is the De duobus fratribus (t. 6).

itemt. 6.1, fol. 133ra
295Pietro degli Ubaldi, sr., b. Perugia sec. 14/1, d. Perugia ca. 1412 

C. Frova, in DGI 2:1581–1582. K. Pennington, in MEMJ. P. was the brother of Angelo and Baldo, and in his time, almost as well-known as they were. He focused more on canon law than did his brothers. He taught it at Perugia, and wrote about it. He also worked for the commune of Perugia. His authorship of a Tractatus de beneficiorum permutatione (t. 15.1) seems reasonably sure on the basis of incunabulum editions. His authorship of a number of other treatises, including De collectis (t. 12), Consilia in materia collectarum (t. 12), De mutatione status ecclesiarum (t. 14), De mutatione status personarum ecclesiasticarum (t. 14), De unione ecclesiarum (t. 15.1), De revocatine unionis (t. 15.1), and Super canonica [portione] episcopali et parochiali (t. 15.2) rests, pending more work in the manuscripts and early printings, on their attribution in TUI 1584, and hence cannot be certain.

itemt. 12, fol. 96ra; t. 12, fol. 99ra; t. 14, fol. 175rb; t. 14, fol. 177ra; t. 15.1, fol. 183rb; t. 15.1, fol. 234va; t. 15.1, fol. 242ra; t. 15.2, fol. 198vb
 Piperata, Thomas de Tommaso da Piperata 
296Piso, Guarino, b. Padova . . . , d. . . . 1591 

Not in DGI. CERL Thesaurus. The details are taken from Italian edit16, which also reports that P. taught at Venezia and Pisa and was the father of Taddeo Piso, a jurist of the next generation. Printed editions of his works suggest that he also taught at Padova. The significance of ‘Soacius’, which frequently accompanies both his name and Taddeo’s is unclear. It may be related to the Italian surname Soatto, which seems to be derived from a Venetian word for a type of leather and is found in Montagnana [prov. Padova]. Ganino Cognomi Italiani. In addition to the In feudorum usus (t. 10.1) (?first ed. Venezia 1575), to P. is also attributed a short tract De Romanorum et Venetorum magistratuum inter se comparatione (1st ed. Padova 1563).

itemt. 10.1, fol. 97rb
297Placentinus (Piacentino), b. Piacenza sec. 12/2, d. Montpellier ca. ?1181/2 

E. Cortese, in DGI 2.1568–71, s.n. Piacentino; Lange, Glossatoren 207–213. P., was an important jurist of the first generation after the ‘Four Doctors’. He taught at Mantova, Montpellier, Bologna, Piacenza, and, again, at Montpellier. Lange, in his list of P.’s works at 211–214, casts in doubt the genuineness of the works that appear under his name in TUI 1584.

itemt. 1, fol. 135rb; t. 3.1, fol. 92vb; t. 3.1, fol. 94rb; t. 3.2, fol. 35vb; t. 3.2, fol. 39rb; t. 11.1, fol. 2ra
298Politi, Ambrogio Catarino (Lancellotto de), b. Siena 1484, d. Napoli 1553 

G. Caravale, DBI. After teaching law in Rome under the name ‘Lancelloto de Politi’, P. entered the Dominican order, taking the name Ambrogio Catarino. He is best known as a theological controversialist, taking conservative Catholic positions against both Martin Luther and members of his own order, such as Cardinal Cajetan and Domingo de Soto. For an English-lauguage account, see Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, s.n. Politi, Ambrogio Catarino (online by subscription).

itemt. 3.1, fol. 362ra; t. 8.1, fol. 224ra
299Ponginibbi (Ponzinibius), Giovanni Francesco (Gianfrancesco), fl. sec. 15/exeunte X sec. 16 ineunte 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus. Italian Edit16 reports that P. was made a member of the college of doctors and judges in Piacenza in 1490, that he was the podestà of Parma, and commissary general of the pope (perhaps in the same place). German cataloguers have a tendency to ascribe his place of origin to Firenze, perhaps on the basis of an edition of the De lamiis (t. 11.2) published in Frankfurt in 1592 or 1593, when P. would have been long dead. The HLL holds a copy of the work printed in Pavia in 1511 that locates P. in Piacenza. Pending further evidence, this identification seems more likely. The De lamiis is one of first writings by a jurist to cast doubt on reality of demonic possession of witches. It was attacked later in the century by Bartolomeo Spina. To P. is also ascribed a Tractatus siue allegatio[n]es super decreto quando res habet originem a contractu [et] ad criminales causas pertinentes, also published in Pavia, this time in 1509, which calls him a ‘doctor Placentinus’.

itemt. 11.2, fol. 350ra
300Pontano, Giovanni Battista, fl. 1579 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus. Both of P.’s known works, the De alimentis (t. 8.1) and the De spolio (t. 14). were published separately in Roma in aedibus populi Romani in 1579. WorldCat. Both describe him as an advocate of Rome. In the preface to former, ‘Ad lectorem’, P. says that he became interested in the question because he was consulted about it by a client. The 1579 edition of the latter is not available online. It is, however a more substantial work, which continued to be printed into the 18th century. The online version of what is described as the first German edition, Frankfurt 1686, contains no preface and tells us nothing more about the author.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 445va; t. 14, fol. 270vb
301Ponte, Amedeo, b. . . . 1526, d. . . . 1593 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus. Library cataloguers are agreed in the birth and death dates and that P. was, in some sense, a jurist. He was also noble and carried the title of lord of Lombriasco, now a commune in Torino. That he was a member of the senate of Piemonte seems clear. His Quaestiones laudimiales (t. 10.2) was first published in Torino in 1577. The work displays considerable learning, not only about the authors on fiefs in the ius commune but also about the actual practice in a wide range of places.

itemt. 10.2, fol. 180ra
302Porcellini, Francesco, b. Padova ca. 1405, d. Padova a. 1474 

E. Cortese, DGI 2:1617. A relatively minor Padovese civilian whose main works remain in manuscript.

itemt. 6.1, fol. 173rb; t. 8.2, fol. 156rb
303Poulvé, Adrien, fl. 1554 X 1590 

Not in DHJF. CERL Thesaurus. P. received humanist legal training at Bourges and was an advocate of the parlement of Paris.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 375va; t. 6.2, fol. 333vb; t. 17, fol. 216rb
304Pozzo, Paride dal, b. ?Castellammare di Stabia ca. 1413, d. Napoli ca. 1493 

E. Cortese, in DGI 1.655–57, s.n. Dal Pozzo, Paride. E. Cortese, DBI s.n. Dal Pozzo, Paride. In DBI Cortese pushes P.’s birth date, on what seem to be good grounds, back to 1411 or just before, but in DGI, he sticks with the traditional c. 1413. P. was a Neapolitan jurist, who devoted a long period at the end of his life to his writings. His interests and writing ranged beyond the ius commune to Lombard law, feudal law, and Neapolitan public law. See also Lange/Krichbaum, Kommentatoren, index under Paris de Puteo.

itemt. 4, fol. 36ra; t. 7, fol. 151rb; t. 7, fol. 227ra; t. 16, fol. 386ra
305Prat (Duprat, Du Prat, Prateius), Pardoux Du, b. Aubusson [dép. Creuse] ca. 1520, d. Lyon 1570 

P. Arrabeyre, in DHJF, s.n. Duprat, Pardoux. P. studied with the notable Protestant jurist Jean Coras at Toulouse, where he received his doctorate in the early 1540s. He returned to Aubusson where he lectured on law, served as an advocate and a judge, and helped to spread Protestantism. He moved to Lyon, where he may have taught law, and where he published a number of works, mostly about law, but including translations from Latin, Greek, and Italian. His legal works also had a humanist bent. He participated in a number of collective works and in editions of jurists from the past. An example of the former is his treatise De fundo dotali (t. 9), which was first printed in a collection of De dotibus tractatus (Lyon 1569).

itemt. 9, fol. 474vb
306Preti, Antonio, b. Conselice [prov. Ravenna] . . . , fl. sec. 16/m, d. . . . 

Not in DGI. Not in DBI. CERL Thesaurus. P. is described as a doctor in utroque in his first printed work (Roma 1544). See below. We have not confirmed, but have no reason to doubt, the statement in Italian edit16 that he taught canon law at Bologna in 1531 X 1532. He is described as a priest and the editor of Bartolomeo Bellencini’s Tractatus de charitativo subsidio et decima beneficiorum published in Roma in 1544 with the support of Michele Tramezzino, and to have contributed to it a work called Clippeus pastoralis. The Clippeus also seems to have been published separately in Roma in the same year where it is described as a Tractatus de iurisdictionis episcopalis defensione (t. 13.2, divided between two titles). P’s De clericorum praestantia was first published in Lucca in 1565 (online), where P. is described as teaching canon law at Pisa in the morning. It is an indepedent work, not included in TUI 1584.

itemt. 13.2, fol. 361vb; t. 13.2, fol. 362rb
307Previdelli, Girolamo, b. Regio  . . , d. Bologna ca. 1534 

CERL Thesaurus. Italian edit16 contains a considerable amount of information about P. that we have not confirmed but have no reason to doubt. What might be called his inaugural lecture at Bologna, a repetitio on D.30.1.55, was published in Bologna in 1518. 1524 saw the first printing of his De peste (t. 18) also in Bologna (reprint Bologna 1528). P’s chief claim to fame is his representation of Henry VIII in the matter of his divorce from Katherine of Aragon. His consilium for the king was published in Bologna in 1531; his argument before Clement VII on 10 April 1532 was published in Roma; his rebuttal of the arguments of Katherine’s advocates on 21 June 1532 was also published in Roma. When he lost the case, he returned to Bologna in 1534 and died shortly thereafter. Of the very large literature on the topic of this divorce, it is surprising that, so far as we are aware, relatively little attention has been paid these arguments.

itemt. 18, fol. 171va
308Probus, Philippus (?Philippe Prudhomme), b. Saint-Benoît-du-Sault [dép. Indre] . . . , d. Amiens 1559. 

