of the church or the like; if when the donor claims the tenant says that he holds  the whole, he must produce1 the charter to prove his exception; if he does not  his exception will be void and he will lose2 as though without defence. If he  cannot produce the charter because he does not have it ready, recourse must of  necessity be had to the country. And so if he alleges an accidental loss and proves  the accident.34[It is clear that there are three kinds of private instruments, for5  sometimes one makes a writing in his own interest, to which no credit will be given;  sometimes against his own interest, to which credit will be given; and sometimes  in another's favour as well as his own, against his own interest as well as for it.6  [Such a document] is common and of it [something] is said above;7 it is with such  that [the portion] on agreements made between private persons is concerned.8  9A writing of that kind is called a chirographic charter, which is cut through the  middle,10 one portion remaining with one party, the other with the other.] Hence,  though it is not usual, the necessity of considering such private agreements is  sometimes imposed upon the king's court,1112for it is not lawful for either of the  parties to withdraw from agreements, since if one withdraws the other is aided by an  action based on the agreement, as will be explained below.1314And note that a party  shall make available to his adversary all private writings he wishes to use on his own  behalf in a judicial proceeding, [to be used] against himself. But the demandant  cannot ask that the tenant's deeds be produced in order to found his case upon them,15  for one is not bound to arm his adversary against himself, 16unless his deeds are  common. Nor may the tenant claim that the demandant's deeds be produced to  prove his exception,17 as was said above, unless they are common.
That the justices must not question royal charters nor pass upon them.
 18Private persons cannot question the acts of kings,19 nor ought the justices to discuss  the meaning of royal charters: not even if a doubt arises in them may they  resolve it; even as to ambiguities and uncertainties, as where20 a phrase is open to  two meanings, the interpretation and pleasure of the lord king must be awaited,  since it is for him who establishes to explain his deed.21 And even if the document is  completely false, because of an erasure or because the seal affixed is a forgery,
1. Reading: et si cum donator petat tenens dicat se totum tenere, ostendere
18. Supra i, 131-2 (full collation). This portion including the addicio following detached from supra 33, n. 19. Its new place required recasting to give prominence to charters rather than acts. E. Kantorowicz, 158 n.; Lewis in Speculum, xxxix, 257 n., 262 n.