The Harvard Law School’s Collection
of Medieval English Statute Books and
Registers of Writs

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HLS MS No. 184

England. Statutes, Magna Carta to 28 Edw. 1, Registrum Brevium, Tracts

ca. 1307



<Preliminary introduction>

The HOLLIS cataloguing may be found here.

The cataloguing in Baker’s English Legal Manuscripts, 1, no. 114 reads as follows:

“Unnumbered MS.
“Late C.xiii or early C.xiv, 181 ff., oak boards. The principal tracts are: Quot modis dicitur exceptio; Hengham Magna and Parva; Fet asaver; Judicium essoniorum; Ordo exceptionum; Summa bastardie; Modus componendi brevia; Officium senescalli; Brevia placitata (‘Les cas de brefs pledes et les demaundes et les jugements’); Walter of Henley; and ‘Cy poet un juvenes houme ver coment il deyt sotylment parler en court’ (printed in translation from this MS., 1936).

“‘Fuit homo missus a Deo, cui nomen erat Kymb’; (C.xv); ‘Liber Willelmi Crofton Templi interioris consocii, precii xii d.’ (C.xv); ‘MS. 166’ (C.xix, pencil); belonged to Sir Gregory Osborne Page-Turner (d. 1843) of Battlesden House; his sale, Christie, 3 Nov. 1824, part of no. 2718 (cf. no. 13, above), to Sir Thomas Phillipps (MS. 3128); his sale, S. 24 June 1935, to Sweet & Maxwell; bought from them, and received on 6 May 1941.

“H. M. Briggs, Curia Baronis. Here may a young man see how he should speak subtly in court (Sweet & Maxwell, 1936); Dunham, Casus Placitorum, 69 SS lxxiii, no. 14.”

To Baker’s description we may add: that the manuscript is now numbered HLS MS 184, that the note on fol. 2r reads ‘Fuit homo missus a Deo cui nomen erat Johannes’, i.e., Jn. 1:6 (‘Kymb’’ is below it and is either a signature for the preceding or an insert in the following line, which difficult to read), that the identification of the hand of inscription that attributes the ownership of the manuscript to William Crofton is problematical (see below), and that the identification of one of the tracts as Brevia placitata needs further discussion below.

The pencilled foliation is modern and postdates Dunham’s edition of Casus placitorum (1950). It skips fol. 24r, so that the folios thereafter are one less than they ought to be. On fol. 34r(33r), the foliation moves from the top right to the lower left. Fol. 43r(42r) is not foliated, and the foliation appears only occasionally from then on, but where it occurs, it corresponds to the actual foliation less one. We have foliated digitally to correspond to the actual foliation. We have not included the stub between fol. 105v and 106r, which brings our foliation back to the pencilled foliation. After a consistent foliation every five folios from 106r to 170r, the pencilled foliation skips fol. 175r and numbers fol. 176r as 175r, and this misnumbering occurs on each folio until we reach the end of the manuscript. There are signature marks of uncertain date on the first three or four fols. of many quires.

Except for the initial tract, the manuscript is laid out consistently, though a number of hands are at work. Red and blue paragraph marks throughout. Decorated capitals and scrollwork in a consistent style throughout.

The manuscript has 23 quires: one quinternion, 21 quaternions, and one ternion. The quinternion and the ternion may originally have been quaternions that were remade to accommodate the text. The quinternion appears just before the register of writs; the ternion is the last quire of the register. One folio is missing after fol. 105 and two are missing from the second half of the final quire. Additionally, two folios (f. 51 and 52) are switched. This gives us the following collation:

1–148 (f. 1–111, lacks one after f. 105), 1510 (f. 112–121), 16–198 (f. 122–153), 206 (f. 154–159), 21–238 (f. 160–181, lacks two from quire 23).

No two manuscripts of either ‘Brevia placitata’ or ‘Casus placitorum’ are quite alike, and the distinction between the two may be the product more of modern editors than of the Middle Ages. Dunham identifies the text in this manuscript as ‘Casus placitorum’ (p. lxxiii, no. 14). The first entry in this text corresponds to No. 19 in the Dunham’s edition of ‘Casus placitorum’, the second entry to No. 162. (Dunham ed., at 4, 39). (Both, admittedly, have parallels in ‘Brevia placitata’.) What makes this text more like ‘Casus placitorum’ than ‘Brevia placitata’ is that like ‘Casus placitorum’ and unlike the modern edition of ‘Brevia placitata’, this tract does not give the count, but proceeds directly to notes about what seem to be real cases or doctrinal principles taught. Although Dunham referenced this manuscript, it was not one of the ones that he used. It merits a closer comparison with his edition.

The HOLLIS and the Baker description mention an inscription in a 15th-century hand that records the ownership of the manuscript of one William Crofton of Inner Temple. The Crofton in question is Baker’s William Crofton III (The Men of Court, 1:543). He was admitted to Inner Temple in 1534 and may have been active as late as 1572. The hand of the inscription does, however, look earlier, and since it appears at a bottom of fol. 3r, it may have been deliberately ‘antiqued’ to make it look like the writing on the rest of folio.

We have yet to find any clear indications of provenance prior to the 16th century. The contents of the manuscript certainly suggest that it was compiled for someone who was interested in manorial administration. The fact, however, that a quite sophisticated but old-fashioned register of writs is included may point to a local lawyer, who served as a manorial steward but who may, on occasion, have been an attorney in the central royal courts or, at least, dealt with men who were. The inclusion of the pleading treatises might suggest that the original owner was himself an attorney. Indeed, the contents would be of use to an apprentice or a serjeant who was engaged, or hoped to be engaged, in manorial administration.

So far as the date of the whole manuscript is concerned, there is nothing in the main collection of statutes that needs be dated later than Articuli super cartas (1300). A later hand has included a portion of the statute of Fines. That statute is normally dated to 1299, but reference in it (in both S.R. and in our text) to ‘rex Henricus avus noster’ suggests that the version of it that we have comes from the reign of Edward II. The Analysis of Writs shows that there is are similar references to H., the grandfather of the king who is speaking, in the register in the main body of the text, but that the register itself is quite old-fashioned for the reign of Edward II. Those facts lead to the suggestion that the manuscript dates from the beginning of his reign, and to our suggested date of ca. 1307.


Summary Contents

Clicking on the item in question will open the first sequence for the item in the PDS in a new tab or window.