E. Cortese, in DHJF. Cortese cautiously does not put P’s name into the vernacular, and we have followed him. Saint-Benoît-du-Sault is near Bourges, hence ‘Bitturicus’ in TUI 1584 and elsewhere. It was there that P. became a cleric. He studied civil law at Avignon while he was in the service of the cardinal legate François de Clermont. He was licensed, however, in canon law either at Avignon or at Paris. Around 1526, we find him as an advocate in the parlement of Paris, defending both François de Clermont and the church of Bourges. Perhaps from 1530 and certainly in 1534–5 he taught canon law at Paris. His additions to Jean Lemoine’s gloss on the Sext are the product of his lectures and were printed in Paris in 1535 and again in Venezia in 1585. In conjunction with the librarian of the university, Gaillot Du Pré, he embarked on a career as a publisher. In 1534, he published Arnoul Ruzé’s De iure regalie. A reprint in 1551 added 63 quaestiones by P. on the same topic and Pierre Bertrand’s De origine iurisdictionum. This is the source of the reprints of these works in TUI 1584 (t. 12). In 1546, he published a reprint of the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges with the gloss of Cosme Guymier and his own quite extensive additiones. It is on this work that his later fame rests. Cortese characterizes P. as a moderate Gallican, no mean achievement in a world that tended to extremes on both sides of the issue. P. ended his career as vicar general of the diocese of Amiens.

itemt. 12, fol. 389ra
 Prosdocimus de ComitibusConti, Prosdocimo 
 Pyrrhus AnglebermeAngleberme, Jean Pyrrhus d’ 
 Quintilianus MandosiiMandosi, Quintiliano 
309Quintin, Jean, b. Autun 1510, d. Paris 1561 

M. Bégou-David, in DHJF.

itemt. 16, fol. 91va
310Raevardus, Jacobus (Reyvaert, Jacob), b. Lissewege [prov. West-Vlaanderen, BEL] ca. 1535, d. Brugge 1568 

CERL Thesaurus. For R., one of the earliest legal humanists in the Netherlands who died quite young, see Dutch Wikipedia, with references.

itemt. 1, fol. 244ra; t. 3.1, fol. 87ra
 Rainaldus CorsusCorso, Rainaldo 
311Ramusio (Rhamnusius), Gregorio, fl. 1566 

Not in CERL Thesaurus. (He is in Italian edit16, but edit16 leaves the name in Latin and gives nothing but the floruit date of 1566.) R. is obscure. He shares a surname with a well-known noble family with many literary members, who had their origins in Rimini. (They, in turn, many have taken their name from Rhamnus in Attica, an ancient city now [and probably then] in ruins.) R., however, apparently called himself ‘Tarinatis’, a member of a group reported by Pliny to have lived in the Sabine country. His only known work, the Quaestiones super affinitate (t. 9), was first published in Roma in 1566, when the author seems to have been alive. Schulte, Geschichte at 456 suggests that it was designed to aid the staff of the Papal Penitentiary, a suggestion that is supported by R’s preface to the work.

itemt. 9, fol. 178va
 Randeus Gallus, JoannesJoannes Randeus 
 Rategno, BernardoBernardo da Como 
312Ravault, Martin, sec. 16 

Not in DHJR. CERL Thesaurus. R. is described as iuris licenciatus, and the Thesaurus says that he was an advocate of the parlement of Paris. In addition to Speculum iudicum (t. 3.1), he also wrote a mirror of princes (ed. Paris 1514). That date, coupled with the fact that the Speculum iudicum has an ed. Paris 1517 (at the back, starting at f. 117r, in which R. is described as the second vicar of the bailli of Sens), suggests that we should be thinking of him as a figure of the early 16th century.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 84va
313Raynaud (Raynaldi, ?Raygnaudi), Jean, b. Avignon sec. 14/2, d. ?Marseille p. 1456 

G. Giordanengo, in DHJF 856–857. Before we realized how comprehensively Giordanengo had reviewed the evidence, we did what we could on the basis of the editio princeps of those of R’s works that are in print (Lyon 1516 or 1517). We reproduce what we did in the next item both because it casts light on other works in TUI 1584, and because it shows how far one can go on the basis of early printed editions, without, it must be admitted, getting it quite right. Born in Avignon, the son of a jurist named Pons, R. moved to Marseille, of which he became a citizen, at a quite early age and when he only licensed in law. He represented Marseille in an embassy to Avignon in 1401 on behalf of the viceroy of Sicily, and again in 1403 on behalf of Pope Benedict XIII. He was one of the six presidents of Louis the Twelfth’s short-lived parlement at Aix in 1415. He did not obtain his doctorate in civil law at Avignon until 1418. He also obtained a doctorate in canon law there at an unknown date. He taught at Avignon, Aix, and, perhaps, Marseille. His Comprehensorium feudale, inspired by events at the parlement of Aix, is in print (ed. Lyon 1516 or 1517) as are two treatises that appear in the TUI 1584 (Tractatus suitatis [t. 8.2] and De mensuris [t. 12]). He is not, however, the author of De moneta, ascribed to him in TUI 1584 and which has recently attracted some scholarly attention (H. Dondorp, ‘The Effect of Debasement on Pre-existing Debts in Early Modern Jurisprudence’, in Money in the Western Legal Tradition: Middle Ages to Bretton Woods, D. Fox and W. Ernst ed. [Oxford 2016] 251 and n. 37). That is the work of a jurist named ‘Jordanus Buc(s)i’ (?Bucci), whom Giordanengo identifies as Jourdain Brès (G. Giordanengo, in DHJF 173), a contemporary of R’s in the short-lived parlement of Aix. Much of R’s work remains in manuscripts to which Giordanengo gives the references. Giordanengo expresses some admiration for the Comprehensorium feudale; it is not simply a rehash of Italian commentaries. We might add that the fact that R. writes in his De origine iuris (ed. Lyon 1516 or 1517) about Dig. 2.1.2 (Pomponius’ well-known history of Roman law), considerably, it would seem, before that text attracted the attention of the legal humanists, is also of some interest.

itemt. 8.2, fol. 153ra; t. 12, fol. 206rb; t. 12, fol. 223rb
314Raynaud, Jean, et alii (Lyon 1516 or 1517) 

CERL Thesaurus. The editio princeps of all of R’s known printed works (Lyon, Antoine Du Ry, 1516 or 1517) spells the name ‘Raygnaudi’ on the title page (Regnaudus or Regnaudi in TUI 1584). That may be an indication that the French form of his name should be ‘Regnaud’, but one would hesitate to change what Giordanengno (above) decided to do on the basis of manuscript sources. The last item, De origine iuris, in the editio princeps (fol. 160r) is dated: ‘Anno domini millesimo ccccxxj’. The main work in that printing is entitled Comprehensorium feudale, a lectura on the Libri feudorum, fol. 1r–88v. It begins with a dedication: ‘Florenti et famoso studio eiusque sacre universitati insignite civitatis aveinion’ Joannes Raynaudi legum doctor inter ceteros minimus et dicte civitatis originarius, nunc vero civis Massilie ac predicte universitatis filius, humilem recommendationem ac honoris et felicitatis augmentum.’ From this we may derive that R. was a native of Avignon, that he received his doctorate, probably in utroque (it is so mentioned on the title page and on fol. 89r), that he moved to Marseille, where he became a citizen, and that he engaged in some teaching. There being no university in Marseille, it is possible that the teaching was at Aix, where the university had been founded in 1409. That speculation is given some support by the dedicatory epistle (sig. a7r), dated in 1515 and written by one Jacobus Teulirius, who describes himself as a student at the university of Aix and who seems to suggest that he came upon the work while he was studying the Libri feudorum. He repeats the information given in R’s dedication, and adds that R. was ‘Massillitano concive alteroque exspectabilibus dum in humanis ageret in suprema parlamenti provincie curia condominis’. The parlement of Aix was not created until 1501, and Jacobus must have known that. He is apparently referring, as Giodanengo suggests, to a short-lived parlement of Aix that Louis XII attempted to create at Aix in 1415. In addition to the Comprehensorium feudale and the De origine iuris at the end, the editio princeps also contains R’s De nobilitate and his Tractatus suitatis et extraneitatis, both of which may be thought of as being included within the Comprehensorium feudale. These are followed by his Tractatus mensurarum (t. 12), and a Tractatus monetarum (t. 12). The latter does not seem to be attributed to R. The incipit (fol. 109v) is simply: ‘Sequitur materia seu tractus monete seu pecuniarum: an debeat inspici valor tempore contractus vel loci etc.’ The running head is ‘Do. Jordanus busi.’ The explicit (fol. ?111va; some of the pages are photographed out of order) is ‘Tractatus seu questionis determinatio do. Jor. buci. utriusque iuris eximii doctoris ac armate militie strenuus miles ortus super solutione cuiusdam dotis feliciter finit.’ There follows a quaestio (or consilium) that is not listed on the title page: ‘Testator quidam suum condidit testamentum et iuravit illud non revocare demum non obstante primo testamento iurato de ipso non revocando aliud fecit testamentum. Queritur nunc quod istorum duorum testamentorum valeat an primum iuratum an secundum.’ The running head is ‘Do. Jo. Raynaudi’. The explicit of this item (fol. 114rb) is: ‘Finit hoc preclarissimum opus domini Johan. Raynaldi utriusque iuris laureati super validitate testamentorum’. Certainty is not possible on the basis of this evidence, but it looks as if the De moneta is not the work of R. but of a jurist named ‘Jordanus Buc(s)i’ (?Bucci), whom Giodanengo identifies as Jourdain Brès (G. Giordanengo, in DHJF 173), a contemporary of R’s in the short-lived parlement of Aix. The De testamentis is followed by the De securitate of Guillaume de Cun (t. 12), a repetitio by Baldo degli Ubaldi, a lectura by Jean de Garons on the title De secundis nuptiis (Cod. 5.9) said to have been given at the university of Avignon on 16 Nov. 1407 (t. 9), before closing with R’s De origine iuris. Jean Thierry of Langres supplied the numbers, notes, and an alphabetical index for the publisher. In turn, the publisher allowed him to include a brief dedicatory epistle and two of his consilia in the front matter before the first folio. There is thus nothing on the foliated pages that needs be dated after the first quarter of the 15th century. (We have not checked all the citations, but a spot check did not disclose any that have to postdate 1425.) It is thus possible that what is printed here is a transcription of a manuscript from that period. An examination of the manuscripts that Giodanengo cites is clearly called for. For example, Dolezalek’s Maunscripta juridica reports that Lisboa, Biblioteca de Ajuda, MS. H.9.8 (?before 1418), contains an item attributed to a Johannes Raynardus entitled ‘Comprehensorium feudale super constitutione imperiali’. Wien, ÖNB, Ms. Cvpl. 5063 (sec. 15), contains an item described as ‘Repetitio const. “Imperialem decet sollertiam” Friderici I imperatoris’ and attributed to one Johannes Rainaldus sive Raimundus, which has the same incipit as the Comprehensorium feudale in the editio princeps.

