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Bio-Bibliographical Guide to Medieval and Early Modern Jurists

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Report No. a242

Gratianus

fl. c.1125–1140

 

Alternative Names

Gratian (LC); Gratien; Graciano; Graziano

 

Biography/Description

Master teaching in Bologna in the 1130s and probably in the 1120s. Little is known of his life. Probably from central or northern Italy. Probably sought advanced education north of the Alps, possibly in Laon. Quite possibly a monk, although the older identification of him as a Camaldolese monk is without medieval basis. Almost certainly became a bishop toward the end of his career, but when and of what city are not known with certainty. Likely died by c.1145.

His chief work, commonly referred to as the Decretum although originally entitled the Concordia discordantium canonum, constituted a complex work originally designed for teaching. Its complexity in organization, content, and source material increased over time in stages. Though filled with theological analysis in the context of an examination of canonical issues and texts, it became the impetus for a veritable jurisprudential sicence of canon law and quickly became the standard textbook for canon law in the schools. As a result, Gratian is often identified as the ‘Father of the Science of Canon Law’, although this label should not be taken to indicate a clean break between Gratian and the past canonical tradition. Rather, Gratian was a transitional figure who relied on the collections of the past, shared their reverence for tradition and authority, furthered recent promotions of the papacy, explicitly advanced the nascent and sometimes implied practice of reconciling seemingly contradictory authorities, and applied new methods of interpretation and pedagogy to the study of the canons. Gratian’s work did not entirely supersede the canon law collections of the past, but its unique qualities enabled it to form the foundation of jurisprudence within an increasingly centralized and law-oriented church.

Scholarship on Gratian must be understood as occurring prior to or posterior to the doctoral work of Anders Winroth, which built on previous manuscript studies and established without a doubt an earlier recension of the text extant in the manuscripts. Winroth’s work initiated a revitalized interest in Decretum manuscripts. The nature of some of these, especially Sankt Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek 673, remains contested.

 

Text(s)

 
No. 01

Concordia discordantium canonum, mid-12th century. Originally entitled as such. Later referred to by medieval commentators as the Decreta; the singular Decretum replaced the plural label only in later centuries. Completed in stages with one significant recension finalized in the early-mid 1130s and another bulk of additions completed after the Second Lateran Council of 1139. Additions continued thereafter but were more piecemeal. How involved Gratian personally was in these later stages of redaction remains undetermined, but he is widely recognized as the person responsible for the version now extant, in one form or another, in six manuscripts, a version referred to in the literature as R1, the first recension, or the ‘Concordia stage’. The vulgate version (with all additions to R1 text plus additional texts added over a few decades called paleae) contains approximately 3,800 texts from patristic writers, conciliar canons and papal letters, as well as other sources which were included in the canonical collections on which he relied. The finalized R2 redaction and the vulgate text are in three parts: (1) Pars prima: 101 Distinctiones; (2) Pars secunda: 36 Causae subdivided into Quaestiones (with the inclusion of a theological treatise on penance divided into 7 distinctions at C.33 q.3); and (3) De consecratione a work on sacramental matters divided into five Distinctiones. With the exception of De consecratione, the text contains both cited auctoritates and Gratian’s (or, for later additions, possibly a later redactor’s) own dicta, where he advanced his arguments and explained how discordant canons could (should) be reconciled or harmonized.

Gratian relied upon a number of earlier canonical collections as sources for his texts, as Peter Landau has indicated, including certainly the collection of Anselm of Lucca, two collections of Ivo of Chartres (the Tripartita, and the Panormia), the collection of Polycarp, the Collection in three books, and the Liber de misericordia et iustitia of Alger of Liège. He may also have used or at least known Ivo’s Decretum, the Decretum of Burchard of Worms, Isidore’s Etymologiarum, and the Collection in seventy-four titles.

Gratian’s methodological antecedents were most importantly the Prologue of Ivo of Chartres and the book by Alger of Liège, both of which treat the harmonization of canonical texts.

As has been said, the Decretum which became the accepted text in the Bolognese law-school was not the work which left Gratian’s hands. The De consecratione were likely added to Gratian’s original work shortly after its publication. The brief chapter summaries were also quickly added. Furthermore, a number of passages from Roman law were interpolated into the Decretum in the mid-twelfth century along with more than 150 other texts from canonical sources, but these are identified in the manuscripts as ‘paleae’.

 

Text(s) – Manuscripts

No. 01

Concordia discordantium canonum, mid-12th century.

 
Manuscript

Manuscripts of the earlier recensions with the sigla commonly given to them (see also below, Cambridge, MA, HLS MS 64)

 
 

Admont, Stiftsbibl. 23 (Aa; contains the first recension; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; continues in Admont, Stiftsbibliothek 43; Austria, c. 1160-1170)

 
 

Admont, Stiftsbibl. 43 (Aa; contains the first recension; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; continuation from Admont, Stiftsbibliothek 23.)

 
 

Barcelona, Arch. Corona Aragón Santa Maria de Ripoll 78 (Bc; contains the first recension; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; Italy, c. 1130-1140; online, sample images.)

 
 

Firenze, BN Conventi Soppressi A 1.402 (Fd; contains the first recension; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; Italy, c. 1130-1140)

 
 

Paris, BN nouv. acq. lat. 1761 (P; contains the first recension; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; Italy c. 1130-1140)

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3884 (fo. 1 only; Pfr; contains the first recension; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; fragment, ca. 1130-1140)

 
 

Sankt Gallen, Stiftsbibl. 673 (Sg; Italy c. 1130-1140; online.)

 
 

Decretum manuscripts known to date from the 12th century (see also below, Cambridge, MA, HLS MS 64)

 
 

Biberach an der Riss, Spitalarch. B 3515 (Bi; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; contains early glosses)

 
 

Bremen, Staats- u. Universitätsbibl. a.142 (Br; confirmed 12th-century manuscript)

 
 

Brindisi, Bibl. Annibale de Leo A.1 (confirmed 12th-century manuscript)

 
 

Heiligenkreuz, Stiftsbibl. 44 (Hk; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; contains early glosses)

 
 

Innsbruck, Universitätsbibl. 90 (In; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; contains early glosses)

 
 

Köln, Dombibl. 127 (Ka; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; online, sample images.)

 
 

Köln, Dombibl. 128 (Kb; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; online.)

 
 

München, BSB Clm 4505 (Mc; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; contains early glosses; online, sample images.)

 
 

München, BSB Clm 13004 (Me; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; online.)

 
 

München, BSB Clm 10244 (confirmed 12th-century manuscript; contains early glosses; online.)

 
 

München, BSB Clm 17161 (Mm; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; contains early glosses)

 
 

München, BSB Clm 27337 (confirmed 12th-century manuscript; contains early glosses; online.)

 
 

München, BSB Clm 28161 (Mk; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; online.)

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3884 (Pf; confirmed 12th-century manuscript)

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3887 (confirmed 12th-century manuscript)

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3888 (Pa; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; contains early glosses)

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3890 (Pk; confirmed 12th-century manuscript)

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 11712 (confirmed 12th-century manuscript)

 
 

Salzburg, Bibl. Erzabtei St. Peter a.XI.9 (Sb; confirmed 12th-century manuscript)

 
 

Salzburg, Bibl. Erzabtei St. Peter a.XII.9 (Sa; confirmed 12th-century manuscript; contains early glosses)

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Ross. 595 (confirmed 12th-century manuscript; contains early glosses)

 
 

München, BSB Clm 14024 (contains early glosses)

 
 

München, BSB Clm 28174 (contains early glosses)

 
 

München, BSB Clm 28175 (contains early glosses)

 
 

New York, N.Y., Morgan Libr. 446 (Ny; contains early glosses)

 
 

Stuttgart, Würtembergische Landesbibl. VI 63 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Verona, Bibl. Cap. 184 (Ve; contains early glosses)

 
 

Comprehensive list of Decretum manuscripts (for a list of manuscripts known to contain early glosses, click here)

 
 

Abbeville, BM 33

 
 

Admont, Stiftsbibl. 9

 
 

Admont, Stiftsbibl. 35

 
 

Admont, Stiftsbibl. 48 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Allessandria, Bibl. Civica 4

 
 

Amiens, BM 353

 
 

Amiens, BM 354

 
 

Amiens, BM 355

 
 

Amiens, BM 371

 
 

Amiens, BM 372

 
 

Antwerpen, Mus. Plantin-Moretus M.13 (9) (An; contains early glosses)

 
 

Antwerpen, Mus. Plantin-Moretus M.74 (30)

 
 

Arras, BM 16 (7)

 
 

Arras, BM 32 (27)

 
 

Arras, BM 46 (843)

 
 

Arras, BM 444 (791)

 
 

Arras, BM 470 (577)

 
 

Arras, BM 472 (809)

 
 

Arras, BM 493 (585)

 
 

Arras, BM 500 (592) (Ar; contains early glosses)

 
 

Arras, BM 507 (599)

 
 

Arras, BM 921 (263)

 
 

Autun, BM 80 (actually 99)

 
 

Autun, BM 80a (actually 100) (contains early glosses)

 
 

Avignon, BM 659

 
 

Avranches, BM 148

 
 

Baltimore, Walters Museum W.133

 
 

Baltimore, Walters Museum W.135

 
 

Baltimore, Walters Museum W.777 (Formerly London, A.C. Beatty Coll. MS 46)

 
 

Bamberg, Staatsbibl. Can. 13 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Bamberg, Staatsbibl. Can. 14 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Bamberg, Staatsbibl. Can. 15 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Bamberg, Staatsbibl. Can. 16

 
 

Barcelona, Arch. Corona Aragón S. Cugat 8

 
 

Barcelona, Arch. Corona Aragón R.78

 
 

Barcelona, Bibl. Univ. 1164

 
 

Barcelona, S. Domingo, Bibl. y Sacrista 35 (probably lost)

 
 

Beaune, BM 5

 
 

Berlin, Staatsbibl. Phill. 1742 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Berlin, Staatsbibl. lat. fol. 1

 
 

Berlin, Staatsbibl. lat. fol. 2

 
 

Berlin, Staatsbibl. lat. fol. 3

 
 

Berlin, Staatsbibl. lat. fol. 4

 
 

Berlin, Staatsbibl. lat. fol. 6

 
 

Berlin, Staatsbibl. lat. fol. 228

 
 