  Seq. Fol. No. Item  
9–18f. 3r–7va1Cy poet un juvenes homme ver coment il deyt sotylement parler en court 
18–19f. 7v–8r0Table 
21–27f. 9r–12r1Magna Carta, as confirmed 25 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:114–19) 
27–30f. 12r–13v2Forest Charter, as confirmed 25 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:120–2) 
30–31f. 13v–14r3Sentencia lata super Cartas (S.R. 1:6) 
31–33f. 14r–15r4Confirmatio cartarum, 25 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:122–4) 
33–34f. 15r–15v5Sentencia lata super confirmatione cartarum, 25 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:126) 
34–42f. 15v–19v6Articuli super cartas, 28 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:136–41) 
42–43f. 19v–20r7Statutum de tallagio, 25 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:125) 
44–47f. 20v–22r8Provisions of Merton, 20 Hen. 3 (S.R. 1:1–4) 
47–57f. 22r–27r9Statute of Marlborough, 52 Hen. 3 (S.R. 1:19–25) 
57–79f. 27r (male 26r)–38r10Statute of Westminster I, 3 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:26–39) 
79–85f. 38r (male 37r)–41r11Statute of Gloucester, chapters, 6 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:47–50) 
85–85f. 41r (male 40r)–41r12‘Explanation’ of statute of Gloucester, 6 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:50) 
86–121f. 41v (male 40v)–59r13Statute of Westminster II, 13 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:71–95) 
121–122f. 59r (male 58r)–59v14Statute of Westminster III, 18 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:106) 
122–125f. 59v (male 58v)–61r15Statute of Winchester, 13 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:96–8) 
126–129f. 61v (male 60v)–63r16‘Statutes of the Exchequer’, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:197 [semel] – [ter]) 
129–130f. 63r (male 62r)–63v17Districtiones scaccarii, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:197 [ter] – 198) 
130–133f. 63v (male 62v)–65r18Chapters in eyre, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:233–8) 
133–135f. 65r (male 64r)–66r19Statute of Merchants, 13 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:98–100) 
135–137f. 66r (male 65r)–67r20Statute of Gloucester, 6 Edw. 1, preamble (S.R. 1:45–6) 
137–138f. 67r (male 66r)–67v21Statutum de quo warranto, 18 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:107) 
138–139f. 67v (male 66v)–68r22Statutum de moneta, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:219 [semel] – 219 [bis]) 
139–140f. 68r (male 67r)–68v23Articuli monete, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:219 [bis]) 
140–141f. 68v (male 67v)–69r24Circumspecte agatis, 13 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:101–2) 
141–142f. 69r (male 68r)–69v25Modus calumpniandi essoniam, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:217–18) 
142–143f. 69v (male 68v)–70r26Dies communes in banco, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:208) 
143–144f. 70r (male 69r)–70v27Statutum de militibus, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:229) 
144–145f. 70v (male 69v)–71r28Statutum de homagio et fidelitate faciendis, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:227–8) 
145–145f. 71r (male 70r)–71r29Statutum de anno et die, 40 Hen. 3 (S.R. 1:7) 
145–146f. 71r (male 70r)–71v30Modus exceptionum (Not in S.R.) 
146–159f. 71v (male 70v)–78r31Hengham parva (Not in S.R.) 
159–191f. 78r (male 77r)–94r32Hengham magna (Not in S.R.) 
191–214f. 94r (male 93r)–105v33Fet asaver (Not in S.R.) 
217–223f. 106r–110r34Judicium essoniorum (Not in S.R.) 
223–231f. 110r–114r35Exceptiones ad cassandum brevia (Not in S.R.) 
231–239f. 114r–118r36Summa bastardie (Not in S.R.) 
239–246f. 118r–121v37Modus componendi brevia (Not in S.R.) 
247–258f. 122r–127v38aRegister of writs. Writs of right 
258–272f. 127v–134v38bRegister of writs. Ecclesiastical writs 
272–277f. 134v–137r38cRegister of writs. Replevin 
277–280f. 137r–138v38dRegister of writs. Criminal matters 
280–298f. 138v–147v38eRegister of writs. Miscellaneous writs 
298–308f. 147v–152v38fRegister of writs. Novel disseisin and variants 
308–313f. 152v–155r38gRegister of writs. Mort d’ancester and variants 
313–321f. 155r–159r38hRegister of writs. Quare eiecit, escheat, formedon, writs of entry 
321–322f. 159r–159v38iRegister of writs. Trespass 
323–341f. 160r–169r39Senechaucy (Not in S.R.) 
342–350f. 169v–173v40Casus placitorum (Not in S.R.) 
350–362f. 173v–179v41Walter of Henley’s Husbandry (Not in S.R.) 
362–362f. 179v (male 178v)–179v[42]Statute of fines, 27 Edw. 1, c. 1 (incomplete) (S.R. 1:228–9) 
365–366f. 181r (male 180r)–181v[43]De bigamis, 4 Edw. 1 (S.R. 1:42–3) 


Detailed Contents

Clicking on the sequence number will open that sequence in the PDS in a new tab or window.


