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Bio-Bibliographical Guide to Medieval and Early Modern Jurists

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Report No. a481

Raymundus de Pennaforte

c.1180–1275

 

Alternative Names

Raymond, of Peñafort, Saint (LC); Raymond de Peñafort; Raymond of Peñafort; Ramon de Penyafort; Raimondo da Pennafort; Raimundo de Peñafort

 

Biography/Description

Catalan canon lawyer. After studying and teaching philosophy at Barcelona, he went to study law at Bologna sometime between 1210 and 1221. He entered the Dominican order in 1222 after his return to Barcelona. Called to Rome by Gregory IX in 1230, he presided over the commission which compiled the Liber Extra (the authoritative collection of decretals promulgated by the pope in 1234). Returning again to Catalonia, Raymond was confessor to Jaime I of Aragon (1213–76) and prominent in the activities of the Dominican order, of which he was master-general from 1238 to 1240. Thomas Aquinas wrote his Summa contra Gentiles at Raymond’s insistence. He was canonized in 1601. Raymond’s literary productivity was enormous and so was his success. Besides being commissioned to compile the Decretales Gregorii IX, which were to remain valid church law until 1918, he also had a great influence as the author of a penitential Summa (c.1222–25/34) and as a leading administrator of his order. A full account of his works would include a large number of minor treatises, many of which were composed after 1234 and outside of the orbit of canon law school. To avoid incompleteness and misattributions, the present survey lists only those titles that have a direct bearing on law. During his brief period as a canonist at Bologna (1218–1221), Raymond wrote a Summa iuris which he never finished. Simultaneously, he lectured on Gratian’s Decretum, as is testified by the survival of marginal glosses. There are further glosses on Compilatio quarta. After becoming a Dominican, he composed the penitential Summa de casibus. He later revised it. The printed editions regularly added Raymond’s Summa de matrimonio (c.1235) as Book IV, although the work, an update of the earlier treatise by the Bolognese canonist Tancred, had circulated separately in medieval manuscripts.

 

Text(s)

 
No. 01

Summa iuris canonici, 1218–1221. most likely never completed before Raymundus entered the Dominican order on April 1, 1222.

 
No. 02

Glosses on the Decretum.

 
No. 03

Glosses on Compilatio IV. as yet unconfirmed work by Raymundus; Kuttner posited this as a possible work of Raymundus in 1950 and 1953.

 
No. 04

Summulae de arboribus de consanguinitate et affinitate.

 
No. 05

Summa de casibus, 1222–1229, pos. 1234. also known as the Summa de poenitentia; 2 recensions, the second completed after the Decretales Gregorii noni and incorporating both allegationes to X (and decretals by Gregory IX) and a fourth book on marriage (cf. text 7).

 
No. 06

Liber Extra. See under Decretales Gregorii IX.

 
No. 07

Summa de matrimonio, 1235. revision of Tancredus’s Summa de matrimonio, appended as a fourth book to Raymundus’s Summa de casibus.

 
No. 08

Parva collectio decretalium.

 
No. 09

Dubitabilia cum responsionibus, 1235. Pertaining especially to matters of penance or the internal forum.

 

Text(s) – Manuscripts

No. 01

Summa iuris canonici, 1218–1221.

 
Manuscript

Città del Vaticano, BAV Borgh. 261, fol. 91–102v (fragmentary, ends 2.39)

 
No. 02

Glosses on the Decretum.

 
Manuscript

Tours, BM 550 (third layer of glosses)

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 1367 (third layer of glosses)

 
No. 03

Glosses on Compilatio IV.

 
Manuscript

Admont, Stiftsbibl. 22

 
No. 05

Summa de casibus, 1222–1229, pos. 1234.

 
Manuscript

Bonn, Universitäts- u. Landesbibl. 269d

 
 

Chartres, BM 237

 
 

Chartres, BM 245

 
 

Chartres, BM 401

 
 

Épinal, BM 4

 
 

Épinal, BM 57

 
 

Épinal, BM 60

 
 

Épinal, BM 62

 
 

Épinal, BM 107

 
 

Erlangen, Universitätsbibl. 531

 
 

Göttingen, Niedersächsische Staats- u. Universitätsbibl. 0° Cod. Ms. Jurid.? 163b

 
 

Göttingen, Niedersächsische Staats- u. Universitätsbibl. 8° Cod. Ms. Jurid. 163

 
 

Göttweig, Stiftsbibl. 137

 
 