Bernkastel-Kues, Bibl. St. Nikolaus Hospitals 223 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Bernkastel-Kues, Bibl. St. Nikolaus Hospitals 224

 
 

Bloomington, Lilly Libr. Ricketts 205

 
 

Bologna, Coll. Spagna Cod. magn. 281

 
 

Bonne-Espérance, Bibl. Petit Séminaire Decretum Gratiani

 
 

Boulogne-sur-mer, BM 117

 
 

Boulogne-sur-mer, BM 118

 
 

Bratislava, Štátny archív 14 (Jur. 46)

 
 

Braunschweig, Stadtbibl. IX

 
 

Bremen, Staats- u. Universitätsbibl. a.150

 
 

Brindisi, Bibl. Annibale de Leo A.1

 
 

Brugge, Stedelijke Bibl. 350

 
 

Bruxelles/Brussel, Bibl. Royale 5668–69 (2563)

 
 

Burgos, Bibl. Cabildo 4

 
 

Cambrai, BM 602

 
 

Cambrai, BM 605

 
 

Cambrai, BM 606

 
 

Cambrai, BM 623

 
 

Cambrai, BM 629

 
 

Cambrai, BM 645

 
 

Cambrai, BM 646

 
 

Cambrai, BM 967

 
 

Cambridge, Gonville & Caius Coll. 6 (James 6) (Cg; contains early glosses)

 
 

Cambridge, Gonville & Caius Coll. 676

 
 

Cambridge, Gonville & Caius Coll. 681 (288)

 
 

Cambridge, Corpus Christi Coll. 10 (Cc; contains early glosses)

 
 

Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Mus. 183

 
 

Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Mus. 262

 
 

Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Mus. McClean 135 (Cf; contains early glosses)

 
 

Cambridge, Pembroke Coll. 162 (Cp; contains early glosses)

 
 

Cambridge, Pembroke Coll. 163

 
 

Cambridge, Sidney Sussex Coll. 101 (Ca; contains early glosses)

 
 

Cambridge, Trinity Coll. O.5.17 (James 1298)

 
 

Cambridge, Trinity Coll. O.10.2 (James 1454) (incomplete)

 
 

Cambridge, Univ. Libr. Dd. VII.20

 
 

Cambridge, Univ. Libr. Addit. 3447 (Cu; contains early glosses)

 
 

Cambridge, MA, Harvard Law 64 (Cd; almost certainly 12th century, probably 1st recension; contains early glosses; online)

 
 

Cesena, Bibl. Malatest. II.sin. 1

 
 

Cesena, Bibl. Malatest. 3.207

 
 

Ceské Budjovice, Krajská Knihovna 137 (Formerly in the library of the Cistercian monastery, Vyi Brod)

 
 

Chambéry, BM 13

 
 

Charleville-Mézières, BM 150

 
 

Charleville-Mézières, BM 269

 
 

Chartres, BM 269

 
 

Cheltenham, Thirlestaine House Former No. 2087

 
 

Cividale del Friuli, Mus. Archeologico 96

 
 

Köln, Dombibl. 129 (SAMPLE IMAGES)

 
 

Cologny, Bibl. Bodmer Cod. Bodmer 75 (Lacks one or more signatures at the beginning; online.)

 
 

København, Kongelige Bibl. Gl. Kgl. S. 193, fol.

 
 

København, Kongelige Bibl. Gl. Kgl. S. 194, fol.

 
 

København, Kongelige Bibl. Thott 160, fol.

 
 

Córdoba, Bibl. Cabildo 26

 
 

Córdoba, Bibl. Cabildo 27

 
 

Córdoba, Bibl. Cabildo 28 (99)

 
 

Cortona, BC 74

 
 

Darmstadt, Landesbibl. 732

 
 

Darmstadt, Landesbibl. 907 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Darmstadt, Landesbibl. 923 (incomplete)

 
 

Dijon, BM 341

 
 

Douai, BM 585

 
 

Douai, BM 586 (Do; contains early glosses)

 
 

Douai, BM 587

 
 

Douai, BM 588

 
 

Douai, BM 589

 
 

Douai, BM 590 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Douai, BM 591 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Douai, BM 592

 
 

Dubrovnik, Dominikanski samostan 22

 
 

Durham, Cath. Libr. C.I.7 (Db; contains early glosses)

 
 

Durham, Cath. Libr. C.I.8

 
 

Durham, Cath. Libr. C.II.1 (Dc; contains early glosses)

 
 

Durham, Cath. Libr. C.III.1 (Du; contains early glosses)

 
 

Durham, Cath. Libr. C.IV.1 (Dh; contains early glosses)

 
 

Edinburgh, Natrional Libr. Scotland 3–1–12

 
 

Edinburgh, Natrional Libr. Scotland 10–1–12

 
 

Einsiedeln, Stiftsbibl. 193

 
 

Erlangen, Universitätsbibl. 342 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Erlangen, Universitätsbibl. 343

 
 

El Escorial, Bibl. San Lorenzo a.IV.26

 
 

El Escorial, Bibl. San Lorenzo c.I.2

 
 

El Escorial, Bibl. San Lorenzo c.I.3

 
 

El Escorial, Bibl. San Lorenzo c.I.4

 
 

El Escorial, Bibl. San Lorenzo c.I.5

 
 

El Escorial, Bibl. San Lorenzo c.I.7

 
 

El Escorial, Bibl. San Lorenzo c.I.8

 
 

El Escorial, Bibl. San Lorenzo d.I.8

 
 

El Escorial, Bibl. San Lorenzo d.I.10

 
 

El Escorial, Bibl. San Lorenzo ç.II.6

 
 

Évreux, BM 106

 
 

Ferrara, Museo Civico Salone-Parete Est. vetr. 2a. Inc. 4

 
 

Firenze, Bibl. Laurenz. Acquisti 93 (incomplete)

 
 

Firenze, Bibl. Laurenz. Plut. 1 (olim S. Croce I) sin.1 (The library currently identifies this manuscript with the Plutei designation, but the literature often refers to it with the S. Croce one.)

 
 

Firenze, Bibl. Laurenz. Plut. 1 (olim S. Croce I) sin.10 (The library currently identifies this manuscript with the Plutei designation, but the literature often refers to it with the S. Croce one.)

 
 

Firenze, Bibl. Laurenz. Plut. 4 (olim S. Croce IV) sin.1 (The library currently identifies this manuscript with the Plutei designation, but the literature often refers to it with the S. Croce one.)

 
 

Firenze, Bibl. Laurenz. Edili 96

 
 

Firenze, Bibl. Laurenz. Edili 97

 
 

Firenze, Bibl. Laurenz. Gaddi reliq. 2 (Formerly Firenze, Bibl. Naz. Centr., Magliabecch. XXXI.46.)

 
 

Firenze, Bibl. Laurenz. Fiesol. 120

 
 

Firenze, Bibl. Marucell. A.298

 
 

Firenze, BN Conv. soppr. A.II.376

 
 

Firenze, BN Conv. soppr. A.II.403

 
 

Firenze, BN Magliabecch. XXXI.22

 
 

Frankfurt am Main, Stadt- und Universitätsbibl. Barth. 7

 
 

Fulda, Landesbibl. D.24

 
 

Gdańsk, Wojewódzka i Miejska Bibl. 1861

 
 

Gdańsk, Wojewódzka i Miejska Bibl. F. 77

 
 

Genève, Bibl. Genève 60

 
 

Gent, Universiteitsbibl. 20 (286)

 
 

Gent, Universiteitsbibl. 55 (287)

 
 

Gent, Universiteitsbibl. 648 (671)

 
 

Gent, Universiteitsbibl. 3 (671)

 
 

Girona, Bibl. Seminario 157 VI–IV–I

 
 

Gniezno, Arch. Kap. 27

 
 

Gniezno, Arch. Kap. 28 (Gn; contains early glosses)

 
 

Gniezno, Arch. Kap. 38 (incomplete)

 
 

Gniezno, Arch. Kap. 76

 
 

Graz, Universitätsbibl. III.52 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Graz, Universitätsbibl. III.69 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Graz, Universitätsbibl. III.71 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Graz, Universitätsbibl. III.80 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Grenoble, BM 11 (474)

 
 

Grenoble, BM 34 (475)

 
 

Grenoble, BM 62 (482)

 
 

Hamburg, Staats- u. Universitätsbibl. cod. jur. 2231

 
 

Hannover, Niedersächs. Landesbibl. 282

 
 

Heiligenkreuz, Stiftsbibl. 43 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Hereford, Cath. Libr. P.VII.3 (He; contains early glosses)

 
 

Hereford, Cath. Libr. P.IX.2

 
 

Innsbruck, Universitätsbibl. 10

 
 

Ivrea, Bibl. Cap. 72

 
 

Jena, Thüringer Universitäts- u. Landesbibl. El. f. 51c

 
 

Jena, Thüringer Universitäts- u. Landesbibl. El. f. 56 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Kassel, Universitäts- u. Landesbibl. 2o Ms. iurid. 65 I (Formerly 2o Ms. iurid.14.)