315Rebuffi (Rebuffe, Rebuffus), Pierre, b. Baillargues [dép. Hérault] sec. 15/exeunte, d. . . . 1557 

C. Zendri, in DHJF. Zendri, for reasons that seem sound, questions the date of birth of 1487 often given for R. That he was ordained a priest in 1547 when he was at least sixty (and learned Greek and Hebrew in order to do it) seems clear. He received his humanistic education at Montpellier, his legal education at Toulouse and Cahors, where he received his doctorate in utroque in 1527. He taught there, at Poitiers, and at Bourges before being named to a chair of canon law at Paris, where he was also an advocate in the parlement. His scholarly output was very large. His Opera omnia were published in nine volumes between 1580 and 1589. He wrote about canon law, Roman law, and both statutory and customary French law. In Roman law, his commentary on Dig. 50.16 is particularly important. Perhaps his most important work is his Commentarii in constitutiones seu ordinationes regias in which he argued that the homologated customs were of a force equal to a royal ordinance. He moved easily between the style of a tractatus and that of glossator on the royal ordinances, all, as Zendri puts it, to ‘passer le ius gallicum et le droit royal au crible du ius commune’. His Feudorum declaratio, in qua multae ponuntur correctiones, quae contraria consuetudine invaluerunt (t. 10.1) seems to be a freestanding treatise. It is dedicated to Nicolas Bohier in the latter’s capacity as a parlementaire of Bordeaux, and, hence, probably dates from before 1539. The title page of what seems to be the first printing of the De decimis (t. 15.2) (Paris 1549) says that it was first given as lecture in canon law in Paris in 1546. The Tractatus congruae portionis (t. 15.2) is printed with it and not dated. The fact that its title says ‘noviter editus’ suggests that there may have been an earlier printing. The Tractatus nominationum (t. 15.2) and the De pacificis possessoribus (15.2) seem to have been first published together in Paris in 1536 in a work that that was headed with the Concordat of Bologna (1516), with P’s commentary on it. The De privilegiis scholarium (t. 18) seems to have first been published in Paris in 1540 with the title De scholasticoru[m] bibliopolarvm atqve ceterorum vniuersitatum omniu[m] ministrorum iuratorumq[ue] priuilegijs.

itemt. 10.1, fol. 299vb; t. 15.2, fol. 125vb; t. 15.2, fol. 240vb; t. 15.2, fol. 301ra; t. 15.2, fol. 539vb; t. 18, fol. 32va
316Redín, Juan, fl. sec. 16/m 

Not in CERL Thesaurus. There seems little reason to doubt that the De majestate principis tractatus (t. 16), a commentary on the proemium of the Institutes, was first published in 1568 in 'Vallisoliti' (probably Valladolid) by Adrián Ghemart. No copy of that printing seems to be available online, and the Spanish libraries that may have extracts from it online have not updated their version of JavaScript so that it is accessible by modern browsers. There are two men of that name in DBE, but both seem just a bit early for R. who seems to have been alive in 1568. We cannot confirm that he died in 1584, as some library catalogues say, but it is possible that he did.

itemt. 16, fol. 145va
317Redoano, Guglielmo, b. Vernazza [prov. La Spezia] . . . , d. . . . 1573 X 1574 

Not in DGI. CERL Thesaurus. R’s name is spelled Rodano in the LC authority file and from there in the authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. We have found no contemporary support for that spelling. He is described in Eubel as a doctor in utroque, but, if he was, we do not know from where. He may have been a citizen of Genova; he seems to be so described in some of his works. He is also sometimes described as a protonotary apostolic. His published works are all in canon law, and on the practical side. At the end of his life Gregory XIII appointed him bishop of Nebbio [see in Saint-Florent, dép. Haute-Corse]. The appointment is dated 16 Dec. 1573, and he is there described as a deacon. His successor was appointed on 27 Aug. 1574. Eubel. R. was clearly dead by then. He may have been dead when he was appointed, the pope being unaware of the fact. Three works of his were published during his lifetime: (1) a Tractatus de simonia, first published in Venezia in 1565 (online) (t. 15.2), (2) a Tractatus de spoliis ecclesiasticis with the subtitle in quo ita copiose omnes species bonorum per praelatos occasione ecclesiae comparatorum per mortem relictorum spolia nuncupatorum published in Roma in 1568 and 1569 (t. 14), and (3) a Tractatus de rebus Ecclesiae non aliendis, published in Piacenza in 1572 (t. 15.2). As indicated, all three were reprinted in TUI 1584. The only one about which there might be some doubt is the third, which has a somewhat different title in TUI 1584. Lacking an online version of the first edition, we cannot be sure that TUI 1584 is just a reprint, but we rather suspect that it is. All three works were reprinted after 1584, with publication dates running into the middle of the 17th century.

itemt. 14, fol. 213vb; t. 15.2, fol. 28va; t. 15.2, fol. 393vb
 Regnaudus, JoannesRaynaud, Jean 
 Remigius de GonnyGoñi, Remiro de 
 Remundus FraguierFraguier, Raymond 
 Renatus ChoppinusChoppin, René 
 Restaurus CastaldusCastaldi, Ristoro 
 Rhamnusius, GregoriusRamusio, Gregorio 
318Rick, Jakob, b. Ahrweiler . . . , fl. 1580 X 1622, d. Ahrweiler . . . 

Not in ADB or NDB. CERL Thesaurus. R. was a licentiatus in canon law and is recorded in 1580 at the law school in Köln. In addition to (t. 6.1), he wrote a treatise on the use of the water-proof to try witches (1st ed. Helmstedt, 1584). From 1611 to 1620 he is recorded as the vicar of the church of St. John the Baptist in Ahrweiler.

itemt. 6.1, fol. 15vb
319Ridolfi, Lorenzo, b. Firenze 1362, d. Firenze 1444 

G. Mellusi, in DGI 2.1690

itemt. 7, fol. 15ra
320Rivail, Aymar du, b. Saint-Marcellin [dép. Isère] ca. 1490, d. . . . 1557 

Not in DHJR. CERL Thesaurus, s.n. DuRivail, Aymar, c. 1490 – c. 1560. Another entry in the Thesaurus gives what seem to be more accurate dates, c. 1490–1557, but tells us less about him. ‘Allobrigis’ in R.’s Latin name is derived from ‘Allobriges’, the name of an ancient Gaulish tribe, which serves to identify R. to the Dauphiné, east of Lyon. For R., who was as much an historian as he was a lawyer, see the brief account in French Wikipedia, which gives his dates as 1491–1558.

itemt. 1, fol. 3ra
 Robertus LancellottusLancellotti, Roberto 
 Rochus CurtiusCorti, Rocco 
321Roffignac, Christophe de, b.  . . ?1520, d. ?Bordeaux 1572 

Not in DHJF. Not in NBG. CERL Thesaurus. Library cataloguers are unusually cautious about R. We have not been able to confirm the birth date given in French Wikipedia, though it is plausible. The death date seems solid. R. was a member an ancient Limousin family of Roffignac. That he called himself ‘seigneur of Couzage’ [dép. Corrèze], today a ruin of a château and not a commune, seems clear, and there is no reason to doubt that he was. Whether he was also seigneur of Pègres, Chavagnac and Marzac, as some genealogies claim, is more questionable. Of his education we know nothing, but his works suggest an exposure both to humanism and to law. He became the fourth president of the parlement of Bordeaux in July of 1555. In 1565, he became the second president, a position that he seems to have held until his death in January of 1572, since his successor, Goyet de La Ferrière, was appointed in February of that year. Archives départementales de la Gironde, Liste de membres du parlement de Bordeaux. He published two works in his lifetime: Christophori Rofiniaci Cosagaei, praesidis et consiliarii regii, Ad Carolum Lotharingum, Cardinalem & principem illustrissimum De re sacerdotali, seu pontificia quatuor libris exarata commentatio: Attexta [sic] est inscriptio omnium capitum, quae in alteris libris duobus continentur, nam primus, per capita non est distinctus, sed vno, perpetuoque contextu, omnem suam prosequens, est materiem. Cum approbatione sacrae theologiae, Parisiensis facultatis, & consultissimae pontificiorum (Paris 1557) (online) and Commentarii omnium a creato orbe historiarum Christophoro Roffin. in Senatu Burdegal. Praeside, auctore (Paris 1571). WorldCat. The former might lead to the suspicion that he was a associated with the Ligue, a suspicion that is confirmed by the fact that Charles IX rebuked him in 1568 for having supported the activities of the Ligue in the southwest. K. Gould, Catholic Activism in South-West France, 1540–1570 (London 2016) 151. The Tractatus de beneficiis, eorumque acquisitione, item et amissione (t. 15.2) was not, so far as we can tell, published until its appearance in TUI 1584, and not again. Whether it is an extract from the De re sacerdotali or an independent work deserves further exploration.