Seq. Fol. Label Header  
1no fol., no sig.Spine 
2no fol., no sig.Foredge 
3no fol., no sig.Front cover 
4no fol., no sig.Inside front cover 
51rNotes of various dates 
61vNotes of various dates 
72rNotes of various dates 
93rCy poet un juvenes homme ver coment il deyt sotylement parler en court 
  Heading: Cy poet un Juvenes homme ver Coment il deyt sotylement parler en Court.
  Note: A somewhat different version of this was edited in Maitland’s Court Baron. On the basis of a transcription from this manuscript, Helen M. Briggs published a translation under the title Here may a young man see how he should speak subtly in court (London, 1936) .
  Heading: Omnia ista subscripta continentur in hoc libro.
  Note: The table uses Hindu-Arabic item numbers without indication of foliation. Lists the statutes on 7v and runs over to 8r. Fol. 8r begins with no. 20, and runs through no. 41. It lists everything that is in the book except for the dialogue ‘Cy poet’, and the final documents on fol. 179v and 180, which are clearly later additions. The numbers in the table are the basis of our numeration in the Summary of Contents.
  Heading: Explicunt capitula in isto libro contenta.
219rMagna Carta, as confirmed 25 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:114–19) 
2712rForest Charter, as confirmed 25 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:120–2) 
  Heading: Explicit Magna Carta. Incipit Carta de foresta.
3013vSentencia lata super Cartas. (S.R. 1:6) 
  Heading: Explicit Carta de foresta. Incipit Sentencia lata super Cartas.
  Note: This item is in S.R. as ‘Sententia Excommunicationis Lata in Transgressores Cartarum’, 37 Henry III (13 or 3 [see translation] May 1253), but this item is dated 15 May 1254.
3114rConfirmatio cartarum, 25 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:122–4) 
  Heading: Explicit sententia super cartas lata. Incipit confirmatio Regis Edwardi Anno regni sui xxvito.
3315rSentencia lata super confirmatione cartarum, 25 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:126) 
  Heading: Explicit confirmatio Regis Edwardi Anno Regni sui xxvito. Incipit sententia nove confirmacionis.
3415vArticuli super cartas, 28 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:136–41) 
  Heading: Incipiunt articuli novi super cartas editi.
4219vStatutum de tallagio, 25 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:125) 
  Heading: Expliciunt novi articuli super cartas editi. Incipit concessio Regis quod nullum tallagium capiatur.
  Heading: Explicit quod nullum tallagium capiatur.
4420vProvisions of Merton, 20 Hen. 3. (S.R. 1:1–4) 
  Heading: Incipiunt statuta de Merton edita.
4722rStatute of Marlborough, 52 Hen. 3. (S.R. 1:19–25) 
  Heading: Expliciunt statuta de Merton. Incipiunt statuta de Marleberg’ edita.
5124r (male no fol.) 
5224v (male no fol.) 
5325r (male 24r) 
5425v (male 24v) 
5526r (male 25r) 
5626v (male 25v) 
5727r (male 26r)Statute of Westminster I, 3 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:26–39) 
  Heading: Expliciunt statuta de Marleberge. Incipiunt statuta Westmonasterii primi.
5827v (male 26v) 
5928r (male 27r) 
6028v (male 27v) 
6129r (male 28r) 
6229v (male 28v) 
6330r (male 29r) 
6430v (male 29v) 
6531r (male 30r) 
6631v (male 30v) 
6732r (male 31r) 
6832v (male 31v) 
6933r (male 32r) 
7033v (male 32v) 
7134r (male 33r) 
7234v (male 33v) 
7335r (male 34r) 
7435v (male 34v) 
7536r (male 35r) 
7636v (male 35v) 
7737r (male 36r) 
7837v (male 36v) 
7938r (male 37r)Statute of Gloucester, 6 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:47–50) 
  Heading: Expliciunt statuta Westm’ primi. Incipiunt statuta Gloucestrie.
8038v (male 37v) 
8139r (male 38r) 
8239v (male 38v) 
8340r (male 39r) 
8440v (male 39v) 
8541r (male 40r)‘Explanation’ of statute of Gloucester, 6 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:50) 
  Heading: Expliciunt statuta Gloucestr’. Incipit explanatio eorumdem.
8641v (male 40v)Statute of Westminster II, 13 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:71–95) 
  Heading: Incipiunt statuta Westmon’ secunda.
8742r (male 41r) 
8842v (male 41v) 
8943r (male 42r) 
9043v (male 42v) 
9144r (male 43r) 
9244v (male 43v) 
9345r (male 44r) 
9445v (male 44v) 
9546r (male 45r) 
9646v (male 45v) 
9747r (male 46r) 
9847v (male 46v) 
9948r (male 47r) 
10048v (male 47v) 
10149r (male 48r) 
  Note: Change of quill and ink in mid-page, probably change of hand.
10249v (male 48v) 
10350r (male 49r) 
10450v (male 49v) 
10551r (male 50r) 
10651v (male 50v) 
10752r (male 51r) 
10852v (male 51v) 
10953r (male 52r) 
11053v (male 52v) 
11154r (male 53r) 
11254v (male 53v) 
11355r (male 54r) 
11455v (male 54v) 
11556r (male 55r) 
11656v (male 55v) 
11757r (male 56r) 
11857v (male 56v) 
11958r (male 57r) 
12058v (male 57v) 
12159r (male 58r)Statute of Westminster III, 18 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:106) 
  Heading: Incipit statutum de emptoribus terrarum.
12259v (male 58v)Statute of Winchester, 13 Edw. 1 . (S.R. 1:96–8) 
  Heading: Explicit statutum de emptoribus terrarum. Incipiunt statuta Wynchestrie.
12360r (male 59r) 
12460v (male 59v) 
12561r (male 60r) 
12661v (male 60v)‘Statutes of the Exchequer’, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:197 [semel] – [ter]) 
  Heading: Incipiunt statuta de scaccario.
12762r (male 61r) 
12862v (male 61v) 
12963r (male 62r)Districtiones scaccarii, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:197 [ter] – 198) 
  Heading: Explicit statutum de scaccario. Incipiunt districtiones scaccarii.
13063v (male 62v)Chapters in eyre, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:233–8) 
  Heading: Expliciunt districtiones scaccarii. Incipiunt capitula Itineris.
13164r (male 63r) 
13264v (male 63v) 
13365r (male 64r)Statute of Merchants, 13 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:98–100) 
  Heading: Expliciunt capitula Itineris. Incipiunt statuta de mercatoribus.
13465v (male 64v) 
13566r (male 65r)Statute of Gloucester, 6 Edw. 1, preamble. (S.R. 1:45–6) 
  Heading: Expliciunt statuta de mercatoribus. Incipit statutum de quo Warranto primo [= preamble to statute of Gloucester].
13666v (male 65v) 
13767r (male 66r)Statutum de quo warranto, 18 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:107) 
  Heading: Explicit statutum de Quo Warranto primo. Incipit statutum de Quo Warranto secundo.
13867v (male 66v)Statutum de moneta, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:219 [semel] – 219 [bis]) 
  Heading: Incipit statutum de moneta editum.
13968r (male 67r)Articuli monete, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:219 [bis]) 
  Heading: Explicit statutum monete Incipiunt articuli monete.
14068v (male 67v)Circumspecte agatis, 13 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:101–2) 
  Heading: Expliciunt Articuli monete. Incipit statutum Circumspecte agatis.
14169r (male 68r)Modus calumpniandi essoniam, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:217–18) 
  Heading: Explicit statutum Circumspecte Agatis. Incipit modus Calumpniandi essoniam.
  Note: In addition to the item in S.R. there is also a tract of this name ed. George E. Woodbine, Four Thirteenth Century Law Tracts (New Haven, 1910), 116–142 (online). The ‘statute’ and the treatise need to be compared, but this version seems closer to the ‘statute’.
14269v (male 68v)Dies communes in banco, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:208) 
  Heading: Explicit modus calumpniandi essoniam Incipiunt dies communes in banco.
14370r (male 69r)Statutum de militibus, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:229) 
  Heading: Expliciunt communes dies in banco. Incipit statutum de militibus.
14470v (male 69v)Statutum de homagio et fidelitate faciendis, temp. incert. (S.R. 1:227–8) 
  Heading: Explicit statutum de militibus. Incipit statutum de homagio et fidelitate faciendis.
14571r (male 70r)(1) Statutum de anno et die, 40 Hen. 3. (2) Modus exceptionum. (S.R. [1] 1:7 [2] Not in S.R) 
  Heading: (1) Explicit statutum de homagio et fidelitate faciendo. Incipit statutum de anno et die. (2) Incipit statutum quot modis dicitur excepcio.
  Note: (1) Page foliated lower left as 70r. (2) Modus exceptionum, also known as Quot modis dicitur exceptio, is a tract, unedited so far as we are aware, that appears in a number of ‘statute books’ and elsewhere. See the extensive list given in Baker, Catalogue of Cambridge Legal Manuscripts, 96–7.
14671v (male 70v)Hengham parva. (Not in S.R.) 
  Heading: Explicit statutum quot modis dicitur excepcio. Incipit summa que vocatur parva Hengham.
  Note: (1) Some marginalia not by the main scribe; also additional center running heads not by the main scribe. (2) Hengham parva is ed. W. H. Dunham, Radulphi de Hengham Summae (Cambridge, 1932), 52–71. Hengham’s authorship of this treatise is regarded as ‘probable’ by Brand in ODNB s.n.
14772r (male 71r) 
14872v (male 71v) 
14973r (male 72r) 
15073v (male 72v) 
15174r (male 73r) 
15274v (male 73v) 
15375r (male 74r) 
15475v (male 74v) 
15576r (male 75r) 
15676v (male 75v) 
15777r (male 76r) 
15877v (male 76v) 
15978r (male 77r)Hengham magna. (Not in S.R.) 
  Heading: Explicit summa de parva Hengham. Incipit summa de magna Hengham.