 
 

Klagenfurt, Bischöfliche Bibl. XXIX. a. 4

 
 

Klosterneuberg, Stiftsbibl. 87

 
 

Klosterneuberg, Stiftsbibl. 101

 
 

Kaliningrad, Universitätsbibl. 176 (IX)

 
 

Kraków, Arch. Kap. 88

 
 

Kraków, Bibl. Jagiellońska 356

 
 

Kraków, Bibl. Jagiellońska 357

 
 

Kremsmünster, Stiftsbibl. 364

 
 

Kremsmünster, Stiftsbibl. 369

 
 

Laon, BM 372

 
 

Laon, BM 476

 
 

Leipzig, Stadtbibl. 242

 
 

Leipzig, Stadtbibl. 243

 
 

Leipzig, Universitätsbibl. 956

 
 

Leipzig, Universitätsbibl. 957

 
 

Leipzig, Universitätsbibl. 958

 
 

Leipzig, Universitätsbibl. Haenel 17

 
 

Leipzig, Universitätsbibl. Haenel 18 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Sankt-Peterburg, Gosudarstvennaia Publichnaia Bibl. lat. F. II vel. 23

 
 

Liège, Grand Séminaire 127E

 
 

Lilienfeld, Stiftsbibl. 222 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Lilienfeld, Stiftsbibl. 223

 
 

Lincoln, Cath. Chap. 137

 
 

Lincoln, Cath. Chap. 138

 
 

London, BL Harley 3256 (Lh; contains early glosses)

 
 

London, BL Arundel 490 (La; contains early glosses)

 
 

London, BL Additional 15274 (incomplete; continues in Additional 15275)

 
 

London, BL Additional 15275 (incomplete; continuation from 15274)

 
 

London, BL Additional 24642

 
 

London, BL Additional 24658 (Lb; contains early glosses)

 
 

London, BL Stowe 378 (Lo; contains early glosses)

 
 

London, BL Royal 9.C.III

 
 

London, BL Royal 9.F.VI

 
 

London, BL Royal 10.D.VIII

 
 

London, BL Royal 11.D.II

 
 

London, BL Royal 11.D.IX

 
 

Dublin, Chester Beatty Libr. 66

 
 

London, BL 449 (Ll; contains early glosses)

 
 

Hatfield, Hatfield House 322 (incomplete; continues in 323)

 
 

Hatfield, Hatfield House 323 (incomplete; continuation from 322)

 
 

Lons-le-Saunier, Arch. dép. Jura 14

 
 

Lons-le-Saunier, Arch. dép. Jura 15

 
 

Lublin, Bibl. Uniwersytecka 1

 
 

Lucca, Archivio Arcivescovile 20 (6)

 
 

Lucca, Bibl. Cap. Felin. 126

 
 

Luxembourg, BN 139 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Madrid, Bibl. Fac. Pol. Vol. 1137 Obra 449 Estante 16 Tabula 1 Clasificación 348.17

 
 

Madrid, Fundación Galdiano 13/11 (451 inv. 15462) (incomplete)

 
 

Madrid, Fundación Galdiano 440 (Inv. 15547) (incomplete)

 
 

Madrid, BN 87 (C.1)

 
 

Madrid, BN 251 (C.2) (contains early glosses)

 
 

Madrid, BN 12790 (Ee.3)

 
 

Madrid, BN 19148

 
 

Madrid, BN 19149

 
 

Madrid, BN Res. 198 Vitr. 21,2

 
 

Madrid, Bibl. Acad. Historia 6

 
 

Madrid, Bibl. Acad. Historia 7

 
 

Madrid, Bibl. Acad. Historia 67

 
 

Mainz, Stadtbibl. II.73

 
 

Mainz, Stadtbibl. II.204 (Mz)

 
 

Los Angeles, Getty Mus. Ludwig XIV 2 (Formerly Dr. P. Ludwig, Aachen; formerly Dyson Perrins Collection MS 2)

 
 

Marburg, Universitätsbibl. 33 (formerly C.1) (Mb; contains early glosses)

 
 

Melk, Stiftsbibl. 1 (707)

 
 

Melk, Stiftsbibl. 259 (698)

 
 

Melk, Stiftsbibl. 261 (695)

 
 

Metz, BM 103

 
 

Metz, BM 20

 
 

Metz, BM 21

 
 

Milano, Archivio San Ambrogio [No shelfmark]

 
 

Milano, Bibl. Ambrosiana E.44 inf.

 
 

Monte Cassino, Bibl. Abbazia 64 (contains early glossescontains early glosses)

 
 

Monte Cassino, Bibl. Abbazia 65

 
 

Monte Cassino, Bibl. Abbazia 66 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Monte Cassino, Bibl. Abbazia 68

 
 

Montpellier, BM 34

 
 

Monza, Arch. Cap. h–7/157 (T.VIII; Inv. CCXVIII)

 
 

Monza, Arch. Cap. k–8/158 (T.IX; Inv. CCIX)

 
 

Moulins (dép. Allier), MC 3

 
 

München, BSB Clm 3893

 
 

München, BSB Clm 12690

 
 

München, BSB Clm 13003

 
 

München, Universitätsbibl. 2o 289

 
 

Münster, Üniversitäts- u. Landesbibl. 601 (263)

 
 

Napoli, BN VI.Aa.17

 
 

Napoli, BN XII.A.1

 
 

Napoli, BN XII.A.5 (Na; contains early glosses)

 
 

Napoli, BN XII.A.9

 
 

Napoli, BN XII.A.16

 
 

Napoli, BN Vindobonensis 31

 
 

Nîmes, BM 67

 
 

Novara, Bibl. Cap. Cent. I.15

 
 

Novara, Bibl. Cap. Cent. I.17 (part II only)

 
 

Novara, Bibl. Cap. Cent II.41

 
 

Novara, Bibl. Cap. Cent. IV. 94

 
 

Olomouc, Státni Archiv C.O.266 (Ol; contains early glosses)

 
 

Olomouc, Státni Archiv C.O.39

 
 

Oxford, Bodleian Libr. Bodl. 290 (2441)

 
 

Oxford, Bodleian Libr. Douce 218 (Od; incomplete; contains early glosses)

 
 

Oxford, Bodleian Libr. Hatton 5 (4128)

 
 

Oxford, Bodleian Libr. Lyell 41 (Oe; contains early glosses)

 
 

Oxford, Magdelen Coll. 216

 
 

Oxford, New Coll. 208

 
 

Oxford, New Coll. 210 (Ox; contains early glosses)

 
 

Oxford, Oriel Coll. 14

 
 

Oxford, Trinity Coll. 70

 
 

Oxford, Univ. Coll. 86

 
 

Padova, Bibl. Civica II.55

 
 

Padova, Bibl. Civica III.56

 
 

Padova, Bibl. Cap. A.23

 
 

Padova, Bibl. Cap. B.58

 
 

Padova, Bibl. Univ. 1074

 
 

Paris, Bibl. Arsenal 677

 
 

Paris, Bibl. Arsenal 683

 
 

Paris, Bibl. Arsenal 1183

 
 

Paris, Bibl. Mazarine 1287

 
 

Paris, Bibl. Mazarine 1288

 
 

Paris, Bibl. Mazarine 1289

 
 

Paris, Bibl. Mazarine 1290

 
 

Paris, Bibl. Mazarine 1291

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3885

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3886A

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3889

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3893

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3894

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3895

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3896

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3897

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3898

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3903

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3904

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3905

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3905A

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3905B (contains early glosses)

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3906

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3907

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 3908

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 6988

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 11713

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 14316 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 14317

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 14318

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 14605

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 15393

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 15394

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 15395

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 16898

 
 

Paris, BN lat. 16899

 
 

Paris, BN nouv. acq. lat. 1576

 
 

Paris, BN nouv. acq. lat. 2254

 
 

Paris, Bibl. Sainte-Geneviève 168

 
 

Paris, Bibl. Sainte-Geneviève 341

 
 

Paris, Bibl. Sainte-Geneviève 342 (Ps; contains early glosses)

 
 

Pavia, Bibl. Univ. 30

 
 

Perugia, Arch. S. Pietro C.M.4 (Pz; contains early glosses)

 
 

Pommersfelden, Schloßbibl. 2744 (142) (contains early glosses)

 
 

Pommersfelden, Schloßbibl. 2927 (327)

 
 

Praha, Metropolitní Kapitula J.1

 
 

Praha, Metropolitní Kapitula J.19 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Praha, Národní Muz. XII.A.12

 
 

Praha, Národní Muz. XVII.A.12

 
 

Praha, Univ. Knihovna VIII.F.5

 
 

Praha, Univ. Knihovna XXIII.B.4 (Ms.18 from Cistercian Convent Libr.)

 
 

Teplá, Klášterní Knihovny Ms. L.1 (From the former Franciscan Libr.)

 
 

Princeton, Princeton Univ. Garrett 97

 
 

Reims, BM 676

 
 

Reims, BM 677

 
 

Reims, BM 678

 
 

Reims, BM 679

 
 

Reims, BM 680

 
 

Reims, BM 681

 
 

Rein, Stiftsbibl. 86

 
 

Roma, Bibl. Angelica 1270 (T.1.5)

 
 

Roma, Bibl. Casanatense 222 (A.I.1)

 
 

Roma, Bibl. Casanatense 465 (A.I.2)

 
 

Roma, BN Ms. 42 of S. Onofrio

 
 

Rouen, BM 707 (E.21) (contains early glosses)

 
 

Rouen, BM 708 (E.1a)

 
 

Rouen, BM 709 (E.25)

 
 

Rouen, BM 723 (E.42)

 
 

Saint-Claude, BM 9

 
 

Sankt Florian, Stiftsbibl. III.2

 
 

Sankt Florian, Stiftsbibl. III.5 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Saint-Mihiel, BM 5

 
 

Saint-Mihiel, BM 6

 
 

Saint-Omer, BM 190

 
 

Saint-Omer, BM 191

 
 

Saint-Omer, BM 192

 
 

Saint-Omer, BM 433

 
 

Saint-Omer, BM 452

 
 

Saint-Omer, BM 453

 
 

Saint-Omer, BM 454

 
 

Saint-Omer, BM 476

 
 

Sankt Paul im Lavantta, Stiftsbibl. 25.1.1

 
 

Sankt Paul im Lavantta, Stiftsbibl. 25.2.6

 
 

Salamanca, Bibl. Univ. 2376

 
 

Salisbury, Cath. Libr. 26

 
 

Seo de Urgel, Bibl. Cabildo 2008 (41)

 
 

Seo de Urgel, Bibl. Cabildo 2009 (113; 77; 16)

 
 

Sevilla, Bibl. Colombina 82–7

 
 

Siena, BC G.V.23

 
 

Siena, BC K.I.3

 
 

Siena, BC K.I.10

 
 

Sigüenza, Arch. Catedral 19

 
 

Sigüenza, Arch. Catedral 34

 
 

Sion, Arch. Cap Decretum Gratiani

 
 

Subiaco, Bibl. S. Scolastica XI

 
 

Subiaco, Bibl. S. Scolastica XXXIII

 
 

Tarazona, Bibl. Catedral 93

 
 

Tarazona, Bibl. Catedral 115

 
 

Tarazona, Bibl. Catedral 120

 
 

Toledo, Arch. Cap. 4.1

 
 

Toledo, Arch. Cap. 4.2

 
 

Toledo, Arch. Cap. 4.3

 
 

Toledo, Arch. Cap. 4.4

 
 

Toledo, Arch. Cap. 4.5 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Torino, BN Universitaria I.I.8 (1338)

 
 

Torino, BN Universitaria I.III.16 (incomplete)

 
 

Tortosa, Bibl. Cap. 3

 
 

Tortosa, Bibl. Cap. 70

 
 

Tortosa, Bibl. Cap. 239

 
 