itemt. 15.2, fol. 246rb
 Rogeraius, Johannes, TrochaeusJohannes Rogeraius Trochaeus 
322Rogerius (Frogerius), b. sec. 12/1, d. p. 1162 

E. Cortese, in DGI. Lange, Glossatoren 192–200, 404. A. Larson, in MEMJ. Biographical details about R., whom TUI 1584 calls quite charmingly ‘antiquus glossator’, are sparse. We add a few to Larson’s account. R. is claimed by at least three Italian cities, which probably means that by the time the claims were made no one really knew. Cortese suggests that he may have come from what is now southern France. R. probably studied with one or more of the ‘four doctors’. Both Bulgarus and Martinus have been suggested as his teachers. He also probably taught at Bologna, though not necessarily for a long time. His production of glosses, particularly on the Infortiatum of which he may have been the first glossator, was large. Accursius attributes 920 glosses to him, almost as many as Bulgarus and Martinus combined. At some point, R. moved to Provence. He seems to have taught at Arles and/or Montpellier. The one firm date that we have for R. is 1162, when he is said to have appeared before Frederick Barbarossa in Torino to defend (successfully) the claim to Hugh de Baux to the county of Provence against the claims of the count of Barcelona, who, it was said, was represented by Bulgarus. The details of the story, the topos being that of the student who defeats his teacher, may be questionable; the date does not seem to be. Though some of the works that were later attributed to R. are almost certainly not his, modern scholarship accepts his authorship of De diversis praescriptionibus and the accompanying De prescriptionibus dialogus (both in t. 17), and notes how the latter, a dialogue between R. and a personified Jurisprudence, departs from dry style of Bologna to add a literary element of quite high quality.

itemt. 17, fol. 49va
 Rogerius Antiquus GlossatorRogerius (Frogerius) 
323Rogerius, Constantius (Constantinus), fl. 1463 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus. All the listings in WorldCat have R.’s given name as Constantius, as does the Index auctorum at the beginning of TUI 1584 t. 1. The Thesaurus says that he was a professor of law at Torino, and adds the toponyms ‘Bargeius’, ‘Bargianus’, ‘de Balgis’. The first two suggest Barzanò (prov. Lecco), which would fit geographically with Torino. That he was a professor at Torino we cannot confirm; he does not seem to be mentioned in T. Vallauri, Storia delle università degli studi del Piemonte (Torino 1845). A Torinese connection does, however, seem probable on basis of the privilège du roi in Constantii Rogerii In aliquot iuris civilis pandectarum titulos commentarii (Lyon 1552).

itemt. 1, fol. 386ra; t. 1, fol. 394va; t. 1, fol. 395rb; t. 3.2, fol. 2ra; t. 3.2, fol. 245ra; t. 17, fol. 221va
324Rojas, Juan de, b. Rueda de San Clemente [prov. Cuenca, ESP] sec. 16/1, d. Girgenti [prov. Agrigento, Sicilia] 1578 

The dates and places listed above come from DBE. CERL Thesaurus. R. should not be confused with Juan de Rojas Sarmiento, a well-known Spanish astronomer, who was his close contemporary. R. was bishop of Girgenti (Agrigento) in Sicily from 1577 to 1578. Eubel, 3.98 (online by subscription). His death date now seems to have been established as 1578. Three of his works, including the Epitome omnium successionum (t. 8.1), were published by his brother in Salamanca in 1581. The book identifies R. as a member of the college of St. James in Salamanca, called ‘of Cuenca’ after its founder, the bishop of Cuenca (source). That R. was, as the authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek says, an inquisitor before he was bishop of Agrigento, is certainly possible. His other two works deal with the topic of heresy, one of which is found in t. 11.2.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 391vb; t. 11.2, fol. 208va
325Rolandino Passeggeri, b. Bologna ca. 1215, d. Bologna 1300 

I. Birochi, in DGI 2.1717–1720. R. studied law but never became a doctor. Rather, he became a notary, but he was also a teacher of notaries. He was deeply involved in the conflicted politics of Bologna in the second half of the thirteenth, where became a leader of the notaries. His writings, as one might expect from a notary, were practical, but not without an underlying theoretical content. His best-known work is his Summa artis notarie, but his Flos testamentorum, extracts from which appear in t. 8.1, was also well known.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 1ra; t. 8.1, fol. 198vb; t. 8.1, fol. 199vb; t. 8.1, fol. 355ra
 Rolandinus Passagerius, BononiensisRolandino Passeggeri 
 Rolandus a ValleValle, Rolando Dalla 
 Romanus, PaulusPaulus Romanus 
326Roselli, Antonio (de Rosellis, Rorçcellis, Roxellus) b. Arezzo 1381, d. Padova 1466 

C. Valsecchi, DGI 2.1734–1735; K. Pennington, in MEMJ. Having pursued an academic career for a while, R. went into the service of popes Martin V and Eugenius IV. When he was not made a cardinal, he went back into academe, and taught canon law for 28 years at the university of Padova. He wrote on both canon and civil law but is best known for his Monarchia in which he asserted the rights of the emperor against those of the pope.

itemt. 7, fol. 66va; t. 8.1, fol. 357vb; t. 8.2, fol. 75ra; t. 11.1, fol. 290ra; t. 14, fol. 147va
 Rossi, GaspareGaspar de Perusio 
327Rossi, Giovanni Antonio, b. Alessandria 1489, d. Padova 1544 

E. Mongiano, in DBI (v. 39 [1991]); E. Mongiano in DGI, both s.n. De Rossi, Giovanni Antonio. R. led an active life. He seems to have gotten his doctorate in utroque iure at Pavia where he taught for a brief period and then transferred to teaching at the university of Valence in the Dauphiné probably in 1520. His membership in the college of doctors and judges at Alessandria led to his being often consulted. He was called to the service of the duke of Savoy in 1527 and taught at the same time in the studio at Torino. He was called to a chair at Padova where he taught civil law from 1533 to 1543, when he had to stop teaching because of ill health. His works are very much in the style of the mos italicus, consilia, commentaries and repetitiones, and treatises. The Tractatus de potestate procuratoris (t. 11.1) was not published until after his death (1st ed. Lyon 1552). One hundred fifty of his consilia were published in Frankfurt in 1608. Many of his repetitiones can be found in the eight-volume Repetitionum in varias iuris civilis leges (Lyon 1553).

itemt. 11.1, fol. 201vb
328Rouillé, Guillaume le, b. Alençon 1494, d. Alençon ca. 1550 

V. Lemonnier-Lesage in DHJR 651–652, s.n. Le Rouillé, Guillaume. R. was lieutenant-general of Beaumont-le-Vicomte and Fressnay in the county of Maine, sat on the council of Charles d’Albret and of Marguerite de Valois, and was an advocate in, and counselor of the exchequer at, Alençon (dép. Orne), in Normandy. His principal claim to fame is his edition of the coutumes of Normandy and his commentary on the coutume of Maine.

itemt. 1, fol. 371va
329Rutilio, Bernardino, b. Bologna 1504, d. Venezia 1538 

CERL Thesaurus. The planned DBI biography of Rutilio, Bernadino, 1504–1540, giurista, is not yet available online. R. is mentioned in Girolamo Tiraboschi’s Storia della letteratura italiana (Venezia 1795–6) 7.4.1482. Tiraboschi thinks of R. as a philologian (grammatico). He says that R. came from Cologna Veneta (prov. Verona), and attributes to him, in addition to the Vitae (t. 1), a Decuria of remarks on various Latin authors and notes on the letters of Cicero.

itemt. 1, fol. 139va
330Ruzé, Arnoult, b. ?Blois ca. 1485, d. Paris 1540 

P. Arabeyre, in DHJF. R. was a cleric from a family many of whose members served the king. He obtained a doctorate in utroque at Orléans, served as chancellor of the university, and taught canon law there. In 1517/18 the king made him a councillor of the Grand Conseil, a position that he resigned in 1520, but he remained a parlementaire until the end of his life. R. was a friend of Guillaume Budé, knew Greek, and was influenced by humanism. His Opera were published in Paris in 1534 and, again, in 1542. The most important of these is his Tractatus iuris regaliorum (t. 12). The work is interesting in that it seeks to ground the regalia of the French king on historical precedents, without mentioning the Concordat of Bologna of 1516.

itemt. 12, fol. 357va
331Sá (Saa), Diogo de (Jacobus a), sec. 16/m 

CERL Thesaurus. S. is probably not the same as the man of the same name, but possibly slightly older, who wrote a treatise on navigation. If that is correct, then S’s only known work is the Tractatus de primogenitura (t. 10.1). He is identified in the Paris edition of 1551 as ‘eques Lusitanii’, which must be the correct version of ‘aequitis’ in TUI 1584. The treatise is devoted to what in England is called the ‘casus regis’, whether the grandson by the elder son (Arthur of Brittany) should succeed by primogeniture in preference to the younger son (John). The same Paris edition, which seems to be the first, also has a dedicatory epistle to João III of Portugal, some indication that S. was alive at that date. Despite the fact that S. makes no claim to university degrees, the work displays considerable learning. More about him we have not been able to discover.

