felony, the proprietary right reverts in some way to the donor, the chief lord, as an  escheat,1 seisin will always follow him,2 since he stands in the place of the heir though  he is not heir, and the inheritance will remain with him as an escheat, homage3 being  extinguished, since there is no heir who claims or may claim.4 Though he is not heir,  he sometimes stands in the place of an heir because the land reverts to him in service,5  6though [if] another is in seisin through the gift of one who could not make a  permanent gift warranty is altogether extinguished,7 and8 if he is vouched to  warranty he is not obliged to warrant, since it is he who has the right to claim  that land in demesne, though9 if he has taken homage and service or confirmed such  gift, as explained above,10 he will then be obliged to do so. 11<And note that some  heirs are true heirs and some quasi-heirs, [that is, stand] in the place of heirs [or]  are taken as heirs. True heirs [come in] by reason of succession; quasi-heirs either  stand in the place of heirs [In place of heirs, as chief lords to whom an inheritance  reverts as an escheat, because of failure or delict: failure of heirs, since heirs fail in  the line of descent; because of delict, because of felony, where though heirs or  kinsmen exist the descent is arrested.]12 or are taken as heirs by the modus of the  gift, as assigns. Also by13 the modus of the gift, as where the donor says I give to  such a one and the heirs born of his body and if he has no such heirs, or if he has such  and they fail, I then give to such a one and the heirs of his body, and so on as to others  ad infinitum. Such do not succeed ex causa successionis but will be heirs by the modus  of the gift.>14
Degrees of kinship and succession.
 We have dealt with the kinds of heirs and the differences between them, those who  are called to the succession and those who are preferred to others in the succession  as nearer heirs. But since an inheritance and the right of succession descends by  degrees, we must consider the degrees of succession and kinship, and how and  through what persons the right descends to him who claims the seisin of some  ancestor in proprietary right. It is clear that some parentelae of kinsmen are above,  some below, and some from the side or collateral.15 Kinsmen who stand above in  the arbor consanguinitatis may be called ancestors and parents, [ancestors], because  they are dead and antecede their heirs, that is, go before, and whose heirs come after,  that is to say, succeed, for cedere has the meaning to depart and
15. Inst. 3.6. pr.: aliam supra numerari, aliam infra, aliam ex transverso, quae etiam a latere dicitur. Superior cognatio est parentium, inferior liberorum, ex transverso fratrum, sororumve eorumque ...; D.38.10.1. pr.: Gradus cognationis alii superioris ordinis sunt, alii inferioris, alii ex transverso sive a latere. Superioris ordinis sunt parentes ...