Tortosa, Bibl. Cap. 240

 
 

Toulouse, BM 366

 
 

Toulouse, BM 367

 
 

Toulouse, Coll. privée Decretum Gratiani

 
 

Tours, BM 557

 
 

Tours, BM 558

 
 

Tours, BM 559

 
 

Tours, BM 560

 
 

Trento, BC 3568

 
 

Trier, Stadtbibl. 906 (1141) (Tr; contains early glosses)

 
 

Trier, Stadtbibl. 907 (2182a) (contains early glosses)

 
 

Trier, Bibl. Bisminar 8 (Ts; contains early glosses)

 
 

Troyes, BM 60

 
 

Troyes, BM 103

 
 

Troyes, BM 1421

 
 

Valencia, Bibl. Catedral 28 (223)

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV A.24

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV A.25

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV A.26

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV A.27

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Chig. E.v.131

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Chig. E.vii.206

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Ottob. lat. 119

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Ottob. lat. 3133

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Pal. lat. 621

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Pal. lat. 622

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Pal. lat. 623

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Pal. lat. 624

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Pal. lat. 625

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Pal. lat. 626

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Reg. lat. 977

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Reg. lat. 1039

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Ross. 307

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Ross. 308

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Urb. lat. 161

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 1365

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 1366

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 1367

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 1368

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 1369

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 1370

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 1371

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 1372

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 1373

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 1374

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 1375

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 1376

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 2491

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 2492

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 2493

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 2494 (Va; contains early glosses)

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 2495 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 3529 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Città del Vaticano, BAV Vat. lat. 4893

 
 

Vendôme, BM 88

 
 

Venezia, BN lat. ant. 173

 
 

Venezia, BN lat. ant. 174

 
 

Venezia, BN lat. ant. 175

 
 

Venezia, BN lat. ant. 177 (lat. cl. IV n.117)

 
 

Vercelli, Bibl. Cap. XXV (118)

 
 

Vercelli, Bibl. Cap. CLXXXIV (164)

 
 

Vicenza, Bibl. Civica 1 (G.15.2.2) (contains early glosses; c.1241-1260)

 
 

Vic, Bibl. Catedral 135

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1439

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 1758 (incomplete)

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 2057

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 2060

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 2061

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 2069

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 2070

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 2082

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 2102

 
 

Wien, ÖNB 2246

 
 

Wien, ÖNB ser.nova 2640

 
 

Washington, D.C., Catholic Univ. Libr. 186 (contains early glosses; incomplete)

 
 

Washington, D.C., LC Law D.401

 
 

Washington, D.C., LC Law D.402

 
 

Wilhering, Stiftsbibl. 29

 
 

Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibl. Helmst. 23

 
 

Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibl. Helmst. 33 (contains early glosses)

 
 

Worcester, Cath. Libr. F.120

 
 

Zwettl, Stiftsbibl. 12

 
 

Zwettl, Stiftsbibl. 31

 

Literature

Newer Literature (since Winroth).

C. Natalini, ‘“Habent sua fata libelli”: Vecchie e nuove riflessioni sulla formazione del Decretum di Graziano dall’angolo d’osservazione della Causa III’, Annaeus. Anales de la Tradición Romanística (= Alfons Maria Stickler [1910–2007]. In memoriam.) J. Viejo-Ximénez ed., 7 (2010, appeared 2016) 167–198.

J. Wei, ‘Gratian’s Decretum in France and Halberstadt’, in Rechtshandschriften des deutschen Mittelalters: Produktionsorte und Importwege: Tagungsband des Arbeitsgesprächs an der Herzog August Bibliothek (Juni 2010), G. Drossbach and P. Carmassi, ed. (Wolfenbütteler Mittelalter-Studien 29; Wiesbaden 2015) 363–384.

J. Wei, ‘The Importance and Influence of Gratian’s Tract De penitentia’, ZRG KA, 101 (2015) 373–388.

G. Murano, ‘Graziano e il Decretum nel sec. XII’, RIDC, 26 (Roma 2015) 61–140.

G. Murano, ‘Dalle scuole agli Studia: il Decretum Gratiani tra XII e XIII secolo’, in Scriptoria e biblioteche nel Basso Medioevo (secoli XII–XV). Atti del LI Convegno storico internazionale. Todi, 12–15 ottobre 2014 (Spoleto 2015) 71–107 (online).

K. Pennington, ‘The Biography of Gratian, the Father of Canon Law’, Villanova Law Review, 59:04:00 (2014) 679–706.

E. De León, ‘Graciano’, in Juristas universales 1.314–19.

K. Pennington, ‘Gratian and Compurgation: An Interpolation’, BMCL, 31 (2014) 251–254.

K. Pennington, ‘Gratian and the Jews’, BMCL, 31 (2014) 111–124.

J. Viejo-Ximénez, ‘Cicerón y Graciano’, BMCL, 31 (2014) 23–55. (An article with same title and by the same author appeared in Folia Theologica et Canonica 24.16 (2013) 191–214. We have not seen this item and so cannot determine its relationship to the BMCL article.)

M. Eichbauer, ‘Gratian’s Decretum and the Changing Historiographical Landscape’, History Compass, 11 (2014) 1111–1125.

A. Larson, Master of Penance: Gratian and the Development of Penitential Thought and Law in the Twelfth Century (Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Canon Law 11; Washington DC 2014).

K. Pennington, ‘La biografia di Graziano, il Padre del diritto canonico’, RIDC, 25 (2014) 25–60.

A. Larson, ‘Gratian’s De penitentia in Twelfth-Century Manuscripts’, BMCL, 31 (2014) 57–110.

O. Condorelli, ‘Graziano’, in DGI (2013) 1.1058–61.

B. Nilsson, ‘Gratian on Pagans and Infidels: A Short Outline’, in Cultural Encounters during the Crusades, K. Jensen, K. Salonen, and H. Vogt, ed. (Odense 2013) 153–163.

G. Minnucci, ‘Por Decio contra Ripam: Note sul dibattito intorno al valore giuridico del Decreto di Graziano all’inizio dell’età moderna’, REDC, 70 (2013) 13–39.

A. Winroth, ‘Where Gratian Slept: The Life and Death of the Father of Canon Law’, ZRG KA, 99 (2013) 105–128.

A. Emili, ‘Gratianus’, CALMA, IV.4 (2013) 407b–410a.

M. Hartmann, ‘The Letter Collection of Abbot Wibald of Stablo and Corvey and the Decretum Gratiani’, BMCL, 29 (2011/12) 35–50.

A. Larson, ‘An Abbreviatio of the First Recension of Gratian’s Decretum in Munich?’, BMCL, 29 (2011/12) 51–118.

M. Eichbauer, ‘From the First to the Second Recension: The Progressive Evolution of the Decretum’, BMCL, 29 (2011/12) 119–69.

P. Landau, ‘Gratian (Ende 11. Jh.-um 1145)’, in Handwörterbuch zur deutschen Rechtsgeschichte (2nd ed.; Berlin 2011) 2.53–33..

M. Münster-Swendsen, ‘Canons for the Hawks: Some Thoughts on Gratian’s Causa 23 and the Legitimisation of Warfare within Canon Law’, in Montaperti: per I 750 anni dalla battaglia: aspetti della guerra e della pace nel Medioevo: incontro italo-danese, Villa Chigi Saracini, Castelnuovo Berardenga (SI), 5 settembre 2010, M. Ascheri, ed. (Documenti di storia; Firenze 2010) 59–66..

A. Larson, ‘The Influence of the School of Laon on Gratian: The Usage of the Glossa ordinaria and Anselmian Sententiae in De penitentia (Decretum C.33 q.3)’, Mediaeval Studies, 72 (2010) 197–244..

M. Sommar, ‘Gratian and the Servi ecclesiarum’, in Proceedings Esztergom, P. Erdö, ed. (MIC C–14; Città del Vaticano 2010) 327–36..

M. Eichbauer, ‘From Gratian’s Concordia discordantium canonum to Gratian’s Decretum: The Evolution from Teaching Text to Comprehensive Code of Canon Law’, (Ph.D. diss.; The Catholic University of America 2010).

A. Larson, ‘An Abbreviatio of the First Recension of Gratian’s Decretum in Munich?’, BMCL, 28 (2009/10) 51–118.

T. Genka, ‘Hierarchie der Texte, Hierarchie der Autoritäten: zur Hierarchie der Rechtsquellen bei Gratian’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 95 (2009) 78-100..

W. Decock, ‘“Augustine” versus Jerome: Commentaries on Gratian’s Decretum, D.9 c.6, from Paucapalea to Juan de Torquemada’, TRG, 77 (2009) 367–85..

A. Winroth, ‘Marital Consent in Gratian’s Decretum’, in Readers, Texts, and Compilers in the Earlier Middle Ages: Studies in Medieval Canon Law in Honour of Linda Fowler-Magerl, M. Brett, ed. (Church, Faith, and Culture in the Medieval West; Aldershot 2009) 111–21..

J. Wei, ‘Penitential Theology in Gratian’s Decretum: Critique and Criticism of the Treatise “Baptizato homine”’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 95 (2009) 78–100..

J. Wei, ‘Gratian and the School of Laon’, Traditio, 64 (2009) 279–322.

J. Wei, ‘Penitential Theology in Gratian’s Decretum: Critique and Criticism of the Treatise Baptizato homine’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 95 (2009) 78–100.

P. Landau, ‘Gratian and the Decretum Gratiani’, in The History of Medieval Canon Law in the Classical Period, 1140–1234: From Gratian to the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX, W. Hartmann and K. Pennington, ed. (History of Medieval Canon Law; Washington DC 2008) 22–54.

A. Winroth, ‘Roman Law in Gratian and the Panormia’, in Bishops, Texts, and the Use of Canon Law around 1100: Essays in Honour of Martin Brett, B. Brasington, ed. (Church, Faith, and Culture in the Medieval West; Aldershot 2008) 183-90..

A. Winroth, ‘An Unnoticed Gratian Manuscript in Stockholm’, in Iuris Historia: liber amicorum Gero Dolezalek, V. Colli, ed. (Studies in Comparative Legal History; Berkeley 2008) 141–44..

O. Condorelli, ‘Il Decretum Gratiani e il suo uso (secc. XII–XV)’, in Medieval Canon Law Collections and European Ius Commune, S. Szuromi, ed. (Budapest 2006) 170–206.