  Note: Hengham magna is ed. W. H. Dunham, Radulphi de Hengham Summae (Cambridge, 1932), 52–72. Hengham’s authorship of this treatise is regarded as ‘unlikely’ by Brand in ODNB s.n. See Paul Brand, ‘Hengham Magna: A Thirteenth Century English Common Law Treatise and Its Composition’, Irish Jurist, 11 (1976) 147–69.
16078v (male 77v) 
16179r (male 78r) 
16279v (male 78v) 
16380r (male 79r) 
16480v (male 79v) 
16581r (male 80r) 
16681v (male 80v) 
16782r (male 81r) 
16882v (male 81v) 
16983r (male 82r) 
17083v (male 82v) 
17184r (male 83r) 
17284v (male 83v) 
17385r (male 84r) 
17485v (male 84v) 
17586r (male 85r) 
17686v (male 85v) 
17787r (male 86r) 
17887v (male 86v) 
17988r (male 87r) 
18088v (male 87v) 
18189r (male 88r) 
18289v (male 88v) 
18390r (male 89r) 
18490v (male 89v) 
18591r (male 90r) 
18691v (male 90v) 
18792r (male 91r) 
18892v (male 91v) 
18993r (male 92r) 
19093v (male 92v) 
19194r (male 93r)Fet asaver. (Not in S.R.) 
  Heading: Explicit summa de magna Hengham. Incipit faytasaveyr.
  Note: Fet asaver is ed. George E. Woodbine, Four Thirteenth Century Law Tracts (New Haven, 1910), 53–115 (online).
19294v (male 93v) 
19395r (male 94r) 
19495v (male 94v) 
19596r (male 95r) 
19696v (male 95v) 
19797r (male 96r) 
19897v (male 96v) 
19998r (male 97r) 
20098v (male 97v) 
20199r (male 98r) 
20299v (male 98v) 
203100r (male 99r) 
204100v (male 99v) 
205101r (male 100r) 
206101v (male 100v) 
207102r (male 101r) 
208102v (male 101v) 
209103r (male 102r) 
210103v (male 102v) 
211104r (male 103r) 
212104v (male 103v) 
213105r (male 104r) 
214105v (male 104v) 
215106rJudicium essoniorum. (Not in S.R.) 
  Note: (1) A fol. has been cut out before this one. It contained the explicit of Fet assaver and the incipit of Judicum essoniorum. The stub of the missing folio is visible, and the pencilled foliation in the ms. numbers it ‘105’. (2) Judicum essoniorum is ed. George E. Woodbine, Four Thirteenth Century Law Tracts (New Haven, 1910), 27–38 (online). See also Paul Brand, ‘Nothing Which is New or Unique? A Reappraisal of Judicium Essoniorum’, in Peter Birks, ed., The Life of the Law: Proceedings of the Tenth British Legal History Conference (London, 1993), 1–8.
  Note: Fancy head for the tercium capitulum of Judicium essoniorum, but no indication of explicit and incipit.
223110rExceptiones ad cassandum brevia. (Not in S.R.) 
  Heading: Explicit Iudicium essoniorum. Incipit ordo excepcionum.
  Note: (1) Pencilled modern note at foot: ‘This is closely related to the tract given in Britsh Museum Royal MS 15A.31’. (2) Exceptiones ad cassandum brevia is ed. George E. Woodbine, Four Thirteenth Century Law Tracts (New Haven, 1910), 163–83 (online). Baker, Cambridge Legal Manuscripts, 70, has an extensive list of manuscript examples, including ours, but not including the one mentioned in the pencilled note in MS 184. There are other tracts with similar titles, but this one is the one to which Baker refers and which Woodbine edited.
231114rSumma bastardie. (Not in S.R.) 
  Heading: Explicit ordo excepcionum. Incipit summa bastardie..
  Note: Summa bastardie has not been edited. Baker, Cambridge Legal Manuscripts, 65–6, has an extensive list of manuscript examples, including ours.
239118rModus componendi brevia. (Not in S.R.) 
  Heading: Explicit summa bastardie. Incipit modus componendi brevia.
  Note: Modus componendi brevia is ed. George E. Woodbine, Four Thirteenth Century Law Tracts (New Haven, 1910) 143–162 (online). Baker, Cambridge Legal Manuscripts, 55–6, has an extensive list of manuscript examples, including ours.
  Heading: Explicit modus componendi brevia.
  Note: 3/4 page blank, end of quire.
247122rRegister of writs. Writs of right 
  Heading: Registrum cancellar’ domini Regis.
  Note: For a preliminary analysis of the register, see below.
258127vRegister of writs. Ecclesiastical writs 
272134vRegister of writs. Replevin 
277137rRegister of writs. Criminal matters 
280138vRegister of writs. Miscellaneous writs 
298147vRegister of writs. Novel disseisin and variants 
308152vRegister of writs. Mort d’ancester and variants 
313155rRegister of writs. Quare eiecit, escheat, formedon, writs of entry 
321159rRegister of writs. Trespass 
  Note: End of the register without explicit. 1/3 of page blank. Right footer announces ‘seneschal des terres’.
  Heading: Issi commence le office de seneschal.
  Note: (1) This entry is in a different hand, with a slightly different layout, e.g., dry-point lines on top, bottom, and sides.. (2) Senechaucy is printed in Walter of Henley’s Husbandry, ed. and trans. Elizabeth Lamond (London, 1890) 88–119 (online). The more recent edition by Dorothea Oschinsky, Walter of Henley and Other Treatises on Estate Management and Accounting (Oxford, 1971), 264–95, shows that there is no single text of this, but that it developed over time. Manuscript copies, including this one, are listed in Baker, Cambridge Legal Manuscripts, 57.
  Heading: Explicit officium senescalli. Incipit officium Balivi diversorum maneriorum.
  Note: This and the following headings are all subheadings in the ‘Senechaucy’ until we reach fol. 169r.
  Heading: Explicit officium Ballivorum. Incipit officium prepositorum..
  Heading: Explicit officium prepositorum. Incipit officium messorum..
  Heading: (1) Explicit officium messorum. Incipit officium carucariorum. (2) Explicit officium carucariorum. Incipit officium cartariorum.
  Heading: Explicit officium carucariorum. Incipit officium vaccariorum.
  Heading: (1) Explicit officium vaccariorum. Incipit officum porcariorum. (2) Explicit officium porcariorum. Incipit officium Bercariorum.
  Heading: Explicit officium Bercariorum. Incipit officim Daye [Lathahm s.v. ‘dairyman or dairymaid’).
  Heading: Ici commence le office des acountours.
  Heading: Explicit Seneschaucye..
342169vCasus placitorum. (Not in S.R.) 
  Heading: Issi Comensunt les cas des Brefs pledes et les demandes et les Jugemenz.
  Note: (1) Heading written in another hand. (2) HOLLIS suggests that this is version of Brevia placitata. It seems more likely that it is a version of Casus placitorum. As the Baker description notes, Dunham so identifies it in his edition (p. lxxiii, no. 14). The first entry corresponds to No. 19 in the modern edition of Casus placitorum. Dunham ed., p. 4 (which admittedly has parallels in Brevia placitata). The second entry corresponds to No. 162 in the printed edition. Id., p. 39 (which also has parallels in Brevia placitata). (3) Casus placitorum (ed. W. H. Dunham, Selden Society no. 69, 1950) and Brevia placitata (ed. G. J. Turner and T. F. T. Plucknett, Selden Society, no. 66, 1947) are closely related. No two manuscripts of either are quite alike, and the distinction between the two may be product more of modern editors than of the Middle Ages. What makes this text more like Casus placitorum is that like Casus placitorum and unlike the modern edition of Brevia placitata, this tract does not give the count, but proceeds directly to notes about what seem to be real cases or doctrinal principles taught. Baker, Cambridge Legal Manuscripts, 156, however, classes it with Brevia Placitata. Although referenced by Dunham in his edition of Casus Placitorum, this was not one of the manuscripts he used. It merits a closer comparison with his edition.
350173vWalter of Henley’s Husbandry. (Not in S.R.) 
  Heading: Issi comence hosbonderie.
  Note: (1) The heading may have been jammed in later. (2) Manuscripts attribute Husbandry to one Walter of Henley. See ODNB, s.n. Printed in Walter of Henley’s Husbandry, ed. and trans. Elizabeth Lamond (London, 1890) 1–35 (online). The more recent edition by Dorothea Oschinsky, Walter of Henley and Other Treatises on Estate Management and Accounting (Oxford, 1971), 308–43, shows that there is no single text of this, but that it developed over time. Baker, Cambridge Legal Manuscripts, 57–58, lists manuscripts not known to Oschinsky, including this one.
353175r (male no fol.) 
354175v (male no fol.) 
355176r (male 175r) 
356176v (male 175v) 
357177r (male 176r) 
358177v (male 176v) 
359178r (male 177r) 
360178v (male 177v) 
361179r (male 178r) 
362179v (male 178v)Statute of fines, 27 Edw. 1, c. 1 (incomplete). (S.R. 1:228–9) 
  Heading: Ci finit le escryt de hosbonderie.
  Note: (1) C. 1 of the statute of Fines is in a different hand without incipit. The text breaks off at ‘petentes seu querentes aut’ (S.R. 1:129, line 2). There is room on the page to have included the rest of it. Fol. 180r–v is blank. (2) The reference in the statute to ‘D. H. R. avi nostri’, which is also in the text of S.R., suggests that the king speaking is Edward II, despite the 1299 date in S.R.
363180r (male 179r)Blank 
364180v (male 179v)Blank 
365181r (male 180r)De bigamis, 4 Edw. 1. (S.R. 1:42–3) 
  Note: No incipit. The explicit on fol. 181v calls it ‘Statuta de bigamis’, and dates it to the 4th year of a King Edward. This item was probably added on a freestanding end paper of the manuscript after it was bound, because fols. 172–180 constitute a complete quire.
366181v (male 180v) 
  Heading: Explicunt statuta de bigamis.
  Note: The explicit is written in a different and probably later hand. There follows in what is probably the same hand: Vin[c]at cum Christo qui plurima clausit in isto. There follows and erased note of ownership that might be legible under uv.
367no fol., no sig.Inside back cover 
368no fol., no sig.Back cover 