Kassel, Universitäts- u. Landesbibl. 2° Ms theol. 43

 
 

Klosterneuberg, Stiftsbibl. 1040

 
 

Kaliningrad, Universitätsbibl. 23

 
 

Kaliningrad, Universitätsbibl. 55

 
 

Kaliningrad, Universitätsbibl. 64

 
 

Kaliningrad, Universitätsbibl. 179

 
 

Kaliningrad, Universitätsbibl. 180

 
 

Kaliningrad, Universitätsbibl. 186

 
 

Kaliningrad, Universitätsbibl. 1172

 
 

Laon, BM 157

 
 

Laon, BM 181

 
 

Laon, BM 183

 
 

Leipzig, Universitätsbibl. 1009a

 
 

Leipzig, Universitätsbibl. 1010

 
 

Leipzig, Universitätsbibl. 1011

 
 

Leipzig, Universitätsbibl. 1012

 
 

Leipzig, Universitätsbibl. 1013

 
 

Leipzig, Universitätsbibl. 1014

 
 

München, BSB Clm 2700

 
 

München, BSB Clm 2756

 
 

München, BSB Clm 2956, fols. 75–106

 
 

München, BSB Clm 3218

 
 

München, BSB Clm 4595

 
 

München, BSB Clm 5863

 
 

München, BSB Clm 6020

 
 

München, BSB Clm 6040

 
 

München, BSB Clm 7208

 
 

München, BSB Clm 7211

 
 

München, BSB Clm 7631

 
 

München, BSB Clm 7821

 
 

München, BSB Clm 9539

 
 

München, BSB Clm 9572

 
 

München, BSB Clm 9663

 
 

München, BSB Clm 9664

 
 

München, BSB Clm 9665

 
 

München, BSB Clm 9666

 
 

Nîmes, BM 13729

 
 

Olomouc, VKOL VI.307

 
 

Oxford, Bodleian Libr. Bodl. 146, fols. 143r–224v (1st redaction; utilized in Ochoa and Diez edition)

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 13466

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 15377

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 15924

 
 

Praha, Metropolitní Kapitula C.47

 
 

Praha, Metropolitní Kapitula C.113

 
 

Praha, Národní Muz. I.R.9

 
 

Praha, Národní Muz. III.D.13

 
 

Praha, Národní Muz. III.F.15

 
 

Praha, Národní Muz. XIV.G.48

 
 

Saint-Omer, BM 224

 
 

Tours, BM 348

 
 

Troyes, BM 279

 
 

Troyes, BM 537

 
 

Troyes, BM 1249

 
 

Troyes, BM 1347

 
 

Troyes, BM 1930

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1269

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1318

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1331

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1355

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1371

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1452

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1608

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1656

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1691

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1698

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1750

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1753

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 2210

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 2240

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 3807

 
 

Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibl. Helmst. 526

 
 

Wrocław, Bibl. Univ. II.Q.27

 
 

Wrocław, Bibl. Univ. II.Q.28

 
 

Würzburg, Universitätsbibl. M.p.th.f. 7

 
 

Würzburg, Universitätsbibl. M.p.th.f. 90

 
 

Würzburg, Universitätsbibl. M.p.th.f. 113

 
 

New Haven, Conn., Yale Univ., Beinecke Libr. Marston MS 127

 
 

New Haven, Conn., Yale Univ., Beinecke Libr. Ms 999

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 2300, fols. 1va–48vb

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 2301, fols. 24ra–287rb

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 2302, fols. 4ra–235ra

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 2674, fols. 131ra–205va

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 2708, fols. 1ra–114rb

 
 

Barcelona, Bibl. Univ. 746, fols. 1ra–89va (1st redaction; utilized in Ochoa and Diez edition)

 
 

Paris, Bibl. Arsenal 370, fols. 1r–81v (2nd redaction; utilized in Ochoa and Diez edition)

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Ottob. lat. 5, fols. 1ra–46vb (2nd redaction; utilized in Ochoa and Diez edition)

 
No. 07

Summa de matrimonio, 1235.

 
Manuscript

Barcelona, Bibl. Univ. 746, fols. 92ra–100ra (separated from first-redaction Summa de casibus by two blank folios and written at different time and in different hand)

 
 

Paris, Bibl. Arsenal 370, fols. 82r–93r

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Ottob. lat. 5, fols. 47r–57va

 
No. 09

Dubitabilia cum responsionibus, 1235.