J. Brundage, The Medieval Origins of the Legal Profession: Canonists, Civilians, and Courts (Chicago 2008) 96–105.

G. Grebner, ‘Lay patronate in Bologna in the first half of the 12th century: Regular canons, notaries, and the Decretum’, in Europa und seine Regionen: 2000 Jahre Rechtsgeschichte, A. Bauer, ed. (Wien 2007) 107–122.

C. Larrainzar, ‘La edición crítica del Decreto de Graciano’, BMCL, 27 (2007) 71–104.

A. Larson, ‘Early Stages of Gratian’s Decretum and the Second Lateran Council: A Reconsideration’, BMCL, 27 (2007) 21–56.

J. Wei, ‘A Reconsideration of St. Gall, Stiftsbibliothek 673 (Sg) in Light of the Sources of Distinctions 5–7 of the De penitentia’, BMCL, 27 (2007) 141–80.

M. Graulich, ‘Das Verhältnis zwischen Theologie und Recht im Decretum Gratiani’, in What Is “Theology” in the Middle Ages?: Religious Cultures of Europe (11th–15th centuries) as Reflected in Their Self-Understanding, M. Olszewski, ed. (Archi verbi, Subsidia 1; Münster 2007) 507–16..

T. Genka, ‘Some Critical comments on the Rubric of C.15 q.1 c.8 of Gratian’s Decretum’, Forum Historiae Iuris, 11 (2007) [no page numbers] (online).

D. Bauer, ‘From Ivo of Chartres to the Decretum Gratiani: The Legal Nature of a Political Theology Revolution’, in Law Before Gratian: Law in Western Europe, c.500–1100; Proceedings of the Third Carlsberg Academy Conference on Medieval Legal History 2006, P. Andersen, ed. (Proceedings of the Carlsberg Academy Conferences on Medieval Legal History 3; Copenhagen 2007) 123–39..

S. Brown, ‘Gratian (fl. 12th century)’, in Historical Dictionary of Medieval Philosophy and Theology, S. Brown, ed. (Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements 76; Lanham 2007) 129.

M. Eichbauer, ‘St. Gall Stiftsbibliothek 673 and the Early Redactions of Gratian’s Decretum’, BMCL, 27 (2007) 105–40.

A. Larson, ‘The Evolution of Gratian’s Tractatus de penitentia’, BMCL, 26 (2004–2006) 59–123.

A. Winroth, ‘The Teaching of Law in the Twelfth Century’, in Law and Learning in the Middle Ages, H. Vogt, ed. (Copenhagen 2006) 41–62.

A. Winroth, ‘Neither free nor slave: Theology and Law in Gratian’s Thoughts on the Definition of Marriage and Unfree Persons’, in Medieval Church Law and the Origins of the Western Legal Tradition: A Tribute to Kenneth Pennington, W. Müller, ed. (Washington DC 2006) 97–109.

S. Haering, ‘Gratian und das Kirchenrecht in der mittelalterlichen Theologie’, Münchener Theologische Zeitschrift, 57 (2006) 21–34. Reprinted in: idem, Mittelalteriches Denken: Gestalten, Ideen und Debatten im Kontext, C. Schäfer and M. Thurner, ed. (Darmstadt 2007), 127–42.

R. Schmidt–Wiegand, ‘Eine Handschrift des “Decretum Gratiani” und ihre Bedeutung für das Stadtrecht von Bremen’, in Juristen werdent herren uf erden: Recht, Geschichte, Philologie; Kolloquium zum 60. Geburtstag von Friedrich Ebel, A. Fijal, ed. (Göttingen 2006) 129–51.

J. Dillon, ‘Case Statements (themata) and the Composition of Gratian’s Cases’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 92 (2006) 306–39..

T. Lenherr, ‘Reos sanguinis [non] defendat ecclesia: Gratian mit einem kurzen Blick erhascht’, in Medieval Church Law and the Origins of the Western Legal Tradition: A Tribute to Kenneth Pennington, W. Müller, ed. (Washington DC 2006) 172–92.

R. Kay, ‘Dante’s Razor and Gratian’s D.XV’, in Dante’s Enigmas: Medieval Scholasticism and Beyond, R. Kay, ed. (Aldershot 2006) VIII.

O. Kim, ‘Understanding “Intent” in Criminal Law via Gratian’s Decretum and St. Augustine’, in Law and Criminality in the Middle Ages: Academic Essays (Hermit Kingdom Studies in History and Religion 3; Cheltenham 2006) 49–76.

F. Paxton, ‘Gratian’s Thirteenth Case and the Composition of the Decretum’, in Proceedings Catania (MIC C–12; Città del Vaticano 2006) 119–30.

A. Winroth, ‘Gratian (mid-12th century)’, in Key Figures in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia, R. Emmerson, ed. (Routledge Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages 13; New York 2006) 269–70.

A. Duggan, ‘Making the Old Law ‘New’, I. Problems of Authority and Interpretation in Gratian’s Decretum’, in Medieval Canon Law Collections and European ius commune, S. Szuromi, ed. (Budapest 2006) 207–235.

F. Roumy, ‘L’origine et la diffusion de l’adage canonique Necessitas non habet legem (VIIIe-XIIIe s.)’, in Medieval Church Law and the Origins of the Western Legal Tradition: A Tribute to Kenneth Pennington, W. Müller, ed. (Washington DC 2006) 302–3, 319.

C. Rider, Magic and Impotence in the Middle Ages (Oxford 2006) 58–59.

L. Kéry, Gottesfurcht und irdische Strafe: Der Beitrag des mittelalterlichen Kirchenrechts zur Entstehung des öffentlichen Strafrechts (Konflikt, Verbrechen und Sanktion in der Gesellschaft Alteuropas, Symposien und Synthesen 10; Köln 2006) 234–360.

K.–H. Ziegler, ‘Zum “gerechten Krieg” im späteren Mittelalter und in der Frühen Neuzeit - von Decretum Gratiani bis zu Hugo Grotius’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 122 (2005) 177–94.

F. Demoulin–Auzary, ‘“Dominium” et “proprietas” dans le Décret de Gratien’, RHD, 83 (2005) 647–56.

C. Rider, ‘Between Theology and Popular Practice: Medieval Canonists on Magic and Impotence’, in Boundaries of the Law: Geography, Gender and Jurisdiction in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, A. Musson, ed. (Aldershot 2005) 53–66.

R. Gujer, Concordia Discordantium Codicum Manuscriptorum?: Zur Textentwicklung von 18 Handschriften anhand der D.16 des ‘Decretum Gratiani’ (Forschungen zur kirchlichen Rechtsgeschichte und zum Kirchenrecht 23; Köln 2004).

K. Pennington, ‘Gratian, Causa 19, and the Birth of Canonical Jurisprudence’, in Panta rei: Studi dedicati a Manlio Bellomo, O. Condorelli, ed. (Roma 2004) 4.339–55. (Expanded version from that in La cultura giuridico-canonica.)

K. Pennington, ‘Gratian’, in DMA: Supplement (New York 2004) 246–47. (The sentence in this article that refers to Gratian as a theologian was added by the copy editor of the essay.)

P. Landau, ‘Seelsorge in den Kanonessammungen von der Zeit der gregorianischen Reform bis zu Gratian’, in La pastorale della Chiesa in Occiente dall’età ottoniana al concilio lateranense IV: atti della Quindicesima Settimana Internazionale di Studio mendola, 27–31 agosto 2001 (Milano 2004) 93–123.

P. Landau, ‘Fälschungen zum Begriff des Benefiziums und der Simonie im “Decretum Gratiani”: ein Beitrag zur Entstehungsgeschichte des kirchlichen Benefiziums im kanonischen Recht und zu Papst Alexander II.’, in Päpste, Pilger, Pönitentiarie: Festschrift für Ludwig Schmugge zum 65. Geburtstag, A. Meyer, ed. (Tübingen 2004) 3–13.

B. Basdevant–Gaudemet, ‘La composition des distinctions 62 et 63 du Décret de Gratien sur les élections épiscopales’, in “Panta rei”. Studi dedicati a Manlio Bellomo, O. Condorelli, ed. (Roma 2004) 1.213–38.

A. Winroth, ‘Gratian’, in Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia, C. Kleinhenz, ed. (Routledge Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages 9; New York 2004) 442–43.

C. Reid, Power over the Body, Equality in the Family: Rights and Domestic Relations in Medieval Canon Law (Emory University Studies in Law and Religion; Grand Rapids 2004) 12–14, 37–44, 50–52, 77–78.

C. Reid, Power over the Body, Equality in the Family: Rights and Domestic Relations in Medieval Canon Law (Emory University Studies in Law and Religion; Grand Rapids 2004) 107–8, 130–32, 138–43.

C. Reid, Power over the Body, Equality in the Family: Rights and Domestic Relations in Medieval Canon Law (Emory University Studies in Law and Religion; Grand Rapids 2004) 160–62, 197–98, 200–1.

E. De León, ‘La biografia di Graziano’, in La cultura giuridico-canonica medioevale: Premesse per un dialogo ecumenico, E. De León, ed. (Milano 2003) 89–107.

C. Larrainzar, ‘La ricerca attuale sul Decretum Gratiani’, in La cultura giuridico-canonicamedioevale: Premesse per un dialogo ecumenico, E. De León, ed. (Milano 2003) 109–122.

K. Pennington, ‘Gratian, Causa 19, and the Birth of Canonical Jurisprudence’, in La cultura giuridico-canonica medioevale: Premesse per un dialogo ecumenico, E. De León, ed. (Milano 2003) 209–232.

C. Larrainzar, ‘La ricerca attuale sul “Decretum Gratiani”’, in La cultura giuridico-canonica medioevale: premesse per un dialogo ecumenico, E. De León, ed. (Milano 2003) 45–88.

B. Basdevant–Gaudemet, ‘Les désignations épiscopales d’après les versions successives du Décret de Gratien’, Studia canonica, 37 (2003) 55–97.

J. Viejo-Ximénez, ‘La recepción del derecho romano en el derecho canonico’, Ius Ecclesiae, 14 (2002) 375–414.

J. Viejo-Ximénez, ‘El derecho romano ‘nuevo’ en el Decreto de Graciano’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 88 (2002) 1–19.