Preliminary Analysis of the Register of Writs



Registrum cancellar’ domini Regis

There are no running heads in the register, but the script, style, and layout are basically the same as in the rest of the manuscript. The quiring (see the Introduction) suggests that it was made up separately from the rest of the manuscript, but there is no reason to doubt that it was part of the same project, and probably by the same scribe. The initial writ of right is to the king’s bailiffs of a royal borough threatening action by the sheriff of Leicester, tested ‘etc.’ Lacking a date for the initial writ of right, the best evidence of a terminus a quo is that in writs on fol. 144r, 148r, 153r, the king speaks of a King H. as ‘avus noster’. We have not, as yet, found any dated writs. There are very few names that seem to those of real persons, though there are some initials that could be pursued. The G. Giffard, one of the defendants in a De fine facto on fol. 144r, is probably Bishop Godfrey of Worcester, who died in 1302. What leads us to date the register, at least tentatively, at the very beginning of Edward the Second’s reign is that, as we shall see in the conclusion following the Table of Writs, this register is quite old-fashioned for a supposed date in that king’s reign.

The following table gives the names of the writs as found in the marginalia and counts them. Two counts are given in the right-hand columns of the table. The first counts all the writs, excluding any marginalia marked ‘nota’ or ‘regula’. The second excludes from that total all the writs where the heading includes the words ‘eodem’ or ‘aliter’.



