and has no warrantor,1 he shall suffer judgment at the king's pleasure. If he has a  warrantor and he warrants him, he will be released and his warrantor held. If he has  named his warrantor but the latter has absented himself, he must be exacted and  outlawed, but the person arrested will not on that account be released, nor will he  be set free until he has put himself on the country with respect to his guilt. If the  warrantor appears but fails to warrant him, it may well come to the duel between  them.23There is another kind of crime included within that of forgery,4 which  touches the crown and leads to the supreme penalty, [the crime] of those who  fabricate counterfeit money, or make bad money out of good, as do5 the clippers of  coins, who when they are found6 in seisin are not often released by the vouching  of a warrantor. They may have associates and assistants and servants in this work  who will be heard if they wish to make an appeal.
Of the concealment of treasure.
 There is, among others, a serious contempt against the king and his crown and  dignity which partakes of the nature of the crime of theft, namely, the fraudulent  concealment of treasure trove,7 as where one is accused of finding treasure, that is,  silver or gold or metal of some other kind,8 no matter in what place, [When he has  been accused of this by the country, [if the rumor arises] among good and responsible  men,9 let him be attached at once to be before the justices at their coming,  where, if he denies that he has found anything, [the truth may be declared by the  country though he was not [found] seised of anything, [for] there may nevertheless  be reasonable presumptions against him which must stand until the country finds  to the contrary, as where he exhibits greater prosperity than usual in clothes and  other apparel, in food and drink and the like,]10 [and] is found guilty thereof,  let him be committed to prison, afterwards to be heavily ransomed at the king's  pleasure. It does not matter, according to present day opinion, where such treasure  is found, though the rule was otherwise in ancient times.1112Treasure is any ancient  store of money or other metal which has been forgotten so that it no longer has an  owner; thus it belongs to the finder since it belongs to no one else. It is otherwise  if one hides something in the earth for gain or through fear or for safekeeping; that  is not treasure: of it a theft may be committed.13 Treasure is considered a gift of  fortune:14 no one ought to use the labour of slaves to search out treasure or to  cultivate land for treasure;
12-13. D. 18.104.22.168.: Thensaurus est vetus quaedam depositio pecuniae cuius non extat memoria, ut iam dominum non habeat: sic enim fit eius qui invenerit quod non alterius sit. Alioquin si quis aliquid vel lucri causa vel metus vel custodiae condiderit sub terra, non est thensaurus: cuius etiam furtam fit.
14. D. 22.214.171.124: thensaurus donum fortunae creditur