J. Viejo-Ximénez, ‘La investigación sobre las fuentes formales del Decreto de Graciano’, Initium, 7 (2002) 217–40..

N. Álvarez de las Asturias, ‘Una hipótesis sobre la redacción del Decretum Gratiani: A proprósito de la monografía de Anders Winroth, The Making of Gratian’s Decretum (Cambridge 2000)’, Ius canonicum, 42 (2002) 725–43.

C. Reid, ‘“So It Will Be Found that the Right of Women in Many Cases Is of Diminished Condition”: Rights and the Legal Equality of Men and Women in Twelfth and Thirteenth-Century Canon Law’, Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, 35 (2001/02) 484–85, 492, 500.

C. Larrainzar, ‘La formacion del Decreto de Graciano por etapas’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 87 (2001) 67–83.

F. Paxton, ‘Le cause 13 de Gratien et la composition du Décret’, RDC, 51 (2001) 233–49.

A. Winroth, ‘Le manuscrit florentin du Décret de Gratien: Une critique des travaux de Carlos Larrainzar sur Gratien, I’, RDC, 51 (2000) 211–31.

B. Tierney, ‘Permissive Natural Law and Property: Gratian to Kant’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 62 (2001) 381–99.

M.–C. Minin, ‘Le Décret de Gratien dans le Ms. E.21 de la bibliothèque municipale de Rouen’, RDC, 51 (2001) 261–78.

C. Stumpf, ‘Vom heiligen Krieg zum gerechten Krieg: Ein Beitrag zur alttestamentlichen und augustinischen Tradition des kanonistischen Kriegsvölkerrechts bei Gratian’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 87 (2001) 1–30.

P. Aimone-Braida, ‘Gratian, the Decretists, and Astrology’, in Proceedings Syracuse (MIC C–11; Città del Vaticano 2001) 817–39.

F. Russell, ‘Augustine and Gratian on Religious Coercion: “Augustinus non tamen legum severitatem non observandam docuit”’, in Proceedings Syracuse (MIC C–11; Città del Vaticano 2001) 861–74.

J. Goldberg, ‘The Legal Persona of the Child in Gratian’s Decretum’, BMCL, 24 (2000–2001) 10–53.

R.H. Helmholz, ‘Money and Judges in the Law of the Medieval Church’, University of Chicago Law School Roundtable, 8 (2001) 312–15.

M. Schmoeckel, ‘“Neminem damnes, antequam inquiras veritatem”: Die Entwicklung eines hohen Beweisstandards als Vorgeschichte der Verdachtsstrafe’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 87 (2001) 191–225.

Older Literature (pre-Winroth).

A. Winroth, The Making of Gratian’s Decretum (Cambridge 2000).

T. Lenherr, ‘Die vier Fassungen von C.3 q.1 d.p.c.6 im Decretum Gratiani: Zugleich ein Einblick in die neueste Diskussion um das Werden von Gratians Dekret’, AKKR, 169 (2000) 353–81.

J. Gaudemet, ‘Decretum of Gratian’, in Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages (Chicago 2000) 1.419–20.

T. Lenherr, ‘Die Glossa Ordinaria zur Bibel als Quelle von Gratians Dekret: Ein (neuer) Anfang’, BMCL, 24 (2000) 97–129.

J. Buchner, Die Paleae im Dekret Gratians: Untersuchung ihrer Echtheit (Pontificium Athenaeum Antonianum, Facultas Iuris Canonici 127; Roma 2000).

C. Meyer, Die Distinktionstechnik in der Kanonistik des 12. Jahrhunderts: Ein Beitrag zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte des Hochmittelalters (Mediaevalia Lovaniensia Series 1, Studia 29; Leuven 2000).

C. Larrainzar, ‘El borrador de la Concordia de Graciano: Sankt Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek MS 673 (=Sg)’, Ius Ecclesiae, 11 (1999) 593–666.

M. Sommar, ‘Gratian’s Causa VII and the Multiple Recension Theories’, BMCL, 24 (1999) 78–96.

J. Viejo-Ximénez, ‘Concordia y Decretum del maestro Graciano: In memoriam Rudolf Weigand’, Ius canonicum, 39 (1999) 333–57.

P. Landau, ‘Patristische Texte in den beiden Rezensionen des Decretum Gratiani’, BMCL, 23 (1999) 77–84.

R. Weigand, ‘Versuch einer neuen, differenzerten Liste der Paleae und Dubletten im Dekret Gratians’, BMCL, 23 (1999) 114–35.

T. Lenherr, ‘Zur Überlieferung des Kapitels “Duae sunt, inquit, leges” (Decretum Gratiani C.19 q.2 c.2)’, AKKR, 168 (1999) 359–84.

F. Roumy, ‘Un abrégé inconnu du Décret de Gratien’, in Nonagesimo anno: mélanges en hommage à Jean Gaudemet, C. Bontems, ed. (Paris 1999) 501–520.

P. Landau, ‘Apokryphe Isidoriana bei Gratian’, in Vita Religiosa im Mittelalter: Festschrift für Kaspar Elm zum 70. Geburtstag, S. Haarländer, ed. (Berliner historische Studien 31; Berlin 1999) 837–44.

J. Van Engen, ‘Professing Religion: From Liturgy to Law’, Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 29:01:00 (1998) 330–32.

C. Larrainzar, ‘El Decreto de Graciano del Codice Fd (= Firenze, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Conventi Soppressi A.I.402): In memoriam Rudolf Weigand’, Ius Ecclesiae, 10 (1998) 421–89.

A. Winroth, ‘Les deux Gratien et le droit romain’, RDC, 48 (1998) 285–99.

R. Weigand, ‘Versuch einer neuen, differenzerten Liste der Paleae und Dubletten im Dekret Gratians’, in Life, Law and Letters: Studies in Honor of Antonio García y García, P. Linehan, ed. (SG 28–29; Roma 1998) 883–93.

R. Weigand, ‘Rom und Konstantinopel: Zur Rangordnung der Patriarchate bei Gratian und den Dekretisten’, in Forschungen zur Reichs-, Papst- und Landesgeschichte: Peter Herde zum 65. Geburtstag von Freunden, Schülern und Kollegen dargebracht, K. Borchardt, ed. (Stuttgart 1998) 1.200–210.

R. Weigand, ‘Mittelalterliche Texte: Gregor I., Burchard und Gratian’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 84 (1998) 330–44.

L. Löfstedt, ‘La traduction française du Decretum Gratiani et la tradition manuscrite latine de ce texte’, in Latin vulgaire, Latin tardif IV: Actes du 4e colloque international sur le Latin vulgaire et tardif, Caen, 2–5 septembre 1994, L. Callebrat, ed. (Hildesheim 1998) 521–31.

X. Peng, ‘Justice, Mercy, and Christian Love: The Treatment of Infidels and Heretics in Gratian’s Decretum’, (Ph.D. diss.; Catholic University of America 1998).

R. Weigand, ‘Chancen und Probleme einer baldigen Kritischen Edition der ersten Redaktion des Dekrets Gratians’, BMCL, 22 (1998) 3–25.

J. Viejo-Ximénez, ‘La redacción original de C.29 del Decreto de Graciano’, Ius ecclesiae, 10 (1998) 149–85.

R. Weigand, ‘Mittelalterliche Texte: Gregor I., Burchard und Gratian’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 84 (1998) 330–44.

J. Werckmeister, ‘Les études sur le Décret de Gratien: Essai de bilan et perspective’, RDC, 48:02:00 (1998) 363–79.

J. Werckmeister, ‘Les deux versions du De matrimonio de Gratien’, RDC, 48:02:00 (1998) 301–16.

R. Gujer, ‘Zur Überlieferung des Decretum Gratiani’, in Proceedings Munich, P. Landau, ed. (MIC C–10; Città del Vaticano 1997) 87–104.

J. McIntyre, ‘Aquinas, Gratian, and the Mendicant Controversy’, in Proceedings Munich (MIC C–10; Città del Vaticano 1997) 1101–1135.

P. Landau, ‘Das “Dominium” der Laien an Kirchen im Decretum Gratiani und in vorgratianischen Kanonessammlungen der Reformzeit’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 83 (1997) 209–22.

J. Van Engen, ‘From Practical Theology to Divine Law: The Work and Mind of Medieval Canonists’, in Proceedings Munich, P. Landau, ed. (MIC C–10; Città del Vaticano 1997) 873–96.

R. Weigand, ‘Das kirchliche Wahlrecht im Dekret Gratians’, in Wirkungen europäischer Rechtskultur: Festschrift für Karl Kroeschell zum 70. Geburtstag, G. Köbler, ed. (München 1997) 1331–45.

R. Weigand, ‘Zur künftigen Edition des Dekrets Gratians’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 78 (1997) 32–51.

P. Landau, ‘Das Register Papst Gregors I. im Decretum Gratiani’, in Mittelalterliche Texte: Überlieferung - Befunde -Deutungen. Kolloquium der Zentraldirektion der Monumenta Germaniae Historica am 28./29. Juni 1996, R. Weigand, ed. (MGH SS 42; Hannover 1996) 125–40.

R. Reynolds, ‘Gratian’s Decretum and the Code of Justinian in Beneventan Script’, Mediaeval Studies, 58 (1996) 285–88.

R. Cunningham, ‘When Gratian Worked for the Tribunal’, The Jurist, 56 (1996) 632–56.

P. Landau, ‘Gratian und Dionysius Exiguus: ein Beitrag zur kanonistischen Interpolationenkritik’, in De Iure Canonico Medii Aevi: Feschrift für Rudolf Weigand, P. Landau, ed. (SG 27; Rom 1996) 271–83.

B. Töpfer, ‘Vorstellungen von einem ursprünglichen und einem endzeitlichen Idealzustand als Ausdruck utopischen Denkens im Mittelalter (unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Interpretationen des Kapitels “Dilectissimis” der Causa XII des Decretum Gratiani) bis zum frühen 14. Jahrhundert’, in Mittelalterforschung nach der Wende 1989, M. Borgolte, ed. (Historische Zeitschrift, Beihaft N.F. 20; München 1995) 387–406.

G. Kompatscher, ‘Decretum des Gratian’, in Vom Codex zum Computer: 250 Jahre Universitätsbibliothek, G. Ammann, ed. (Innsbruck 1995) 60–61.

T. Izbicki, ‘Gratian’, in Medieval France: An Encyclopedia (Garland Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages 2; New York 1995) 413.

M. Bellomo, The Common Legal Past of Europe, 1000–1800, L. Cochrane, ed. (Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Canon Law 4; Washington DC 1995) 65–8.