 
Manuscript

Firenze, BN Conv. Soppr. I.10.49

 
 

Oxford, Bodleian Libr. Can. Misc. 269, fols. 206–208

 
 

Praha, Metropolitní Kapitula K.XII, fols. 16v–18v

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Ottob. 45, fols. 103v–104v

 

Text(s) – Modern Editions

No. 01

Summa iuris canonici.

 
Modern Editions

Summa iuris, ed. J. Rius Serra (Opera omnia 1; Barcelona 1945).

 
 

Summa de iure canonico, ed. J. Ochoa Sanz and A. Díez (Universa Bibliotheca Iuris 1–A; Roma 1975) (cf. BMCL 11 (1981) 44 n.16).

 
No. 04

Summulae de arboribus de consanguinitate et affinitate.

 
Modern Editions

Summula de consanguinitate et affinitate, ed. J. Ochoa Sanz and A. Díez (Universa Bibliotheca Iuris 1–C; Roma 1978) (Cf. BMCL 11 (1981) 44 n.16. Other minor canonistic writings have been included in the same volume of the edition..)

 
No. 05

Summa de casibus.

 
Modern Editions

Summa Sancti Raymundi de Peniafort . . . De Poenitentia et Matrimonio (Roma 1603; repr. Farnborough 1967).

 
 

Summa de poenitentia, ed. J. Ochoa Sanz and A. Díez (Universa Bibliotheca Iuris 1–B; Roma 1976) (cf. BMCL 11 (1981) 44 n.16).

 
No. 07

Summa de matrimonio.

 
Modern Editions

Summa de matrimonio, ed. J. Ochoa Sanz and A. Díez (Universa Bibliotheca Iuris 1–C; Roma 1978) (cf. BMCL 11 (1981) 44 n.16).

 
 

Translation into English by P. Payer in Summa on Marriage (Mediaeval Sources in Translation 41; Toronto 2005).

 
No. 08

Parva collectio decretalium.

 
Modern Editions

See the description by H. Boese in Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum, 42 (1972) 69–80.

 
No. 09

Dubitabilia cum responsionibus.

 
Modern Editions

Die canonistischen Handschriften der Bibliotheken 1. der k. k. Universität, 2. des Böhmischen Museums, 3. des Fürsten Georg Lobkowitz, 4. des Metropolitan-Kapitels von St. Veit in Prag, ed. J. von Schulte (Praha 1868) 98–102 (Said to contain a transcription of the Prague manuscript. We have been unable to check this item. It does not seem to be online and paper copies are very rare.)

 
 

S. Raimundo de Peñafort, Diplomatario, ed. J. Rius Serra, 22–29.

 

Literature

E. Molano, ‘San Raimundo de Peñafort’, in Juristas universales 1.414–21.

E. Reno, ‘The Authoritative Text: Raymond of Penyafort’s Editing of the “Decretals of Gregory IX” (1234)’, (Ph.D. diss.; Columbia University 2011).

J. Tolan, ‘Marchands, mercenaires et captifs: le statut légal des chrétiens latins en terre d’islam selon le juriste canonique Ramon de Penyafort (XIII siècle)’, in Minorités et régulations sociales en Méditerranée médiévale: Actes du colloque réuni du 7 au 9 juin 2007 en l’Abbaye royale de Fontevraud, S. Boissellier, ed. (Rennes 2010) 223–36.

X. Bastida i Canal, ‘Les missions I la llibertat de la fe en sant Ramon de Penyafort’, Analecta sacra tarraconensia, 81 (2008) 19–80.

J. Goering, ‘The Internal Forum and the Literature of Penance and Confession’, in The History of Medieval Canon Law in the Classical Period, 1140–1234: From Gratian to the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX, W. Hartmann and K. Pennington, ed. (History of Medieval Canon Law 6; Washington DC 2008) 397, 409, 419–24.

K. Pennington, ‘The Decretalists 1190–1234’, in The History of Medieval Canon Law in the Classical Period, 1140–1234: From Gratian to the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX, W. Hartmann and K. Pennington, ed. (History of Medieval Canon Law 6; Washington DC 2008) 228, 238–41.

R. Weigand, ‘The Development of the Glossa ordinaria to Gratian’s Decretum’, in The History of Medieval Canon Law in the Classical Period, 1140–1234: From Gratian to the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX, W. Hartmann and K. Pennington, ed. (History of Medieval Canon Law 6; Washington DC 2008) 87, 97.