247122rBreve de recto ballivis domini Regis; Aliter de eodem; De eodem quando multi sunt deforciati; De eodem quando plures deforc’; pratum tenere vel boscum; Regula; De recto de racionabili parte; De eodem quando partem habeant et partem non; Regula.73
248122vAliter de eodem; De recto custodi honoris; De recto custodi terre et heredis; Regula; De recto de dote; Regula; Aliter de eodem; De recto de servicio unius militis; De diversitate serviciorum in brevi de recto.75
249123rDe recto quando dominus Curie remitterat curiam suam domino Regi; Precipe in capite; De recto secundum consuetudinem manerii; De eodem quando tenementum alienatur a rege; De recto de consuetdinibus et serviciis; Regula.54
250123vDe pace cum tenens posuerit se in magnam assisam; De eodem in Curia alicuius domini; Aliter de eodem; Ad eligendum magnam assisam quod sit ad procur’ tenentis; Regula; De pace in Gavelkynde.53
251124rDe iurata loco assise in Gavelk[ind]; De pace de consuetudinibus et serviciis; Ad eligendam magnam assisam in consuetudinibus et serviciis; Ad mittendum quatuor milites ad videndum quod plena iusticia exhibeatur; De eodem vicecomiti quod assumptis tecum iiijor.54
252124vDe eodem sicut alias; De Recordo et Rationabili iudicio in comitatu; De eodem in Curia alicuius; De procedendo in loquela que est ?de gracia; Regula; Ad mittendum quatuor milites ad essonium de malo lecti .53
253125rDe attornatu coram quatuor militibus facto; Aliter de eodem; Aliter de eodem; De eodem quando loquela est in Curia baronis.41
254125vDe rationabili auxilio habendo ad primogenitum filum militem faciendum sive filiam maritandam; De reparacione poncium vel stagnorum; De eodem ad nocumentum libri tenementi alicuius; De Walliis et fossatis reparandis; De Curia claudenda; De aqua ad fontem alicuius haurienda; De eodem in comitatu; De libero tauro vel apro habendo.86
Note: On this last see Milsom, Studies, 37–8.
255126rDe eodem aliter; De eodem quando diverse sunt loquele; Ne quis ponatur in defalta pro communi summonicione; De licencia surgendi de malo lecti; De falso iudicio in comitatu.53
256126vDe eodem in curia alicuius domini; De eodem in dominicis domini Regis; Regula; Aliter de falso iudicio.30
257127rProhibicio pro hominibus qui sunt de veteri dominico domini Regis; De eodem vicecomiti.21
258127vAttachiamentum sequens dictam prohibicionem; Pone ad peticionem petentis in brevi de recto; Regula; Pone ad peticionem tenentis; De recto de advocacione ecclesie; Nota que brevia sunt de cursu ad bancum.44
259128rDe recto de advocactione ecclesiarum; Aliter de eodem; Aliter de eodem; Aliter de eodem per fidem suam; De replegiare tenementa vel advocacionem ecclesie; De eodem quando ?mitteret alium pro se.62
Note: The replevin here is of tenements or advowsons taken into the king’s hands for default.
260128vDe ultima presentacione; De eodem coram iusticiariis assignatis; Attincta de ultima presentacione.32
261129rQuare impedit; Regula; Breve utrum; Justiciar’ de utrum; Patens inde; Aliter de eodem; De attornatu in placito de utrum.65
262129vProhibicio de advocacione ecclesie; Prohibicio parti ne sequatur; Attachiamentum post dictam prohibicionem; Breve indicavit.44
Note: After ‘sequatur’ ‘in curia Xtianitatis’ is to be understood.
263130rIndicavit parti ne sequatur; Attachiamentum super le indicavit sic debet fieri; Prohibicio archiepiscopo vel episcopo ne admittat personam ad aliquam ecclesiam.33
264130vForma prohibicionis de layco feodo iudici; Prohibicio parti; Attachiamentum deserviens utramque prohibicionem; Forma prohibicionis de catallis et debitis iudici.44
265131rAlia prohibicio parti ne sequatur; Attachiamentum de catallis et debitis; Prohibicio formata de catallis et debitis; Prohibicio de transgressione.44
266131vProhibicio de vasto; Aliter de eodem; Attachiamentum; Aliter de vasto; De custode vastum faciente; Attachiamentum inde.64
267132rProhibicio formata; Alia prohibicio.22
Note: See Hall, Early Registers, CC no. 72, p. 54–5.
268132vAlia prohibicio; Prohibicio formata; Prohibicio de separatis decimis; Alia prohibicio formata.44
Note: See Hall, Early Registers, CC no. 75, p. 55–6; id. p. li tells us that in earlier versions of the second prohibition the bailiffs are named as those of the earl of Oxford as they are here.
269133rDe excommunicato capiendo; De excommunicato capto et deliberando.22
270133vAliud breve vicecomiti; Ex hoc brevi eliciatur aliud vicecomiti sic.22
271134rQuando iudex aliquem maliciose capi procurat post attachiamentum; De parco fracto et averiis abductis.22
272134vDe averiis Repleg’; De eodem sicut alias; De averiis Repleg’ non obstante libertatem; Pone de averiis.43
273135rPone de averiis ad peticionem defendentis; De catallis Repleg’.22
274135vDe averiis fugatis de uno comitatu in alium comitatum Repleg’; Attachiamentum de parco fracto et averiis fugatis; De libertate ingredienda ad deliberandum averia; De iteratta capcione averiorum quando averia capta sunt pro eadem ocasione qua prius capta fuerunt.44
275136rDe capcione post le pone; De moderata misericordia secundum magnam cartam.22
Note: The reference to Magna Carta (1225), c. 14, in the second writ is standard. See Hall, Early Registers, CC no. 99, 99a, p. 63; R 242, 243, p. 167–8.
276136vDe nativis habendis; Pone de nativo; De libertate probanda; De auxilio habendo.44
277137rBreve de minis; Attachiamentum inde; De capto retento Repleg’; Utrum odio et athia.44
Note: For the breve de minis see Hall Early Registers, CC no. 107, 107a, p. 66; R 253–4, 256, p. 170–1; Nichols, Britton, 2:376 references Reg. brev. orig. 88b and Britton, 1:11: Et pues enquerge, si nul des enditez unkes par noster bref de manace al tué trova surté de nostre pes, et les nouns des meynpernours, solom ceo qe il troverunt par le verdit, face enrouler.
278137vDe ponendo per ballivum; De faciendo venire appellum coram Justiciariis; Breve de appello.33
279138r[Nota]; [De eodem]; [De eodem]; [De eodem]; [De eodem].40
Note: Continues examples of writs of appeal without marginalia.
280138vDe corodio subtracto; De balliva forestarie recuperanda; De attachiando illum qui se subtraxit a custodia; Quod nullus implacitetur sine speciali precepto domini Regis vel capitalis Justiciarii; Quod nullus distringatur ad sectam faciendam ad comitatum ad hundredum vel ad turnum quam facere non debet; Quod nullus distringatur ad facere sectam ad Curiam indebite; Quod nullus distringatur ad facere sectam ad molendinum; Quod permittat villanos facere sectam ad molendinum; Quod A. et W. fac’ sectam ad molendinum de W.99
281139rAliter de eodem; De blado molendo sine multura; Aliter de eodem; De racionabili compoto reddendo ad bancum; Aliter de eodem in comitatu; De compoto redendo pro executore.63