J. Gaudemet, ‘La Droit au service de la pastorale (Décret de Gratien C.XVI q.3)’, in Società, istituzioni, spiritualità: Studi in onore di Cinzio Violante (Centro Italiano di Sudi sull’Alto Medioevo, Collectanea 1; Spoleto 1994) 1.409–21.

G. Picasso, ‘Gregorio Magno e la condanna della simonia nel Medio Evo: A proposito della Causa I del Decretum Gratiani’, in Società, istituzioni, spiritualità: Studi in onore di Cinzio Violante (Centro Italiano di Sudi sull’Alto Medioevo, Collectanea 1; Spoleto 1994) 2.667–76.

P. Landau, ‘Wandel und Kontinuität im kanonischen Recht bei Gratian’, in Sozialer Wandel im Mittelalter: Wahrnehmungsformen, Erklärungsmuster, Regelungsmechanismen, J. Miethke, ed. (Sigmaringen 1994) 215–33.

P. Landau, ‘Die Eheschließung von Freien mit Unfreien bei Burchard von Worms und Gratian: Ein Beitrag zur Textkritik der Quellen des kanonischen Rechts und zur Geschichte christlicher Umformung des Eherechts’, in Cristianità ed Europa: Miscellanea di studi in onore di Luigi Prosdocimi, C. Alzati, ed. (Roma 1994) 453–61.

T. Mayer–Maly, ‘Isidor – Gratian – Thomas: Stationen einer allgemeinen Rechtslehre’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 80 (1994) 490–500.

P. Landau, ‘Gratians Arbeitsplan’, in Iuri canonico promovendo: Festschrift für Heribert Schmitz zum 65. Geburtstag, W. Aymans, ed. (Regensburg 1994) 691–707.

D. Walters, ‘From Benedict to Gratian: The Code in Medieval Ecclesiastical Authors’, in The Theodosian Code: Studies in the Late Imperial Law of Late Antiquity, J. Harries, ed. (London 1993) 200–16.

M. Van Landingham, ‘The Dead and the Dying in Gratian’s Decretum’, Comitatus, 24 (1993) 61–78.

G. Coll Rosell, ‘El Decretum Gratiani de la British Library de Londres: Un Manuscrit Illuminat a Barcelona entre 1342 i 1348’, Lambard, 6 (1991/93) 265–90.

P. Landau, ‘Gratian und die Sententie Magistri A’, in Aus Archiven und Bibliotheken: Festschrift für Raymund Kottje zum 65. Geburtstag, H. Mordek, ed. (Frankfurt 1992) 311–26.

J. Muzas, The Concept of ‘matrimonium ratum’ in Gratian and the Early Decretists (1140–1215) (Canon Law Studies 441; Ann Arbor 1992).

R. Pahud de Mortanges, ‘Strafzwecke bei Gratian und den Dekretisten’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 78 (1992) 121–58.

R. Weigand, Die Glossen zum Dekret Gratians: Studien zu den frühen Glossen und Glossenkompositionen (SG 25/26; Roma 1991).

I. Schröder, ‘Zur Rezeption merowingischer Konzilskanones bei Gratian’, in Papsttum, Kirche und Recht im Mittelalter: Festschrift für Horst Fuhrmann zum 65. Geburtstag, H. Mordek, ed. (Tübingen 1991) 233–50.

B. Nilsson, ‘Gratian: On Entry into the Monastery’, in In Quest of the Kingdom: Ten Papers on Medieval Monastic Spirituality, A. Härdelin, ed. (Bibliotheca theologiae practicae 48; Stockholm 1991) 145–55.

C. Gallagher, ‘Gratian and Theodore Balsamon: Two Twelfth-Century Canonistic Methods Compared’, in Byzantium in the Twelfth Century: Canon Law, State and Society, N. Oikonomidès, ed. (Athens 1991) 61–89.

R. Weigand, ‘Frühe Kanonisten und ihre Karriere in der Kirche’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 76 (1990) 135–36, 152–55.

J. Laschinger, ‘Gratian in Amberg: Die Inkunabeln des Stadtarchivs Amberg’, Zeitschrift für Bayerische Landesgeschichte, 53 (1990) 397–421.

F. Bautz, ‘Gratian, Begründer des kirchlichen Rechtswissenschaft’, in Biographisch-bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (Hamm 1990) 2.288–89. (Available online by subscription. Does not take into the more recent scholarship that was available at the time of its writing.)

A. Vetulani, Sur Gratien et les Décrétales (Aldershot 1990). (Posthumous collection of 13 of Vetulani’s essays.)

R. Weigand, ‘Burchardauszüge in Dekrethandschriften und ihre Verwendung bei Rufin und als Paleae im Dekret Gratians’, AKKR, 158 (1989) 429–51.

H. Zapp, ‘Gratian’, in LMA (1989) 4.1658.

P. Kuhlkamp, ‘Die erste Glossenkomposition zu C.16 des Decretum Gratiani’, in Ius et historia: Festgabe für Rudolf Weigand zu seinem 60. Geburtstag von seinem Schülern, Mitarbeitern und Freunden, N. Höhl, ed. (Würzburg 1989) 102–120.

H. Zapp, ‘Gratian’, in LMA (München 1989) 4.1658.

S. Kuttner, ‘Research on Gratian: Acta and Agenda’, in Proceedings Cambridge (MIC C–7; Città del Vaticano 1988) 3–26.

R. Weigand, ‘Fälschungen als Paleae im Dekret Gratians’, in Fälschungen im Mittelalter: Internationaler Kongreß der Monumenta Germaniae Historica München, 16.–19. September 1986 (MGH SS 33; Hannover 1988) 2.301–18.

J. Brundage, ‘Intermarriage between Christians and Jews in Medieval Canon Law’, Jewish History, 3:01 (1988) 25–40.

B. Tierney, Origins of Papal Infallibility, 1150–1350: A Study on the Concepts of Infallibility, Sovereignty, and Tradition in the Middle Ages, 2nd ed. (Studies in the History of Christian Thought 6; Leiden 1988) 20–22, 31, 33, 40, 42, 54–55.

R. Weigand, ‘Die Anglo-normannische Kanonistik in den letzten Jahrzehnten des 12. Jahrhunderts’, in Proceedings Cambridge, P. Linehan, ed. (MIC C–8; Città del Vaticano 1988) 249–56.

I. Jacob, ‘Comparative Study of Gratian and Maimonides’, in Maimonides as Codifier of Jewish Law: Proceedings of the 2nd International Seminar on the Sources of Contemporary Law, Jerusalem, August 1985, N. Rakover, ed. (Jerusalem 1987) 285–92.

J. Brundage, Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe (Chicago 1987) 229–55.

T. Lenherr, Die Exkommunikations- und Depositionsgewalt der Häretiker bei Gratian und den Dekretisten bis zur Glossa ordinaria des Johannes Teutonicus (Münchener theologische Studien 3, Kanonistische Abteilung 42; München 1987).

P. Landau, ‘Quellen und Bedeutung des gratianischen Dekrets’, SDHI, 52 (1986) 218–35.

H. Mordek, ‘Review of A. Melnikas, The Corpus of Miniatures in Decretum Gratiani’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 72 (1986) 403–411.

E. Vodola, Excommunication in the Middle Ages (Berkeley 1986) 29–30, 76–78, 116–18, 124.

J. Brundage, ‘The Limits of the War–Making Power: The Contribution of Medieval Canonists’, in Peace in a Nuclear Age: The Bishops’ Pastoral Letter in Perspective, C. Reid, ed. (Washington DC 1986) 73–76, 84. Reprinted in: idem, The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law (Collected Studies CS 338; Aldershot 1991) no. XI.

P. Landau, ‘Gratian (von Bologna)’, in TRE (1985) 14.124–130.

K. Pennington, ‘Gratian’, in DMA (New York 1985) 5.656–58.

J. Gaudemet, ‘Le débat sur la confession dans la Distinction I du ‘de penitentia’ (Decret de Gratien, C.33, q.3)’, ZRG Kan. Abt., 71 (1985) 53–75.

J. Van Engen, ‘Observations on De consecratione’, in Proceedings Berkeley, S. Kuttner, ed. (MIC C–7; Città del Vaticano 1985) 309–20.

P. Landau, ‘Neue Forschungen zu vorgratianischen Kannonessammlungen und den Quellen des Gratianischen Dekrets’, Ius Commune (1984) 1–29.

K. Pennington, Pope and Bishops: The Papal Monarchy in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries (The Middle Ages; Philadelphia 1984) 52, 80–88, 101–4, 155, 162–65.

S. Kuttner, ‘Retractationes VII’, in Gratian and the schools of Law (London 1983) 8–9.

T. Lenherr, ‘Arbeiten mit Gratians Dekret’, AKKR, 151 (1982) 140–66.

T. Lenherr, ‘Fehlende “Paleae” als Zeichen eines überlieferungsgeschichtlich jüngeren Datums von Dekret-Handschriften’, AKKR, 151 (1982) 495–507.

S. Kuttner, ‘On “Auctoritas” in the Writing of Medieval Canonists: the Vocabulary of Gratian’, in La notion d’autorité au Moyen Age: Islam, Byzance, Occident (Paris 1982) 69–80. Reprinted in: idem, Studies in the History of Medieval Canon Law (Variorum CS 325; Aldershot 1990) no. VII.

T. Lenherr, ‘Die Summarien zu den Texten des 2. Laterankonzils von 1139 in Gratians Dekret’, AKKR, 150 (1981) 528–51.

C. Mesini, ‘Postille sulla biografia del “Magister Gratianus”’, Apollinaris, 54 (1981) 509–37.

J.–L. Gazzaniga, ‘L’appel des sentences interlocutoires en droit canonique, du Décret de Gratien au Concile de Trente’, in Mélanges offerts à Pierre Hébraud (Toulouse 1981) 353–66.

J. Noonan, ‘Gratian Slept Here: The Changing Identity of the Father of the Systematic Study of Canon Law’, Traditio, 35 (1979) 145–72.

R. Kay, ‘Dante’s Razor and Gratian’s D.XV’, Dante Studies, 97 (1979) 65–95.

P. Classen, ‘Das Decretum Gratiani wurde nicht in Ferentino approbiert’, BMCL, 8 (1978) 38–40.

J. Russell, ‘Gratian, Irnerius, and the Early Schools of Bologna’, in Twelfth Century Studies, J. Russell, ed. (New York 1978) 103–125.