T. Wetzstein, ‘Resecatis superfluis?: Raymund von Peñafort und der Liber Extra’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 92 (2006) 355–91.

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C. Reid, Power over the Body, Equality in the Family: Rights and Domestic Relations in Medieval Canon Law (Emory University Studies in Law and Religion; Grand Rapids 2004) 15, 47, 49, 133, 144–9, 189–90.

L. Galmés Mas, ‘San Ramon de Penyafort y la Inquisición en la Alta Catalunya’, in Praedicatores Inquisitores, Vol. 1: The Dominican and the Mediaeval Inquisition: Acts of the 1st International Seminar on the Dominicans and the Inquisition (Rome; 23–25 février 2002) (Dissertationes historicae [Roma] 29; Roma 2004) 85–104.

L. Galmés Mas, ‘Biobibliografia de san Ramon de Penyafort’, in Magister Raimundus: Atti del Convegno per il IV centenario della canonizzazione di san Raimondo de Penyafort (1601–2001), C. Longo, ed. (Institutum Historicum Fratrum Praedicatorum, Dissertationes Historicae 28; Roma 2002) 11–34.

C. Longo, ‘San Raimondo maestro dell’ordine domenicano (1238–1240)’, in Magister Raimundus: Atti del Convegno per il IV centenario della canonizzazione di san Raimondo de Penyafort (1601–2001), C. Longo, ed. (Institutum Historicum Fratrum Praedicatorum, Dissertationes Historicae 28; Roma 2002) 35–50.

P.–B. Hodel, ‘La canonisation de saint Raymond’, in Magister Raimundus: Atti del Convegno per il IV centenario della canonizzazione di san Raimondo de Penyafort (1601–2001), C. Longo, ed. (Institutum Historicum Fratrum Praedicatorum, Dissertationes Historicae 28; Roma 2002) 51–60.

M. Bertram, ‘Die Dekretalen Gregors IX.: Kompilation oder Kodification?’, in Magister Raimundus: Atti del Convegno per il IV centenario della canonizzazione di san Raimondo de Penyafort (1601–2001), C. Longo, ed. (Institutum Historicum Fratrum Praedicatorum, Dissertationes Historicae 28; Roma 2002) 61–86.

G. Minnucci, ‘Istituti di diritto processuale nella “Summa de poenitentia et de matrimonio” di san Raimondo di Penyafort’, in Magister Raimundus: Atti del Convegno per il IV centenario della canonizzazione di san Raimondo de Penyafort (1601–2001), C. Longo, ed. (Institutum Historicum Fratrum Praedicatorum, Dissertationes Historicae 28; Roma 2002) 87–109.

I. Pérez de Heredia y Valle, ‘La “Summa de matrimonio” de san Raimundo de Penafort’, in Magister Raimundus: Atti del Convegno per il IV centenario della canonizzazione di san Raimondo de Penyafort (1601–2001), C. Longo, ed. (Institutum Historicum Fratrum Praedicatorum, Dissertationes Historicae 28; Roma 2002) 111–64.

A. Errera, ‘Il Directorium inquisitoriale di san Raimondo’, in Magister Raimundus: Atti del Convegno per il IV centenario della canonizzazione di san Raimondo de Penyafort (1601–2001), C. Longo, ed. (Institutum Historicum Fratrum Praedicatorum, Dissertationes Historicae 28; Roma 2002) 165–92.

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A. Babra Blanco, ‘La pastoralitat de la Summa de Paenitentia de sant Ramon de Penyafort: Una via ètica I una vida reconciliada’, Revista catalana de teologia, 26 (2001) 275–92.

J. Mas i Solench, Ramón de Penyafort (Episodis de la història 327; Barcelona 2000).

Ramon de Penyafort i el dret català: Quatre–cents anys de la canonització del patró dels advocats de Catalunya (1601–2001) (Barcelona 2000).

G. Minnucci, La capacità processuale della donna nel pensiero canonistico classico. Vol. 2: Dalle Scuole d’Oltralpe a S. Raimondo di Pennaforte (Studi senesi, Quaderni 79; Milano 1994).

J. Ainaud de Lasarte, ‘Ramon de Penyafort, advocat i sant’, in Serra d’Or (1994) 412.59–66.

T. Bestul, ‘An Unrecorded Manuscript of the Summa de Poenitentia of Raymund of Pennaforte’, Manuscripta, 32 (1988) 206–7.