282139vDe racionabili auxilio habendo ad primogenitum filium militem faciendo sive filiam maritando; De reparacione poncium vel stagnorum; De eodem ad nocumentum liberi tenementi alicuius; De Wallis et fossatis reparandis; De Curia claudenda; De aqua ad fontem alicuius haurienda; De eodem in comitatu; De libero tauro vel apro habendo.86
Note: These writs seem to duplicate those on fol. 125v.
283140rDe racionabili estoverio; Prohibicio de eodem ne fiat vastum vel vendicio quominus habere possit Racionabile estoverium; De chimino habendo; De communia piscarie habenda; De libera piscaria habenda; De homagio et Racionabili Relevio capidendo; De communia pasture habenda.76
284140vAliter de eodem in primo gradu et secundo; Item de eodem ad certum numerum averiorum; De eodem in comitatu; Breve de recto de pastura; De amensuracione communie pasture quando aliquis superhonoravit pasturam illam; Breve quo iuris aliquis exigit communiam pasture .63
285141rDe racionabilibus divisis; De perambulacione facienda; De ventre inspiciendo.33
286141vNota; Breve de medio in comitatu; De eodem ad bancum; .32
287142rDe annuo redditu in comitatu; De eodem ad bancum vel in Itinere; De debito in comitatu; De eodem ad bancum; Breve quod vocatur si Recognoscat; De plegio acquietando in comitatu; De eodem ad bancum.74
288142vNe plegius distringatur quamdiu principalis debitor habeat unde acquietare possit; De catallo reddendo; De eodem ad bancum; Breve de cartis reddendis in comitatu; De eodem ad bancum; De Warrantia Carte.64
289143rDe consuetudinibus et serviciis extra burgum in comitatu; De eodem ad bancum; Quando tenementum est in burgum tunc sic; De libero passagio ultra Humber; De visu francplegii; De arundine falcato et violenter asportato.65
290143vDe emenda transgressionum panis; De convencione facta in comitatu; Aliter de eodem; De eodem ad bancum; De fine facto coram iusticiariis itinerantibus.53
291144rAliter de eodem; De fine facto coram Justiciariis apud Westm’; Aliter de eodem coram Justiciariis tempore H. Regis avi nostri; De custodia racione servicii militaris; Aliter de eodem in comitatu.52
Note: The first writ has a large number of personal names that may be identifiable.
292144vDe eodem racione donacionis; De corpore heredis habendo; De custodia terre habenda; De custodia racione socagii reddenda; Aliter de eodem in comitatu; De custodia terre habenda.64
293145rAliter de corpore heredis habendo; Aliter de eodem; De dote communiter per ?Angliam; Quando mulier maritatur.42
Note: J Gerveys, the tenant, is not in Hall.
294145vRegula; De assensu patris; De dote in denariis; De dote in Lond’; De admensuracione dotis.44
295146rDe attornatu ad communem sectam faciendam ad Curiam; Ballivis Curie de eodem; Fiat eciam sicut alias dominum; De eodem ad comitatum; De eodem ad hundredum; Ad loquelas prosequendas.63
296146vDe attornatu ad sectam faciendam per litteras patentes; Ad loquelas prosequendas per litteras patentes; De attornatu recipiendo cum pluries.33
297147rQuod nullus faciat sectam nisi per formam feoffamenti sui et potest dirigi domino et ?alicuius ballivis; Quod unica fiat secta de hereditate devoluta ad plures; De visu franci plegii.33
298147vDe eodem ad comitatum; Ne fines recipiantur pro pulcre placitando; Breve de nova disseisina de tenemento.32
299148rAliter de eodem; Aliter de eodem; Breve de redisseisina.31
Note: Reference to ‘dni H Regis avi nostri’.
300148vDe assisa nove disseisine coram Justiciariis assignatis; Breve patens ad Justiciarios.22
301149rDe fossato iniuste levato vel prostrato; De eodem coram Justiciariis ad hoc assingnatis [sic].21
302149vPatens ad Justiciarios; De stagno levato vel prostato; Patens ad Justiciarios; De sepe levata vel prostrata; Patens inde; De via obstructa vel ?artata.66
303150rDe cursu aque diverso; De communia pasture; Patens ad Justiciarios; Nota; Certificatio super disseisina.44
304150vPatens inde; Attincta de disseisina.22
305151rBreve patens [de] singulis attinctis sic fit; Quod vicecomes faciat venire omnes assisas et attinctas coram Rege; Quod Justiciarii ad iudicium procedant in assisa nove disseisine.33
306151vAssociacio patens ad assisam nove disseisine.11
Note: The long writs on this and the following page may arise out of the same occasion.
307152rAssociacio in capcione certificacionis.11
308152vDe morte antecessoris ad primam assisam; [De pu]pillo qui infra etatem est.22
309153rNota; Quando antecessor peregrinacione proficiatur; Quando antecessor habitum religionis assumpserit; Special’ Justiciar’ de morte antecessoris.33
Note: Another ref to H. the grandfather.
310153vBreve patens de morte antecessoris.11
311154rAttincta de morte antecessoris; Breve patens de attincta; Breve de avo et avia.33
312154vNota; Breve de consanguinitate; Nota; Nuper obiit de rationabili parte; Aliter de eodem.32
313155rAliter de eodem; Regula; Nota; Breve de occasione cuius vendicionis quod infra terminum appellatur.21
Note: This last writ is sometimes called quare eiecit infra terminum.
314155vAliter de eodem; Aliter de eodem; Sic [or Fit] alio modo; De eschaeta per bastardum; De eodem pro defectu heredis de se et de alio; De eschaeta per feloniam commissam.63
315156rDe ingressu in primo gradu ad terminum quem preteriit; Aliter in secundo gradu; Aliter in tercio gradu; De eodem post dimissionem ad terminum qui preteriit; De ingressu post disseisinam in primo gradu; De eodem in secundo gradu; De eodem in tercio.72
316156vDe ingressu post diseisinam; De ingressu per aliquem dum non fuit compos mentis sue in primo gradu et secundo; De eodem post dimissionem.32
317157rDe ingressu per ipsum qui fuit infra etatem quando dimisit; De ingressu per custodem; Aliter de eodem; Quando vir alienavit hereditatem uxoris sue tunc sic; De eodem post dimissionem.53
318157vDe ingressu per mulierem que tenuit in dote; De ingressum post intrusionem; De forma donacionis per descensum.33
319158rItem de forma donacionis; De ingrssu post utlagariam revocatam; De eodem in secundo gradu.32
320158vDe ingressu causa matrimonii inter aliquos prelocuti; De ingressu quando aliquis intrat per ballivum alicuius reliogiosi vel per virum religiosum; Alter de eodem; De ingressu per concessionem Regis per surrepcionem Curie sue; De tenementis alienatis de dominicis domini Regis; Aliter pro Rege.64
Note: The last three writs do not seem to be in Hall.
321159rDe transgressione in comitatu de bonis et catallis; De transgressione in publica strata; Aliter de eodem in fractione hostii; Aliter de eodem de bonis et catallis; Aliter de eodem de parco fracto; Aliter de eodem de hostiis fractis; Aliter de eodem de imprisonamento.72
322159vAliter de eodem de bladis cum averiis depasti fuerunt; De eodem quando separalem pasturam alicuius cum averiis suis depasti fuerunt; De eodem de chaciis fugatis; Aliter de eodem; De rescussione averiorum; Aliter de Rescussione; De eodem de parco fracto; De transgressione pro averiis imparcatis.82
Note: The first two entries do not parse because the entry shifts from a description of the writ to a quotation from it.