G. Melville, ‘Zur Abgrenzung zwischen Vita canonica und Vita monastica: Das Übertrittsproblem in kanonistischer Behandlung von Gratian bis Hostiensis’, in Secundum regulam vivere: Festschrift für P. Norbert Backmund O.Praem., G. Melville, ed. (Windberg 1978) 205–243.

J. Rybolt, ‘The Biblical Hermeneutics of Magister Gratian: An Investigation of Scripture and Canon Law in the Twelfth Century’, (Ph.D. diss.; St. Louis University 1978).

G. Motta, ‘A proposito dei testi di Origene nel Decreto di Graziano’, Revue bénédictine, 88 (1978) 315–20.

R. Metz, ‘L’index verborum du Décret de Gratien (ca. 1140) en ordinateur: utilité et nécessité’, in Informatique et histoire médiévale: Actes du Colloque de Rome, 20–22 mai 1975, L. Fossier, ed. (Collection de l’Ecole Française de Rome 31; Roma 1977) 319–34.

L. Prosdocimi, ‘Gerarchia di norme, strutture ecclesiastiche territoriali e ordinamenato delle Chiese locali nel Decretum Gratiani’, in Le istituzioni ecclesiastiche della ‘Societas Christiana’ dei secoli XI-XII: Diocesi, pievi e parrocchie. Atti della sesta Settimana internazionale di studio, Milano, 1–7 1974 (Milano 1977) 800–23.

H. Müller, Der Anteil der Laien an der Bischofswahl: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Kanonistik von Gratian bis Gregory IX. (Kanonistische Studien und Texte 29; Amsterdam 1977) 25–35.

E. Makowski, ‘The Conjugal Debt and Medieval Canon Law’, JMH, 3:02 (1977) 99–114.

J. Noonan, ‘Was Gratian Approved at Ferentino?’, BMCL, 6 (1976) 15–27.

S. Kuttner, ‘Gratian and Plato’, in Church and Government in the Middle Ages: Essays Presented to Cr. R. Cheney, C. Brooke, ed. (Cambridge 1976) 93–118. Reprinted in: idem, The History of Ideas and Doctrines of Canon Law in the Middle Ages (London 1980).

J. Gilchrist, ‘The Medieval Canon Law on Unfree Persons: Gratian and the Decretist Doctrine, c.1141–1234’, in Mélanges Gérard Fransen (SG 19–20; Roma 1976) 1.271–301.

J. Brundage, ‘Holy War and the Medieval Lawyers’, in The Holy War, T. Murphy, ed. (Columbus 1976) 106–109. Reprinted in: idem, The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law (Collected Studies CS 338; Aldershot 1991) no. X.

R. Somerville, ‘Pope Innocent II and the Study of Roman Law’, Revue des études islamiques, 44 (1976) 105–114. Reprinted in: idem, Papacy, Councils and Canon Law in the 11th–12th Centuries (Collected Studies CS312; Aldershot 1990) no. XIV.

A. Melnikas, The Corpus of Miniatures in the Manuscripts of Decretum Gratiani (SG 16–18; Città del Vaticano 1973–75).

C. Munier, ‘À propos des citations scriptuaires du De penitentia’, RDC, 25 (1975) 74–83.

M. Bertram, ‘Some additions to the “Repertorium der Kanonistik”’, BMCL, 4 (1974) 10–12.

V. Piergiovanni, La punibilità degli innocenti nel diritto canonico dell’età classica (Collana degli Annali della Facoltà di giurisprudenza dell’Università di Genova 29–30; Milano 1971/74).

S. Kuttner, Kanonistische Schuldlehre von Gratian bis auf die Dekretalen Gregors IX. (Studi e testi 64; Città del Vaticano 1973) 6–8, 11, 21, 31, 41, 44, 47, 49, 52, 55, 57.

S. Kuttner, Kanonistische Schuldlehre von Gratian bis auf die Dekretalen Gregors IX. (Studi e testi 64; Città del Vaticano 1973) 58, 6, 77, 79, 81, 85, 94–95, 100–103.

S. Kuttner, Kanonistische Schuldlehre von Gratian bis auf die Dekretalen Gregors IX. (Studi e testi 64; Città del Vaticano 1973) 111, 117, 124–5, 133, 139, 143, 146, 152.

S. Kuttner, Kanonistische Schuldlehre von Gratian bis auf die Dekretalen Gregors IX. (Studi e testi 64; Città del Vaticano 1973) 158, 164, 166–7, 186, 201, 210, 230, 236, 240.

S. Kuttner, Kanonistische Schuldlehre von Gratian bis auf die Dekretalen Gregors IX. (Studi e testi 64; Città del Vaticano 1973) 230, 236, 240, 252, 257–62, 273, 276, 278.

S. Kuttner, Kanonistische Schuldlehre von Gratian bis auf die Dekretalen Gregors IX. (Studi e testi 64; Città del Vaticano 1973) 280, 299, 314–15, 335–6, 350, 354.

S. Kuttner, Kanonistische Schuldlehre von Gratian bis auf die Dekretalen Gregors IX. (Studi e testi 64; Città del Vaticano 1973) 357, 359–60.

S. Chodorow, Christian Political Theory and Church Politics in the Mid-Twelfth Century: The Ecclesiology of Gratian’s Decretum (Berkeley 1972).

J. Erickson, ‘The Collection in Three Books and Gratian’s Decretum’, BMCL, 2 (1972) 67–75.

R. Decker, ‘Institutional Authority Versus Personal Responsibility in the Marriage Section of Gratian’s A Concordance of Discordant Canons’, The Jurist, 32 (1972) 51–65.

J. Range, ‘Gratian’s Vision of the Church: A Reconstruction of Gratian’s Understanding of the Church Through an Investigation of Its Canonical Structures and Sanctifying Activity as Presented in the Decretum’, (Ph.D. diss.; Fordham University 1972).

J. Gaudemet, ‘Les Doublets dans le Décret de Gratien’, in Atti del II Congresso internazionale della Società ialiana di storia del diritto, Venezia 1967 (Firenze 1972) 269–90. Reprinted in: idem, La formation du droit canonique médiéval (Collected Studies CS 111; London 1980) no. XI.

F. Liotta, La continenza dei chierici (Milano 1971) 3–30.

J. Rambaud, ‘Les paleae dans le Décret de Gratien’, in Proceedings Boston (MIC C–1; Città del Vaticano 1971) 23–44.

J. Alesandro, Gratian’s Notion of Marital Consummation (Roma 1971).

C. Munier, ‘À propos des textes patristiques du décret de Gratien’, in Proceedings Strasbourg, S. Kuttner, ed. (MIC C–4; Città del Vaticano 1971) 43–50.

S. Chodorow, ‘Magister Gratian and the Problem of “Regnum” and “Sacerdotium”’, Traditio, 26 (1970) 364–81.

L. Eldredge, ‘Walter of Chatillon and the Decretum of Gratian: An Anlysis of “Propter Zion non tacebo”’, in Studies in Medieval Culture (1970) 3.59–69.

J. Brundage, Medieval Canon Law and the Crusader (Madison WI 1969) 64–66, 141, 148–49, 191–92.

A. Vetulani, ‘Autor du Décret du Gratien’, Apollinaris, 41 (1968) 43–58.

S. Kuttner, ‘Urban II and Gratian’, Traditio, 24 (1968) 504–506.

K. Weinzierl, ‘Kirchliche Strafen im Dekret Gratians’, in Ecclesia et ius: Festgabe für Audomar Scheuermann zum 60. Geburtstag dargebracht von seinen Freunden und Schülern, K. Siepen, ed. (München 1968) 677–90.

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J. Brundage, ‘The Votive Obligations of Crusaders: The Development of a Canonistic Doctrine’, Traditio, 24 (1968) 79–81. Reprinted in: idem, The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law (Collected Studies CS 338; Aldershot 1991) no. VI.

R. Benson, ‘Plenitudo Potestatis: Evolution of a Formula from Gregory IV to Gratian’, SG, 14 (1967) 193–217.

J. Weitzel, Begriff und Erscheinungsformen der Simonie bei Gratian und den Dekretisten (Münchener Theologische Studien 3, Kan. Abt. 25; München 1967) 22–57.

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J. Brundage, ‘The Crusader’s Wife: A Canonistic Quandary’, SG, 12 (1967) 431–33. Reprinted in: idem, The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law (Collected Studies CS 338; Aldershot 1991) no. XV.

J. Brundage, ‘The Crusader’s Wife Revisited’, SG, 14 (1967) 245–46. Reprinted in: idem, The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law (Collected Studies CS 338; Aldershot 1991) no. XVI.

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J. Muldoon, ‘The Medieval Origins of the State: The Contribution of the Canonists from Gratian to Hostiensis’, (Ph.D. diss.; Cornell University 1965).

J. Bernhard, ‘L’identification d’un texte de Décret de Gratien (D.96 c.11) et la “Collection en deux livres”’, in Études d’histoire du droit canonique dédiées à Gabriel Le Bras (Paris 1965) 1.25–32.

J. Rambaud, ‘Le legs de l’ancien droit: Gratien’, in L’âge classique 1140-1378: sources et théorie du droit, G. Le Bras, ed. (Histoire du droit et des institutions de l’Eglise en Occident 7; Paris 1965) 47–129.

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J. Gaudemet, ‘Das römische Recht in Gratians Dekret’, ÖAKR, 12 (1961) 177–91. Reprinted in: idem, La formation du droit canonique médiéval (Collected Studies CS 111; London 1980) no. IX.

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K. Wojtyła, ‘Le traite de “Penitentia” de Gratien dans l’abrégé de Gdansk Mar.F.275’, SG, 7 (1959) 355–90.

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E. Fischer, ‘Bußgewalt, Pfarrzwang und Beichtvater-Wahl nach dem Dekret Gratians’, SG, 4 (1956/57) 185–231.

G. Fransen, ‘La date du Décret de Gratien’, RHE, 51 (1956) 521–31.

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W. Onclin, ‘La contribution du Décret de Gratien et des décrétistes à la solution des conflits de lois’, SG, 2 (1954) 115–50.

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P. Hofmeister, ‘Die Eidesformen nach dem Dekret Gratians’, SG, 2 (1954) 349–60.

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E. Melichar, ‘Der Zehent als Kirchensteuer bei Gratian’, SG, 2 (1954) 387–407.

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