F. Valls Taberner, ‘San Ramón de Penyafort’, in Literatura jurídica: Estudios de ciencia jurídica e historia del pensiamento canónico y político catalán, francés, alemán e italiano, F. Valls Taberner, ed. (Barcelona 1986) 61–182.

J. Brundage, ‘The Limits of the War–Making Power: The Contribution of Medieval Canonists’, in Peace in a Nuclear Age: The Bishops’ Pastoral Letter in Perspective, C. Reid, ed. (Washington DC 1986) 79. Reprinted in: idem, The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law (Collected Studies CS 338; Aldershot 1991) no. XI.

S. Kuttner, ‘Raymond of Peñafort as Editor: The “decretales” and “constitutiones” of Gregory IX’, BMCL, 12 (1982) 65–80.

A. García y García, ‘La canonistica ibérica’, BMCL, 11 (1981) 58–60.

T. Kaeppeli, Scriptores ordinis praedicatorum medii aevi (Roma 1980) 3.283–87.

M. Batllori Munné, ‘L’entrevista de Ramon Llull amb Ramon de Penyafort a Barcelona’, Cuadernos de historia economica de Cataluña, 21 (1980) 9–11.

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S. Horwitz, ‘Magistri and magisterium: Saint Raymond of Peñafort and the Gregoriana’, Escritos del vedat, 7 (1977) 209–38.

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A. Cortabarría Beitia, ‘San Ramón de Penyafort y las escuelas dominicanas de lenguas’, Escritos del vedat, 7 (1977) 125–54.

J. Formentín, ‘Funcionamiento pedagógico y proyección cultural de los estudios de árabe y de hebreo promovidos por San Ramón de Penyafort’, Escritos del vedat, 7 (1977) 155–75.

A. García y García, ‘Un antecedente ibérico de la actividad compilatoria de S. Ramón de Penyafort’, Escritos del vedat, 7 (1977) 201–207.

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J. Perarnau Espelt, ‘Tractats catalans “De penitencia” de Sant Ramon de Penyafort (1239) al bisbe de la Seu d’Urgell, Guillem Arnau de Patau (1364). Amb edició de textos inédits’, Escritos del vedat, 7 (1977) 259–98.

A. Robles Sierra, ‘La biografia inédita de San Ramón de Penyafort escrita por Vicente Justiniano Antiist, O.P. (x. XVI)’, Escritos del vedat, 7 (1977) 29–60.

J. Tusquets Terrats, ‘Relación de Ramón Lull con san Ramón de Penyafort y con la orden de Santo Domingo’, Escritos del vedat, 7 (1977) 177–95.

I. Vázquez, ‘Manuscritos de San Ramón de Penyafort y de otros dominicos medievales en la antigua biblioteca de San Juan de los Reyes de Toledo’, Escritos del vedat, 7 (1977) 239–57.

H. Müller, Der Anteil der Laien an der Bischofswahl: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Kanonistik von Gratian bis Gregor IX. (Kanonistische Studien und Texte 29; Amsterdam 1977) 197–200.

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K. Pennington, ‘Summae on Raymond of Pennaforts Summa de casibus in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich’, Traditio, 27 (1971) 471–80.

L. Robles, ‘S. Ramon de Peñafort’, Repertorio de Historia de las Ciencias Eclesiasticas en España, 3 (1971) 12–53.

J. Brundage, ‘A Transformed Angel (X 3.31.18): The Problem of the Crusading Monk’, in Studies in Medieval Cistercian History Presented to Jeremiah F. O’Sullivan (Cistercian Studies Series 13; Spencer MA 1971) 60. Reprinted in: idem, The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law (Collected Studies CS 338; Aldershot 1991) no. XIII.

A. García y García, ‘Canonistica Hispanica III’, Traditio, 26 (1970) 460–62.

J. Martín Avedillo, ‘Influjo del canonista Ambrosius en S. Raimundo de Peñafort’, Revista española de derecho canonico, 26 (1970) 329–55.

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J. Coll, ‘La crónica de Fr. Pedro Marsili y la “Vita anonymi” de S. Ramón de Penyafort, su historicidad’, Analecta sacra tarraconensia, 22 (1949) 21–50.

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A. Teetaert, ‘La doctrine pénitentielle de Saint Raymond de Penyafort’, Analecta sacra tarraconensia, 4 (1928) 121–82.

A. Teetaert, ‘La “Summa de poenitentia” de S. Raymond de Penyafort’, Ephemerides theologicae Lovanienses, 5 (1928) 49–72.

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