itemt. 10.1, fol. 324va
332San Giorgio (Sangiorgi), Giacomino (Iacopino) da, b. San Giorgio Canavese [prov. Torino] . . . , d. Torino 1494 

F. A. Goria, in DGI. S. is recorded as having lectured at Torino in 1452. He received his doctorate in utroque there in 1457. He taught there for the rest of his life, civil law, canon law, and feudal law. His best known works are on the last topic, De homagiis and De feudis, both in t. 10.1. According to Goria, S. focused more on practice than on theory in these works. S. also wrote Quaestiones feudales and rendered a consilium in a dispute between the duke of Savoy and the king of France about the homage of the marquis of Saluzzo. His work was not, however, confined to feudal law. There are lecturae on the Code and the Digestum Vetus, and a lectura on the work of Rolandino de’ Passeggeri. The last named and some of his other works remain in manuscript.

itemt. 10.1, fol. 179rb; t. 10.2, fol. 172va
 Sancto Blasio, Johannes Baptista deBattista da Sambiagio 
333Sandeo, Felino, b. Felina [prov. Reggio Emilia] 1444, d. Roma 1503 

M. Montorzi, in DBI. K. Pennington, in MEMJ. These descriptions say nothing about S’s De indulgentia plenaria (t. 14). It is said to be in his Lectura super titulo ‘De rescriptis, De officio iudicis ordinarii, De officio iudicis, De maioritate et oboedientia, De treuga et pace, De pactis, De litis contestatione, Ut lite non contestata’ (Lib. Extra 1,3. 1,31-35. 2,5-6) (Pisa 1484). It may be, but despite the fact that it is in the tabula at the beginning of the work, we could not find it there. It is, however, in another incunabulum with the same title (Venezia 1489) sig. n 2 (GW M40171, image 327). It has somewhat curious title: ‘Compendiosus sermo de indulgentiis plenariis per modum predicationis per Felinum Sandeum'. It is not the kind of sermon that would appeal to modern congregations, but it does break out a bit from the austere style of the rest of the book.

itemt. 14, fol. 157rb
334Santarém (Santerna), Pedro de, b. Santarém [POR] . . . , fl. sec. 15/exeunte X sec. 16/ineunte, d. . . . 

CERL Thesaurus with reference to Italian edit16. Little is known of S.’s life, he is recorded as being at the university of Perugia in 1489. Afterwards he served as commercial agent for the king of Portugal, Manuel I (1495–1521), in Firenze, Pisa, and Livorno. The Tractatus de assecurationibus (t. 6.2) was first published in Venezia in 1552, but Domenico Maffei has argued that its composition goes back to 1488. D. Maffei, ‘Il giureconsulto portoghese Pedro de Santarém autore del primo trattato sulle assicurazioni (1488)’, Boletim da Faculdade de direito da Universidade de Coimbra 59 (1983) 703–728. After its first publication the De assecurtionbus was reprinted many times, frequently in conjunction with Stracca’s De mercatura

itemt. 6.1, fol. 348rb
335Saporta, Jean, fl. 1548 X 1558 

H. Gilles, in DHJF 915. S. was the son of a well-known professor of medicine at Montpellier named Antoine, with whom, it would seem, he is sometimes confused by later publishers. He was regent master of canon law at Toulouse from 1551 to 1558. We have seen references to a commentary on the l. Cum avus (D. 35.1) with a publication date in 1548. His treatises De mora (t. 6.2) and Liber collationis bonorum (t. 8.1) were first published in Lyon in 1550.

itemt. 6.2, fol. 417va; t. 8.1, fol. 461rb
336Sardi, Ludovico, b. Ferrara . . . , d. Ferrara 1445 

CERL Thesaurus. S. lectured on law at the university of Bologna in the 1420s and 1430s. De naturalibus liberis (t. 8.2) is his only known legal work. He also wrote poetry. See Luigi Ughi, Dizionario storico degli uomini illustri ferraresi (Ferrara 1804) 1.158.

itemt. 8.2, fol. 29vb
337Sarmiento de Mendoza, Franciso, b. Burgos 1525, d. Jaén 1595 

Form of name, dates, and places from DBE, which describes him as ‘Auditor de la Rota, Canonista, Catedrático, Escritor, Eclesiástico, Obispo, Oidor o juez de la Real Chancillería de Valladolid’.

itemt. 15.2, fol. 369rb
338Scala, Pace, b. ?Padova . . . , d. . . . 1604 

CERL Thesaurus has two entries for S., the first of which identifies him to Padova, and the second of which confirms his death date of 1604.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 331va
339Schenck, Frederick, van Toutenburg, b. Vollenhove ca. 1503, d. Utrecht 1580 

J. von Schulte, in ADB, s.n. Schenck von Tautenburg, Friedrich Freiherr. S. was one of the archdeacons of Utrecht, and wrote extensively on legal matters, particularly on the feudal law. In 1559 he was made the first archbishop of Utrecht, and attempted to lead the Counter-Reformation there. The effort was not successful, and there was not another Catholic bishop of Utrecht until the 19th century. More recent biographies with somewhat contrasting views can be found in English and Dutch Wikipedia.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 57rb; t. 3.2, fol. 397va; t. 4, fol. 28va; t. 4, fol. 77rb; t. 5, fol. 2ra; t. 5, fol. 38vb; t. 5, fol. 55rb
 Sebastianus MedicisMedici, Sebastiano 
 Sebastianus MonticulusMontecchio, Sebastiano 
 Sebastianus VantiusVanzi, Sebastiano 
340Selve, Jean de, ?sr., b. . . . , d. ?Paris 1521 

P. Arabeyre, in DHJF 923–924. Arabeyre has shown that the author of the works attributed to ‘Joannes de Selva Galli’ in TUI 1584 are not by the well-known Jean de Selve (1475–1529), a scion of a noble family from the Bas Limousin, who entered royal service as a lawyer at an early age, became a confidant of, and a diplomat for, François I, and ended his life as premier président of the parlement of Paris (1520–1529). They are, rather, by his (probably) elder brother, a doctor of both laws, who became a councillor in the parlement of Paris in 1511 and died in 1521. Before learning this, we wondered how the better-known Jean de Selve could possibly have found the time to write De iureiurado (t.4) and De beneficiis et rebus ecclesiasticis (t. 15.1). The answer is that he did not. The article in French Wikipedia, evinces some confusion between the two by not recognizing the existence of the elder, but adds plausibility to proposition that there were two Jeans by noting that the better-known Jean was his father’s eighth child, the first of a second marriage.

itemt. 4, fol. 347vb; t. 15.1, fol. 2ra
341Severoli, Ercole, sec. 16 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus. S. came from Faenza, and was active at the council of Trent in 1545.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 378va
 Signorolus de HomodeisOmodei, Signorolo (Signorelus de Homodeis) 
 Silimanis, MartinusMartino Sillimani 
342Silvano, Lorenzo, b. Casale Monferrato ca. 1500, d. . . . ?1570 

A. Lupano, in DGI. S. probably received a law degree at Pavia and probably taught at Ferrara in 1543. He was a practicing lawyer in Casale Monferrato, and the king of France made him president of its Senate. He went to Paris to argue for the return of Casale to the duke of Mantova, but opposed the absolutism of Guglielmo Gonzaga. He seems to have been replaced as president of the senate of Monferrato by Rolando Dalla Valle in 1567. Two volumes of his consilia were published in his lifetime, a treatise De feudi recognitione (t. 10.1), and a repetitio on Dig. 13.7.41.

itemt. 10.1, fol. 70rb
343Simancas, Diego de, b. Córdoba 1513, d. Córdoba 1583 

Places and dates from DBE. Listed as Obispo, Calificador del Santo Oficio, Oidor, Consejero de Inquisición, Consejero de Estado, Jurista, Oidor o juez de la Real Chancillería de Valladolid.

itemt. 11.2, fol. 119ra
 Simon VincentinusVincentinus, Simon 
344Simoncelli, Ottavio, b. Cagli [prov. Pessaro e Urbino] . . . , d. . . . ?1620 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus. We have been unable to confirm S.’s death date, which appears in Italian edit16. It is, however, possible, since the first edition of his De decretis (Perugia 1574), which seems to be his only published work, was written, as he says in the dedicatory epistle to one ‘Petrus Ursinus’ (doubtless a member of the well-known noble family of the Orsini), while he was still a student at the university of Perugia. In that epistle S. describes himself as coming from ‘Gagli’ (in the Marche), now Cagli, prov. Pessaro e Urbino.

itemt. 6.2, fol. 284rb
345Socini (Sozini, Soccini), Mariano, sr., b. Siena 1397, d. Siena 1467 

P. Nardi, in DGI 2.1881–1882; K. Pennington, MEMJ, s.n. Marianus Socinus (birth date given as 1401). S. was principally a canonist. The ‘senior’ is important to distinguish him from his grandson (1482–1556), who was a civilian.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 96va; t. 4, fol. 189vb; t. 11.1, fol. 310vb; t. 14, fol. 122vb
346Socini (Sozzini, Soccini), Mariano jr., b. Siena 1482, d. Bologna 1556 

P. Nardi, in DGI. Grandson of famous Sienese jurist of the same name and nephew of an equally famous Bartolomeo, S. seemed destined for a career at the university of Siena. It was to turn out otherwise. He got his doctorate in civil law in Siena in 1505, and began teaching there. In 1517, however, he began to teach at Pisa where he remained in 1523. After a brief return to Siena, he taught at Padova until he moved to Bologna in 1543, where he remained until the end of his life. His emoluments increased in each place where he went, and those at Bologna were enormous. He became known as the master of the mos italicus. As such he had to deal with competition from Alciati, who was his contemporary, and with those who followed Alciati. At the end of his life one of his sons and one of his grandsons became involved in an heretical movement, and S. himself was proceeded against by the Bolognese inquisitor for reasons that are not known. His works were published after his death largely through the efforts of his son, Celso. There are commentaries on various titles of the Digestum novum and the Infortiatum that were printed and reprinted several times in different places. Four volumes of his consilia were published in Venezia in 1571, two of those De duello appear in t. 12.