The total number of writs, comparing the shorter count, is far fewer than that of MS 52 (226 vs. 507), which has a roughly similar date. It is much closer to that of MS 39 and 36 (217, 275), the registers in which seem to date from than twenty years previously. The comparison may be a bit unfair to MS 184. The register includes many writ forms as subforms of a basic writ, and the marginalia, on which we based our count, do not always note the subform. A particularly striking example is formedon (fol. 157v–158r). There are two marginal notes, the first of which describes the writ as ‘De forma donacionis per descensum’ and the second simply ‘De forma donacionis’. If all we had go on was the marginalia, we might imagine that there are only two formedons. We might even imagine that those two were the possibly pre-Westminster II forms found in MS 33 and 39. In fact, the writ next to the second marginal note is a formedon in the remainder, and between the two notes are two other formedons, both in the descender. In short, if we just relied on the marginalia, we would be likely to get both the count and the chronology wrong. Another thing that makes the comparison with MS 52 a bit unfair to MS 184 is that MS 52 has nothing but writs and three times as many folios devoted to them (38 vs. 130); of course, MS 52 is going to have more writs.

That said, we hold to our view that this register is old-fashioned for its time. If we break the register into groups, as we have with previous registers, and note the approximate proportion of coverage we get: Right (14%), Ecclesiastical (18%), Replevin (7%), Criminal (4%), Miscellaneous (24%), Novel disseisin (13%), Mort d’ancestor (7%), Ejectment, Escheat, Formedon, Entry (11%), Trespass (1%). Trespass is tucked in at the end, as if it were an afterthought. We have not seen that since MS 33, a register that we dated to 1277. (The trespass add-on also has rescue, but that is frequently found with trespass writs.) Another thing that is striking and old-fashioned about this grouping is how miscellaneous the miscellaneous category that occupies almost a quarter of the register is. It includes, more or less in this order, distraint for suit of court, account, repair of bridges, common of estovers, right of pasture, de ventre inspiciendo, annuity, mesne, debt and detinue, warranty of charter, customs and services, assize of bread and ale, covenant, de fine facto, wardship, dower, making attorney in local courts, and view of frankpledge. Some of these items remained in a miscellaneous category that we have called ‘Rights in Land’, but the registers that are contemporary or shortly before this one all seem to do a better job at breaking out some of them, particularly account, debt, and covenant, and treating them more fully. Waste is buried among the ecclesiastical prohibitions (fol. 137v), as it is in MS 36, and as it is not in MS 24 and 52. Pardons and Ad quod dampnum are simply not there.

The manuscript is not totally out of date. As we have seen, MS 184 does a better job with formedon than do its predecessors two decades earlier (though the marginalia do their best to hide it). Entry in the post is there, as it is not in MS 33, 49, and 36. This register is not hopelessly out of date for one made in a time when the king’s grandfather was named Henry; it is just, as we said, old-fashioned, particularly in what it does with trespass.

We close with a paragraph that we wrote before we had analyzed many registers. We leave it in because it lays out in narrative form how the writs are arranged in this register, and gives the folio references: The preliminary analysis suggests that there are relatively few writs in personal actions. The overall pattern seems reasonably clear. The writ of right with variants and subprocedures of it occupies fols. 122r through 127r (5 fols.). Attention then turns to ecclesiastical matters without regard to the type of writ (right of advowson, darein presentement, quare impedit, prohibition, de excommunicato capiendo): fols. 127v through 134r (7 1/2 fols.). Secular matters return with replevin: fols. 134v through 136r (4 fols.). This is followed by three folios (137r–138r) concerning criminal matters, particularly appeals, including De minis. The contents from fol. 138v through 147v (10 fols.) are decidedly miscellaneous: distraint for suit of court (138v), account (139r), repair of bridges (139v), common of estovers (140r), right of pasture (140v), de ventre inspiciendo (141r), mesne (141v), debt and detinue (142r–v), assize of bread and ale, covenant, and de fine facto (143v), wardship (144r–v), dower (145r–v), making attorney (146r–v), view of frankpledge (147r). Despite the insertion of personal actions (debt and covenant), minor criminal matters (assize of bread and ale), and procedure (view of frankpledge, making attorney), the general theme here seems to what we would call rights in land and rights of lordship. The pattern in the rest of the register (147v–159v, 13 fols.) is clearer: novel disseisin and its variants (147v–152r), mort d’ancestor and its variants (152v–154b). Quare eiecit and escheat are coupled with writs of entry (155r–158v), with formedon jammed in the middle of them (157v). The register closes with trespass (159r–v).