itemt. 12, fol. 303va
347Solsona, Francisco, fl. sec. 16 

Not in DBE. CERL Thesaurus. S. seems to have escaped the attention even of library cataloguers making up authority files. His surname suggests Solsona [prov. Lleida]. The toponym Angulariensis that accompanies his name in TUI 1584 and in book titles that go under his name is found in a web search only in conjunction with his name. It might be a Latinization of Aguilar de Segarra [prov. Barcelona]. His two publications are, however, quite easy to find (WorldCat) and the way he is described in them (with the usual cautions for publishers’ ‘hype’) seems to tell us something about him: Stilus capibreuiandi [a very unusual word]: cum mult[is] questionibus ac aliquibus Regiae Audiaentiae d[e]cisionibus: ad rem facien[dam] Cum formis creandi iudices: concessionum territorio[rum] stabilimentorum, nouarum laudationum recognitionum amorititzationum & aliquarum litera[rum] ordinario & adcaldis missarum. Cum indice materiarum. Nouiter in lucem editus ad iussus . . . Elnensis episcopi . . . [Praef. Onofrii Leonardi Ribelles] (Barcelona: Saluator Leget, 1547), reprint Barcelona, Iacobi Cortey, 1561. Lucerna laudemiorum [i.e., ‘laudimiorum’, the fee for renewal of an emphyteusis], omnia emphyteuseos jura complectens (Barcelona: Joannes Gordiola, 1556), reprint Barcelona, Jacobus Sendrat, & vidua Monpesat, 1576 (t. 10.2). The latter printing describes S. as ‘Angulariensis, notarius publicus Barcinonae iuriumque professor’. The first two we have no reason to doubt; we might be cautious about the last. Both works continued to be published, mostly in Barcelona, after 1584. Other than the version of the second in TUI 1584, neither of these works seems to be available online. An examination of the physical volumes might reveal more. As it is it would seem that S. was a notary of Barcelona and that he compiled a quite popular form book for notaries and a more ambitious treatise on an aspect of feudal law.

itemt. 10.2, fol. 199va
348Sonsbeck, Franz, b. Zwolle . . . , fl. 1555, d. . . . 

Not in NDB or ADB. CERL Thesaurus. S. seems to known only from his Commentarius ad usus feudorum (first ed., Köln 1555) (t. 10.2). It was republished a number of times in collections of treatises on the same topic.

itemt. 10.2, fol. 123ra
 Speculator [i.e., Gulielmus Durantis]Durand, Guillaume l’ancien 
349Spina, Bartolomeo, b. Pisa 1475, d. Roma 1546 

DBI. S. was a Dominican and a theologian who taught at Padova from 1526. He is best known for his disputes with Pietro Pompnazzi and Cardinal Cajetan on the topic of the immortality of the soul. In 1542 he was made Maestro del Palazzo Apostolico. Pope Paul III nominated him to the commission of theologians who were prepare questions for discussion at the council of Trent. The three tracts in TUI 1584 (t. 11.2) would seem to have been first published Venezia 1525, and they all seem to be directed against Ponginibbi. They were later republished together with the well-known Malleus maleficarum of Springer and Krämer. We have not attempted to explore the variations in the editions.

itemt. 11.2, fol. 356rb; t. 11.2, fol. 369rb; t. 11.2, fol. 375ra; t. 13.1, fol. 24rb
350Stafileo, Giovanni (Ivan), b. Trau [Trogir, Croatia] 1472, d. Roma 1528 

CERL Thesaurus. Most of our information about S. comes from Italian edit16 and has not been confirmed, but it seems plausible. Of his education, we have not been able to find anything, but he seems to have taught canon law at the Sapienza in Roma. He served as a papal nuncio. By 1510 he was an auditor of the Rota. E. Cerchiari, Capellani papae et apostolicae sedis auditores causarum sacri palatii apostolici seu sacra Romana Rota ab origine ad diem usque 20 septembris 1870. 2: Syntaxis Capellanorum auditorum (Roma 1920) 84. By the time that he was sworn in the Rota in 1512, he was also the bishop of Sebenico (Šibenik, Croatia). He seems to have held both positions until died in Roma in 1528, probably on the occasion of the sack of the city. For his De gratiis expectativis (t. 15.1), see the discussion under Gómez. If anyone has any idea what S’s surname might have been in Croatian, please get in contact with us.

itemt. 15.1, fol. 264rb
 Stephanus Aufrerius TholosanusAufréri, Étienne 
 Stephanus CostaCosta, Stefano 
 Stephanus de Federicis BrixiensisFederici, Stefano 
 Stephanus ForcatulForcadel, Étienne 
351Stracca, Benvenuto, b. Ancona 1509, d. Ancona 1578 

V. Piergiovanni, DGI 2.1920–1922.

itemt. 6.1, fol. 284rb; t. 6.1, fol. 303rb; t. 6.1, fol. 306vb; t. 6.1, fol. 310vb; t. 6.1, fol. 314va; t. 6.1, fol. 315vb; t. 6.1, fol. 321rb; t. 6.1, fol. 323va; t. 6.1, fol. 327ra; t. 6.1, fol. 329rb; t. 6.1, fol. 332ra; t. 6.1, fol. 333vb; t. 6.1, fol. 337va; t. 6.1, fol. 357va; t. 6.1, fol. 383ra
352Susannis (Susan[n]a, Susani, de Susan[n]is), Marquardo, b. Udine ca. 1500, d. Udine 1578 

A. A. Cassi, in DGI.

itemt. 14, fol. 27rb; t. 14, fol. 104va
 Sylimanis, MartinusMartino Sillimani 
353Taegio, Bartolomeo, b. Milano ca. 1520, d. . . . 1573 

CERL Thesaurus. T. is listed in Italian edit16 as a humanist and jurist, who founded the Accademia dei Pastori di Agogna at Novara, where he was called ‘Vitauro’. He is said to have been the vicar general of Milano and governor of the ‘Riviera all’isola d’Orta’. He is best known today for his dialogue La Villa (first ed., Milano 1559). The Tractatus varii were first published in Milano in 1564. The work is described at some length in an article entitled ‘Criminalistica in antico regime’ by M. Pifferi (2012) in the online Il Contributo italiano alla storia del Pensiero: Diritto, as moving away from the focus on procedure or on specific crimes to an attempt to generalize about the nature of criminality. An extensive biography of T. may be found in T. Beck’s edition and translation of La Villa (Philadelphia 2011), but he says little of T’s one legal work.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 10rb
354Tancredi da Bologna (Tancredus Bononiensis), b. Bologna ca. 1185, d. Bologna ca. 1236 

A. Bettetini, in DGI 1.1930–1; K. Pennington, in MEMJ. T. is one of the most important, perhaps the most important, canonist of the early part of the 13th century.

itemt. 3.1, fol. 44ra
 TancretusTancredi da Bologna 
355Textor, Oliverius, fl. 1529 

Not in DHJF. CERL Thesaurus. The earliest printing that we have found of T.’s De successionibus (t. 8.1) is in a large collection of treatises on the topic published in Köln in 1569. This is probably not the first printing. There are more records of his commentary on JI.3.6: Oliuerij Textoris Turonensis & Ligoliani In celeberrimum Institutionum Imperialium titul. De gradibus cognationum, commentarius elegans iuxtà ac doctus : ab eodem in Valentina Delphinatus Academia editus anno à Christi natiuitate vicesimonono supra milesimum [sic]: omneis [sic] omnium cognationum & affinitatis arborum declarationes, & vtilitates inde nascentes complectens (Lyon: heirs of Iacobus Gunta, 1554). Despite the errors in the Latin, there is no particular reason to doubt that this identifies a jurist who came from Ligueil (dép Indre-et-Loire) in the county of Tours, who first published this work in the Academy of the Dauphiné in Valence (dép Drôme) in 1529. Though the work uses JI.3.6 as a springboard, it is very much a canonistic work. That T. was also a canon of Gap (dép Hautes-Alpes), as is stated in the Thesaurus, we have not been able to confirm, but have no reason to doubt.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 371vb
356Thierry, Jean, fl. sec. 16/1 

Not in DHJF. CERL Thesaurus. There are two entries in the Thesaurus that seem to refer to the same man. The first sends one to one type of authority file of the Bibliothèque nationale, the second to another type. Both identify T. as coming from Langres (‘Lingonensis’) and both list a large number of juristic works in both Roman and canon law, with a balance in favor of the latter, to which T. made some kind of editorial contribution, such as compiling the alphabetical index. There are also a couple of works more of a religious than of a juridical nature. Some of these works add the agnomen ‘minimus’ to his name; a number describe him as a doctor in utroque. The vast majority of these works were published in Lyon, and the range of dates seems to be from 1516–1549. None of the listed works is his Tractatus totam materiam fugae laconice complectens (t. 11.1), which seems to have first been published in Tractatus 1549, appeared in a collection of tractatus by various authors (Lyon 1552), and does not seem to have been published again after its printing in TUI 1584. WorldCat. Although the work does contain citations to canon law, it is mostly devoted to Roman law. We are thus not completely confident in identifying the author of this work with the man who served as éditeur scientifique for various Lyon publishers, but the identification with Langres makes it likely that he is. A bit more about T. may be found in the discussion of Raynaud, Jean, et alii.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 240rb
 Thomas Actius, ForosemproniensisAzzi, Tommmaso 
 Thomas CompegiusCampeggi, Tommaso 
 Thomas de Piperata, BononiensisTommaso da Piperata 
 Thomas de VioVio, Tomasso 
357Tomati ([de] Thomatis), Egidio, b. ?Caraglio [prov. Cuneo], d. p. 1560 

F. Aimerito, in DGI. Whether or not T. was born in Caraglio, he is associated throughout his life with Cuneo (which is close by). He appears as a councillor of Cuneo in 1538. Carlo II, duke of Savoy, made him custodian of the castle at Caraglio in 1539, and in 1541 made him a judge of appeal. He is mentioned in older histories as the vicar general of the marquisate of Saluzzo during the French wars. He himself, and many authors, describe him as auditor at long distance of Carlo V in the kingdom of Napoli. He was made councillor of the Senate of Piedmont in 1560, but seems to have died shortly thereafter. He is known for his Tractatus de muneribus patrimonialibus seu collectis (first ed., Milano 1557) (t. 12), and was recognized as an authority on extraordinary taxation in time of war.

itemt. 12, fol. 100ra
358Tommaso da Piperata (di Peverata, degli Sturlitti), b. Bologna ca. 1230, d. . . . a. 1282 

A. Padovani, in DGI. Despite recent efforts to construct his biography from manuscript sources of his works, much is still not known about T. The second element in his name, which has wide variation in spelling in the manuscript sources, looks like a toponym, but it is not. It exists as an Italian surname today but is not found on the Cognomini Italiani website. A derivation from Latin piper seems likely. What is clear is that T. was a member of the Sturlitti, a noble Bolognese family of the period, with probable origins in Budrio. As such T. appears in Bolognese documents of the period and seems ultimately to have been exiled for his family’s support of the Lambertazza faction. His place of death is unknown. That he had doctorate in civil law and that he taught at Bologna is clear. Most of his works remain in manuscript, including an important collection of quaestiones. He is known for his tractate De fama (11.1), an important step in the development of the criminal law of the ius commune. To Padovani’s extensive bibliography add R. Fraher, ‘Conviction According to Conscience’, Law and History Review 7 (1989) 23–88.

itemt. 11.1, fol. 8rb
359Torelli, Laelio, b. Ferrara 1489, d. Firenze 1576 

D. Edigati, in DGI. T. had an initial humanistic formation at Ferrara, but he obtained his doctorate in utroque at Perugia at the age of 22. He began a meteoric rise in a succession of political offices: podestà of Fossombrone, one of the chief magistrates of Fano, ambassador of Fano to Roma and Firenze, governor of Benevento (1529), member of Rota of Firenze (1533–6). He attracted the attention of Cosimo I, duke of Milano, who made him chancellor of the palace and secretary of state in 1546, positions that he held until his death. He played a leading role in forming the Florentine bureaucracy and opposed the influence of the papacy in the affairs of the Florentine state. He wrote many consilia that remain in manuscript. In the years between his membership on the Rota Fiorentina and his appointment as what was, in effect, Cosimo’s chief of staff, he published three works: a commentary on D.28.2.9, another on D.45.1.4, and a treatise De militis ex casu (t. 12). All three works were in the humanist style, relying solely on the sources from antiquity and not making use of the medieval commentary. The De casu challenged the prevailing opinion of Budé and Zasius that the feudal landholding of medieval Europe originated in the Roman practice of clientage. In the same period, with the aid of his son Francesco, he published an edition of the Digest based solely on the codex Florentinus. This edition was an important step in separating humanistic commentary from that which was still prevalent in the Italian schools.

itemt. 12, fol. 321vb
 Trochaeus, Johannes RogeraiusJohannes Rogeraius Trochaeus 
 Troilus MalvetiusMalvetius, Troilus 
 TyndarusAlfani, Tindaro 
 Ubaldi, Angelo degliAngelo degli Ubaldi 
 Ubaldi, Baldo degliBaldo degli Ubaldi 
360Uberto da Bobbio (Ubertus de Bobio), b. ?Bobbio [prov. Piacenza] ca. 1185, d. . . . 1245 

N. Sarti, in DGI 2.1989–90. Uberto taught for many years in Parma, Reggio, and Modena. His best-known work Liber cautele e doctrine has recently been the subject of a monograph: N. Sarti and S. Bordini, L’avvocato medievale tra mestiere et scienza giuridica. Il ‘Liber cautele e doctrine’ di Uberto da Bobbio (... 1211–1245) (Bologna 2011).

itemt. 4, fol. 7vb
 Udalricus ZasiusZasius, Ulrich 
 Ugolinus, ZanchinusZanchino di Ugolino 
361Ugoni, Mattia, b. Brescia 1446, d. Brescia 1535 

CERL Thesaurus. On 1 Jul. 1504, Pope Julius II made U. bishop of Famagosta (now Gazimağusa, Northern Cyprus). He was recorded at the time as ‘de nobili gen. procr.’, a doctor in utroque, an apostolic notary, and a canon of Brescia. He is mentioned as having been involved in the papal governance of Parma in 1523. On 10 Jan. 1530, when he would have been 85, he resigned the see in favor of Giovanni Francesco Ugoni, his nephew, with a reservation of half the fruits. Eubel. So far as we can tell, his De praestantia patriarchali (t. 13.2) was first published in Brescia in 1507, reprinted there in 1510, and not printed again until its last printing in TUI 1584. In 1508, he is listed as the editor of Auree questiones dominicales ac veneriales necnon brocardica Bartholomei brixiensis published by Battista de Tortis in Venezia. In 1534 (dating on the basis of the second dedicatory epistle), he published in Brescia a work with the curious title Synodia ugonia episcopi Phamaugustani de Conciliis (online). It is, in fact, a quite learned treatise of 145 folios on the conduct and authority of general councils. The work was reprinted in Venezia in 1563, 1565, and 1568. P. E. Tiboni, Mattia Ugoni, vescovo di Famagosta: memoria letta all’Ateneo di Brescia il 23 luglio 1871 (Brescia 1872) was unavailable to us. A quite full summary of it may be found in N. Bettoni, Commentari dell’Ateneo di Brescia per gli anni 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873 (Brescia 1874) 187–191. The stub in Italian Wikipedia seems accurate as far as it goes.

itemt. 13.2, fol. 282vb
362Ulpian (Ulpianus), d. 223 AD 

U. was a classical Roman jurist and the supposed author the Tituli ex corpore Ulpiani (t. 1, f. 271va).

itemt. 1, fol. 271va
363Ulzurrun, Miguel de, b. Navarra sec. 15/exeunte, d. Navarra sec. 16/1 

Not in CERL Thesaurus or VIAF. Places and dates taken from DBE which lists him as ‘Consejero del Consejo Real de Navarra’. The Tractatus regiminis mundi (t. 16) was first published in Zaragosa in 1525 with the title Catholicum opus imperiale regiminis mundi (online). The dedication to Charles V identifies the author as ‘Michael de Ulçurrus’ of Pamplona, doctor in utroque. It was reprinted in Tractatus Lyon 1549, with the title shortened and the ‘ç’ in U’s name changed to ‘c’. From there it was reprinted for what so as we can tell was the last time in TUI 1584.

itemt. 16, fol. 103va
364Vadi (Vadis), Benedetto (de), sec. 16 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus. V. has not been identified other than by the fact that he wrote additiones or postille to a large number of 16th-century juristic works. His Latin toponym, de foro Sempronii, is Fossombrone (prov. Pesara e Urbino). His contribution to TUI 1584 is listed under Oriano (t. 3.1, f. 206va).

365Val (Duval, Valla), Nicolas Du, b.  . . sec. 16/ineunte, d.  . . ca. 1568 

P. Arrabeyre, in DHJF, s.n. Duval, Nicolas. V. is not to be confused with the Nicolas Duval, who may be his brother, who held various positions in Brittany and died in 1537, nor with the Nicolas Duval, who was a councillor in the parlement of Paris, ultimately a master of requests, and died before 1558. Even more is he not to be confused, as some library cataloguers do, with Niccolò Valla, a Sicilian Franciscan humanist, who became bishop of Madauro in 1525.

itemt. 18, fol. 317rb
 Valentinus FosterFoster, Valentin 
366Valle, Rolando Dalla, b. ?Livorno Vercellese [now Livorno Ferraris, prov. Vercelli] ca. 1503, d. Mirabello Monferrato 1575 

E. Dezza, in DBI 1.658–659 s.n. Dalla Valle, Rolando. We took V’s birth place from Italian edit16, although we queried it, as edit16 does not. Livorno Ferrraris is quite close to Casale Monferrato. V. took his doctorate in utroque at Bologna in 1528. He was made a member of the senate of Monferrato by the Paleologi marquises. He supported the Gonzagas in their successful claim to Monferrato, and became president of senate and de facto governor of Monferrato in 1567. His writings date from the end of life and were frequently cited and reprinted. They include Quaestiones super statuto de lucro dotis (t. 9) (?first ed. Venezia 1562), De inventarii confectione (t. 8.2) (?first ed. Venezia 1573), and four substantial volumes of Consilia, the first of which was published in Venezia in 1572, while V. was still alive, and the rest were published posthumously.

itemt. 8.2, fol. 166va; t. 9, fol. 351va
367Vanzi, Sebastiano, b. Rimini 1514, d. Orvieto 1571 

E. Mura, in DGI 2.2019. V. pursued a clerical career, participated in the council of Trent, and ended his life as bishop of Orvieto (1562–1571).

itemt. 4, fol. 371va
368Vargas Mejía, Francisco de, b. Madrid 1484, d. Toledo 1560 

CERL Thesaurus. For the time being we have left the form of the name, birth and death places and dates as they are in Italian edit16, because that is how they identify the author of the De auctoritate pontificis max. et episcoporum iurisdictione (t. 13.1). DBE has a Francisco de Vargas Mexía, b. Toledo 1500, d. Toledo a. 20.iv.1566, ‘Regente, Jurista, Teólogo, Embajador, Consejero de Estado, Fiscal del Consejo Real de Castilla’, who certainly looks as if he may be the same person, but the reconciliation with the information in edit16 awaits consultation with the paper edition of DBE. There are reasons to doubt the death date of 1560 in edit16. The De auctoritate was first published in Roma in 1563 with the title De episcoporum iurisdictione et pontifici maximi auctoritate. It describes the author as a councillor of the Spanish king and his orator before Pius IV. The editor’s preface claims that what he is publishing is a speech actually given before the pope and the cardinals, which the pope then sent to the fathers of the council of Trent and then urged V. to prepare for publication. Pius IV did not convoke the last session of the council of Trent until January of 1562. The preface is sufficiently vague about dates that it is possible that the speech was given in 1560, but, assuming that the story is true, it would more comfortably fit in 1561 or later, when V., supposedly, was dead.

itemt. 13.1, fol. 113ra
369Ve, Martinus de, fl. ?sec. 16/2 

CERL Thesaurus. Library cataloguers have pretty much given up on V. His De protestantibus (t. 17), a treatise unrelated to Protestants, but which lists the occasions on which one may or may avoid the normal effect of a legal act by protesting that one reserves the power to override it or that one does not intend that it have the consequences that it normally has, appears, so far as we can tell for the first time, in TUI 1584. It was reprinted in Köln in 1589 with the treatises by Giovanni degli Anguissola and Constantius Rogerius with similar titles (both of which follow in t. 17), and again in the 17th century. The only clue as to the author’s identity is that Ziletti puts a period after ‘Ve’, as if it were an abbreviation. That is not much to go on, but it is enough to suggest that we should not be looking for jurist, which V. clearly was, with the improbable surname of only ‘Ve’.

itemt. 17, fol. 219va
370Velpellus, Octavianus, fl. ?sec. 16 

CERL Thesaurus. The authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek leaves the name in Latin, and so do we. V. is known only from his work De treuga et pace, and so far as we have yet been able to discover, its printing in TUI 1584 is the only one. M. Souchon, Die Papstwahlen in der Zeit des grossen Schismas (Braunschweig 1898) 1.42 n. 3, suggests, without any confidence, that an Octavianus Velpelli from Lucca was made a cardinal by Boniface IX in 1402. That cannot be our V., because our V. cites Alciatus. The work itself is divided into 106 Quaestiones. It deals both canonic and civilian sources, with emphasis on the latter, and despite the citations of Alciatus is very much in the style of the mos italicus. Probably in the late 14th century a Catalan jurist, Jaume Callis (Jacobus de Callico), wrote a treatise De pace et treuga, and the well-known 15th-century canonist Felinus Sandeus wrote a treatise De treuga et pace. Both of these works are too early for what is being cited here, but it is possible that this work is a reworking of one or both of them. The phrase De treuga et pace is a title in the Liber extra (X 1.34).

itemt. 11.1, fol. 406ra
371Venenti, Giacomo, fl. 1536 X 1544 

Not in DGI or DBI. CERL Thesaurus. Library catalogues give a floruit for V. of 1530 on grounds that we are unable to discover. A man of this name is recorded as lecturing on parts of both the Digest and the Code at the university of Bologna between 1536 and 1539. See C. Malagola, ‘Documenti inediti sulla laurea e sull’insegnamento di Gregorio XIII (Ugo Boncampagni)’, Il Buonrrotti ser. 2 12 (gennaio 1877-1878) 14–15. The De annua praestatione (t. 6.2), which seems to be his only published work was first printed at Bologna in 1544. It describes him as a doctor utroque and was dedictated to Giovanni cardinal Morone as apostolic legate to Bolgona, a position the Morone held from 1544 to 1548.

itemt. 6.2, fol. 243vb
 Verginius de Boccatiis de CinguloBoccacci, Verginio 
372Vicentinus, Simon, b. . . . ca. 1190, d. ?Vicenza a. 1263 

Lange, Glossatoren 310–13; A. Larson, in MEMJ, s.n. Symon Vicentinus. S. was as much a practitioner as he was a teacher, associated, it would seem, for the greater part of his career with Vicenza. (Hence, the toponym in his name; it has nothing to do with ‘Vincent’.) He wrote an apparatus on the Code, the Digestum vetus, and the Libri feudorum, repetitiones and quaestiones. His De iudiciali missione in possessionem (3.2) seems to have been the only work of his that attracted the attention of the early modern printers.

itemt. 3.2, fol. 135ra; t. 3.2, fol. 135va
 Vignate (Vignati), AmbrogioAmbrogio da Vignate 
 Villadiego, GonzaloGarcía de Villadiego, Gonzalo 
 Vincentius Paleottus, BononiensisPaleotti, Vincenzo  
373Vio, Tomasso (né Giacomo) de, cardinal, called ‘Cajetan’, b. Gaeta 1469, d. Roma 1534 

Not in DGI. E. Stöve, in DBI. C. was a Dominican, trained as a philosopher and theologian, the author of numerous works, including fulsome commentaries on the works of Thomas Aquinas and on many books of the Bible. As a cardinal of the Roman Church, C. was the pope’s legate to the Diet of Augsburg, where he tried, unsuccessfully to get Martin Luther to recant his views. Later he pronounced judgment that the marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon was valid. C. not only wrote large works, he also wrote a large number of treatises on various theological and moral matters among which are those De cambiis and De monte pietatis (t. 6.1).

itemt. 6.1, fol. 405ra; t. 6.1, fol. 419rb
 Vischis, Joannes deJoannes de Vischis 
 Vitalis de CambanisCabanis (Cambanis), Vitalis de 
374Vitalis Nemausensis, sec. ?16/ineunte 

Not in DHJF. CERL Thesaurus. ‘Nemausensis’ is a Latin name for Nîmes, and when we combine that fact with the fact that what appears to be the first edition of the De collationibus (t. 8.1), Lyon 1510 (WorldCat), describes him as ‘consiliarius christianissimi francorum regis’ makes it likely that we are looking for a southern French jurist, whose floruit should be placed at the beginning of the sixteenth, rather than at the end, where the authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek has it. The only other information that we have about him is that he is described as ‘licentiatus in utroque’, that he wrote a repetitio on D.25.2.15, and that a repetitio of his on a decretal appeared in a collection of ten repetitiones on the decretals published in Paris in 1514. The De collationibus enjoyed considerable publishing success, but the author himself disappears from view. He may have died young.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 456ra
375Zanchino di Ugolino (Zanchinus Ugolini Senae de Porta Sancti Petri de Armino), b. Rimini . . . , d. Rimini 1340 

R. Parmeggiani, in DGI. Whatever the second element in Z’s father’s name means, it is clear that his family was established in Rimini when he was born, and it was there that he spent his life. He probably studied law at Bologna, before returning to Rimini, where he worked as an advocate. He participated in the redaction of the statutes of Rimini in 1334, and his support of the Malatesti family led to his being subject to am interdict laid upon him by the papal rector of Romagna. It was lifted post mortem in order to allow his remains to be buried in the local Franciscan church. His main claim to fame as a jurist rests on his Tractatus super materia hereticorum (t. 11.2), which he wrote around 1330 as a manual for the local Franciscan inquisitor. The work was published four times between 1568 and 1584, on the occasion of the constitution of the Holy Office by Pope Pius V, with additions by the Dominican Camillo Campeggi. That published in TUI 1584 is also said to have these additions. Parmeggiani says that the TUI edition was edited by Francisco Peña.

itemt. 11.2, fol. 234ra
 Zanchinus Ugolinus AriminensisZanchino di Ugolino 
376Zanettini (de Zanetinis), Girolamo, b. Bologna . . . , fl. 1457, d. Bologna 1493 

M. T. Guerrini, in DGI 2.2081–2. 1457 is when Z. took his degree.

itemt. 1, fol. 197vb; t. 3.1, fol. 405ra
377Zasius von Rabenstein, Johann Ulrich, b. Freiburg im Breisgau 1521, d. . . . 1570 

W. Goetz, in ADB (1898) 44.706–708. Z. was the son of the better-known early humanist jurist, Ulrich Zasius (1461–1535) and editor of his father’s works. Z. served as a counselor to princes and ended his life as Vice-Chancellor of the Reich under Maxmillian II. A shorter biography can be found in German Wikipedia.

itemt. 1, fol. 252va
378Zasius, Ulrich, b. Constanz am Bodensee 1461, d. Freiburg im Breisgau 1535 

A. von Eisenhart, in ADB. Z. came to law in mid-career. He did not get his doctorate until 1501, after having served as city-clerk and director of the Latin school of Freiburg in Breisgau. In 1505, he became professor of law at the university of Freiburg, where his teaching in the humanist style was an instant success. In doing this he anticipated Alciati; his contemporary Budé also took a humanist approach to law but did not attempt to teach prospective lawyers. Z. was deeply involved in the reform of the city laws of Freiburg in 1520. He corresponded with Luther, but remained a Catholic. Most of his legal works were published posthumously by his son and his students, but an edition of the De substitutionibus (t. 8.1) was published in Freiburg in 1532.

itemt. 8.1, fol. 263vb
379Zocchi, Giacomo di Giovanni, b. Massa Fiscaglia [prov. Ferrara] sec. 15/exeunte X sec. 16/ineunte, d. Padova 1457 

E. Cortese, in DGI.

itemt. 14, fol. 159vb




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